Learning and corporate social responsibility : a study on the role of the learning organization, individual competencies, goal orientation and the learning climate in the CSR adaptation process
Osagie, Eghe Rice - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink; Vincent Blok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579774 - 166
learning - corporate social responsibility - competences - sustainability - change - organization - management - leren - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bevoegdheden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verandering - organisatie - bedrijfsvoering
People and other organisms depend on natural resources such as fresh water, land, clean air, wood, and food for critical life requirements and wellbeing. It is well documented that today’s Western way of living and the spread of capitalism is having a detrimental impact on societies and the natural environment. As one of the greatest users of natural and human recourses, many companies have started doing their part in the journey toward Earth’s sustainability and are actively working on translating the idea of sustainable development (SD) into reality. Companies often address SD through their corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. CSR refers to as a company’s continuing commitment to integrate ecological, social, and economic interests in company’s operations and in its interactions with stakeholders. This commitment is usually done on a voluntary basis (Dahlsrud, 2008).
This PhD thesis aims to provide a better understanding of how the CSR adaptation process in private companies can be supported, which is of particular importance and interest since the economic interests (i.e., business case logic) of private companies often clash with CSR objectives. Consequently, adapting to CSR principles can be quite challenging for these companies. Many scholars have attempted to identify factors that can facilitate the CSR adaptation process. However, though any large-scale organizational change requires employees to learn new ways of doing their jobs, the role of learning or human resource development in CSR adaption has remained largely unexplored in the CSR literature. This PhD thesis contributes to this line of research by answering the following research question: Which internal resources related to learning at the organizational and individual level contribute to the CSR adaptation process in private companies?
With respect to the organizational level, we found that certain learning organization characteristics can support the CSR adaptation process. We found that stimulating group learning, leadership that encourages learning, and connecting to the local communities are LO characteristics that can directly influence CSR adaptation in a positive way.
With respect to the individual level, we found that CSR managers, those managing the CSR adaptation process, need specific individual competencies in order to do their jobs effectively. We identified eight distinct individual competencies (e.g., Balancing personal ethical values and business objectives). We also found that CSR managers have different job roles in the CSR adaptation process. We identified six of these roles (e.g., strategizing role) and showed that the business case logic influences the relative perceived importance of specific individual competencies within each job role.
To conclude, the key message of this thesis, and the answer to the research question is two-fold. First, because CSR managers are the ones who actually manage the CSR adaptation process they can play a crucial role in the CSR adaptation process if they possess the right individual competencies. In order to develop these individual competencies, CSR managers should take ownership of their learning process and seek opportunities to learn with and from others.
Second, leadership and connecting with external parties are of particular importance to the CSR adaptation process. With respect to connecting with external parties: on the organizational level, having good relations with external parties improves CSR adaptation, because such relationships stimulate learning processes within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, relationships with external parties promote the development of the individual competencies of the CSR managers responsible for the adaptation process. With respect to leadership: on the organizational level, leadership for learning, referring to active support and stimulation of learning, indirectly affects CSR adaptation; it enhances employees’ learning behavior and therefore improve employees’ cognitive readiness and support for the changes needed to integrate CSR within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, leadership competencies are essential for driving the changes needed in the CSR adaptation process.
This thesis contributes to the literature on the CSR adaptation process in several ways. First, this thesis addresses the issue of the CSR adaptation process from a learning or human resource development perspective and as such complements previous research employing the (human resource) management perspective on CSR. Second, it addresses learning from both the organizational and individual level, thereby providing valuable insights into if and how specific internal resources related to learning can contribute at different levels to the CSR adaptation process in private companies. Third, little is known about how factors on an individual level can support companies in their adaptation to CSR principles and their social performance at large (Aquinis & Glavas, 2012). This doctoral thesis is one of the first providing insights into this matter and demonstrates that learning-related influences on the individual level may be of value to the adaptation process. More specifically, this thesis adds to the literature by (1) identifying the job roles and individual competencies CSR managers need to effectively do their jobs within private companies; previous studies on CSR-related competencies often studied this topic from an educational point of view, thereby not fully addressing the complexity of the business context in which CSR managers operate; (2) by exploring how CSR managers can develop their competencies, which up till now remained unexplored in the CSR literature; and (3) by showing how certain organizational characteristics (i.e., learning climate) and personal characteristics (i.e., learning goal orientation) affect the development of CSR managers’ competencies.
There are several implications to be derived from our research with respect to learning (activities) for the benefit of CSR. For one, developing LO characteristics may help companies create favorable conditions for integrating CSR principles. By facilitating learning, companies provide employees with the opportunity to develop their “receptiveness to change”. As such, we suggest that companies experiment with employing LO characteristics to advance the integration of CSR principles. In particular, we suggest that company’s management show leadership for learning by endorsing learning behavior among their employees as this LO characteristic in particular seems to promote the integration of CSR principles. The management can stimulate such behavior by providing employees with continuous opportunities to learn (e.g., provide formal trainings and professional development opportunities), learn in groups (e.g., stimulate team work), and learn with and from external parties (e.g., stimulate stakeholder involvement).
Furthermore, it is important for companies to set up and structure a learning system within the company that enables customized learning, meaning a learning system that provides learning opportunities that fit’s the job and needs of individual workers. Companies can enable customized learning among CSR managers by, for example, providing them with flexible working hours and fixed budgets and hours that they can use for professional development. Such a learning system promotes meaningful learning and self-directed learning behavior among employees (Baars-van Moorsel, 2003), which, according to our research, can stimulate the development of CSR-related competencies.
To conclude, we hope that this thesis will encourage more research on the role of learning in the CSR adaptation process. Our research provides ample directions to further explore this topic. Furthermore, we hope that this research will inspire CSR professionals to start a dialogue with their employers about their competencies and professional development opportunities or that it inspires them to take control of their learning process and create their own learning network in order to develop their competencies, if needed. Moreover, we hope that by developing the relevant CSR-related competencies, CSR managers will effectively manage the CSR adaptation process and that higher CSR maturity levels are reached and more ambitious sustainability challenges are successfully addressed by private companies.
Mobilising collaborative consumption lifestyles: a comparative frame analysis of time banking
Laamanen, M. ; Wahlen, S. - \ 2015
International Journal of Consumer Studies 39 (2015)5. - ISSN 1470-6423 - p. 459 - 467.
social-movements - community currencies - mobilization - organization - intersection - disruption
AbstractIn this paper we elaborate how the framing of lifestyle-based collaborative consumption impacts local mobilisation. We present time banking as a collaborative consumption lifestyle emerging from literatures on collaborative consumption and lifestyle movements. The cultural processes of meaning making and practices of framing, through which time banks mobilise constituents and entice collective action, are examined through naturally occurring text interpreted for diagnostic, prognostic and motivational framing. These three framing tasks further illuminate the change aimed for in local lifestyles. The data were collected from time banks in three European metropolitan areas. The findings highlight framing as a practice that challenges traditional monetised ideology of exchange in orthodox economic theory and the hegemonic understandings of consumption. This paper advances the recent discussions on lifestyle movements engaging in meaning creation practices impacting the everyday actions of consumers in local communities.
A plant U-box protein, PUB4, regulates asymmetric cell division and cell proliferation in the root meristem
Kinoshita, A. ; Hove, C.A. ten; Tabata, R. ; Yamada, M. ; Shimizu, N. ; Ishida, T. ; Yamaguchi, K. ; Shigenobu, S. ; Takebayashi, Y. ; Luchies, J. ; Kobayashi, M. ; Kurata, T. ; Wada, T. ; Seo, M. ; Hasebe, M. ; Blilou, I. ; Fukuda, H. ; Scheres, B. ; Heidstra, R. ; Kamiya, Y. ; Sawa, S. - \ 2015
Development 142 (2015). - ISSN 0950-1991 - p. 444 - 453.
receptor-like kinase - arabidopsis shoot meristem - of-function phenotypes - cle peptides - gene-expression - repeat protein - differentiation - thaliana - organization - growth
The root meristem (RM) is a fundamental structure that is responsible for postembryonic root growth. The RM contains the quiescent center (QC), stem cells and frequently dividing meristematic cells, in which the timing and the frequency of cell division are tightly regulated. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several gain-of-function analyses have demonstrated that peptide ligands of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED (CLE) family are important for maintaining RM size. Here, we demonstrate that a plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, PUB4, is a novel downstream component of CLV3/CLE signaling in the RM. Mutations in PUB4 reduced the inhibitory effect of exogenous CLV3/CLE peptide on root cell proliferation and columella stem cell maintenance. Moreover, pub4 mutants grown without exogenous CLV3/CLE peptide exhibited characteristic phenotypes in the RM, such as enhanced root growth, increased number of cortex/endodermis stem cells and decreased number of columella layers. Our phenotypic and gene expression analyses indicated that PUB4 promotes expression of a cell cycle regulatory gene, CYCD6;1, and regulates formative periclinal asymmetric cell divisions in endodermis and cortex/endodermis initial daughters. These data suggest that PUB4 functions as a global regulator of cell proliferation and the timing of asymmetric cell division that are important for final root architecture.
A social analysis of contested fishing practices in Lake Victoria
Medard, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; R. Mwaipopo. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462572478 - 278
visserij - gemeenschappen - productiviteit - hulpbronnen - ontwikkeling - sociologie - organisatie - visserijbeheer - ondernemerschap - meren - tanzania - fisheries - communities - productivity - resources - development - sociology - organization - fishery management - entrepreneurship - lakes - tanzania
The thesis explored how the global market for Nile Perch fish has reconfigured the social and the natural in dramatic ways. The demand for Nile Perch and Dagaa played, willingly or unwillingly, an important role in converting its products into regionally and globally desired commodity. It has also simultaneously restructured the organisation of fisheries into a complex and aggressively managed sector. In fishing and fish trade, one needs to externalize costs and risks to the lower actors in the production and business hierarchy. From an historical point of view, power has shifted from many points of coordination and decision making into a few hands, those that own fishing camps and export processing factory. Moreover, illegal fishing and trading are continuous and corruption is rife to safe guard individual interest in turn shaping the local practices (governance) of Lake Victoria. Finally the debate about fisheries policies and fisheries regulation in L. Victoria does not address local realities and are largely irrelevant and that the real focus of power and driver of change is the international and regional markets for Nile Perch and Dagaa and global players with a lot of capital.
Introgression Browser: High throughput whole-genome SNP visualization
Aflitos, S.A. ; Sanchez Perez, G.F. ; Ridder, D. de; Fransz, P. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de; Peters, S.A. - \ 2015
The Plant Journal 82 (2015)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 174 - 182.
in-situ hybridization - alien chromosomes - recombination - tomato - markers - thaliana - potato - identification - organization - improvement
Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not viable. Here, we present the Introgression Browser (IBROWSER), a bioinformatics tool aimed at visualizing introgressions at nucleotide or SNP accuracy. The software selects homozygous SNPs from Variant Call Format (VCF) information and filters out heterozygous SNPs, Multi-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (MNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels). For data analysis IBROWSER makes use of sliding windows, but if needed it can generate any desired fragmentation pattern through General Feature Format (GFF) information. In an example of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions we visualize SNP patterns and elucidate both position and boundaries of the introgressions. We also show that our tool is capable of identifying alien DNA in a panel of the closely related S. pimpinellifolium by examining phylogenetic relationships of the introgressed segments in tomato. In a third example, we demonstrate the power of the IBROWSER in a panel of 597 Arabidopsis accessions, detecting the boundaries of a SNP-free region around a polymorphic 1.17 Mbp inverted segment on the short arm of chromosome 4. The architecture and functionality of IBROWSER makes the software appropriate for a broad set of analyses including SNP mining, genome structure analysis, and pedigree analysis. Its functionality, together with the capability to process large data sets and efficient visualization of sequence variation, makes IBROWSER a valuable breeding tool.
Organizing Products with Complements versus Substitutes: Effects on Store Preferences as a Function of Effort and Assortment Perceptions
Diehl, K. ; Herpen, E. van; Lamberton, C. - \ 2015
Journal of Retailing 91 (2015)1. - ISSN 0022-4359 - p. 1 - 18.
consumer choice - price sensitivity - purchase - variety - behavior - too - organization - recognition - elasticity - strategies
Retailers often organize at least part of their assortment by displaying complementary products from different product categories together (e.g., a pair of pants with a shirt) rather than grouping items by product type (e.g., a pair of pants with other pants). However, little is known about how retailers should choose between complement-based and substitute-based organizations. The present paper shows that consumers’ preferences for such store organizations are a function of the effort and assortment perceptions cued by these organizational formats. Holding the underlying assortment constant, complement-based organizations are always more effortful than substitute-based organizations. This difference in effort can create downward pressure on complement-based store choice. Moreover, the effects of organization format on assortment perception depend on whether consumers hold a hedonic or utilitarian focus. When consumers have a highly hedonic focus, complement-based based stores create more positive assortment perceptions than substitute-based stores. Such positive assortment perceptions can, in turn, raise complement-based store choice. However, as consumers’ utilitarian focus increases, substitute-based assortments are seen as both easier and more attractive, leading to a strong advantage in store choice. Our findings provide actionable guidance for retailers considering various store organizations and suggest opportunities for future research.
Effect of flumorph on F-actin dynamics in the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans
Hua, C. ; Kots, K. ; Ketelaar, T. ; Govers, F. ; Meijer, H.J.G. - \ 2015
Phytopathology 105 (2015)4. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 419 - 423.
oomycete aphanomyces-euteiches - plant pathogen - in-vitro - resistance - identification - organization - cytoskeleton - fungicide - proteins - domain
Oomycetes are fungal-like pathogens that cause notorious diseases. Protecting crops against oomycetes requires regular spraying with chemicals, many of which with unknown mode of action. In the 1990’s, flumorph was identified as a novel crop protection agent. It was shown to inhibit the growth of oomycete pathogens including Phytophthora species, presumably by targeting actin. We recently generated transgenic Phytophthora infestans strains that express Lifeact-eGFP, which enabled us to monitor the actin cytoskeleton during hyphal growth. For analyzing effects of oomicides (8) on the actin cytoskeleton in vivo, the P. infestans Lifeact-eGFP strain is an excellent tool. Here we confirm that flumorph is an oomicide with growth inhibitory activity. Microscopic analyses showed that low flumorph concentrations provoked hyphal tip swellings accompanied by accumulation of actin plaques in the apex, a feature reminiscent of tips of non-growing hyphae. At higher concentrations swelling was more pronounced and accompanied by an increase in hyphal bursting events. However, in hyphae that remained intact, actin filaments were indistinguishable from those in non-treated, non-growing hyphae. In contrast, in hyphae treated with the actin depolymerising drug latrunculin B, no hyphal bursting was observed but the actin filaments were completely disrupted. This difference demonstrates that actin is not the primary target of flumorph.
General Laws and Centripetal Science
Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. - \ 2014
European Review 22 (2014). - ISSN 1062-7987 - p. S113 - S144.
lipid vesicles - evolution - thermodynamics - organization - systems - hierarchy - selection
The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be considered a general form law, the operator hierarchy is used here as a bridge between existing integrating approaches, including: a cosmic timeline, hierarchy and ontology, a periodic table of periodic tables, the unification of evolutionary processes, a general evolution concept, and general aspects of thermodynamics. At the end of the paper an inventory of unifying concepts is presented in the form of a cross table. The study ends with a discussion of major integrating principles in science.
WOX5 Suppresses CYCLIN D Activity to Establish Quiescence at the Center of the Root Stem Cell Niche
Forzani, C. ; Aichinger, E. ; Willemsen, V. ; Murray, J.A. - \ 2014
Current Biology 24 (2014)16. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 1939 - 1944.
arabidopsis-thaliana root - division - meristem - differentiation - organization - transition - expression - complex - protein
In Arabidopsis, stem cells maintain the provision of new cells for root growth. They surround a group of slowly dividing cells named the quiescent center (QC), and, together, they form the stem cell niche (SCN). The QC acts as the signaling center of the SCN, repressing differentiation of the surrounding stem cells  and providing a pool of cells able to replace damaged stem cells [2, 3]. Maintenance of the stem cells depends on the transcription factor WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5), which is specifically expressed in the QC . However, the molecular mechanisms by which WOX5 promotes stem cell fate and whether WOX5 regulates proliferation of the QC are unknown. Here, we reveal a new role for WOX5 in restraining cell division in the cells of the QC, thereby establishing quiescence. In contrast, WOX5 and CYCD3;3/CYCD1;1 both promote cell proliferation in the nascent columella. The additional QC divisions occurring in wox5 mutants are suppressed in mutant combinations with the D type cyclins CYCD3;3 and CYCD1;1. Moreover, ectopic expression of CYCD3;3 in the QC is sufficient to induce cell division in the QC. WOX5 thus suppresses QC divisions that are otherwise promoted by CYCD3;3 and CYCD1;1, in part by interacting with the CYCD3;3 promoter to repress CYCD3;3 expression in the QC. Therefore, we propose a specific role for WOX5 in initiating and maintaining quiescence of the QC by excluding CYCD activity from the QC.
Precise control of plant stem cell activity through parallel regulatory inputs
Bennett, T. ; Toorn, A. van; Willemsen, V. ; Scheres, B. - \ 2014
Development 141 (2014). - ISSN 0950-1991 - p. 4055 - 4064.
arabidopsis-thaliana root - transcription factor - shoot apex - meristem - gene - differentiation - organization - maintenance - homeostasis - sombrero
The regulation of columella stem cell activity in the Arabidopsis root cap by a nearby organizing centre, the quiescent centre, has been a key example of the stem cell niche paradigm in plants. Here, we investigate interactions between transcription factors that have been shown to regulate columella stem cells using a simple quantification method for stem cell activity in the root cap. Genetic and expression analyses reveal that the RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED protein, the FEZ and SOMBRERO NAC-domain transcription factors, the ARF10 and ARF16 auxin response factors and the quiescent centre-expressed WOX5 homeodomain protein each provide independent inputs to regulate the number of columella stem cells. Given the tight control of columella development, we found that these inputs act in a surprisingly parallel manner. Nevertheless, important points of interaction exist; for example, we demonstrate the repression of SMB activity by non-autonomous action of WOX5. Our results suggest that the developmental progression of columella stem cells may be quantitatively regulated by several more broadly acting transcription factors rather than by a single intrinsic stem cell factor, which raises questions about the special nature of the stem cell state in plants.
Probing the relation between protein–protein interactions and DNA binding for a linker mutant of the bacterial nucleoid protein H-NS
Giangrossi, M. ; Wintraecken, K. ; Spurio, R. ; Vries, R.J. de - \ 2014
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Proteins & Proteomics 1844 (2014)2. - ISSN 1570-9639 - p. 339 - 345.
in-vivo oligomerization - virulence gene icsa - escherichia-coli - curved dna - structuring protein - shigella-flexneri - organization - domain - mechanism - transcription
We have investigated the relationship between oligomerization in solution and DNA binding for the bacterial nucleoid protein H-NS. This was done by comparing oligomerization and DNA binding of H-NS with that of a H-NS D68V-D71V linker mutant. The double linker mutation D68V-D71V, that makes the linker significantly more hydrophobic, leads to a dramatically enhanced and strongly temperature-dependent H-NS oligomerization in solution, as detected by dynamic light scattering. The DNA binding affinity of H-NS D68V-D71V for the hns promoter region is lower and has stronger temperature dependence than that of H-NS. DNase I footprinting experiments show that at high concentrations, regions protected by H-NS D68V-D71V are larger and less defined than for H-NS. In vitro transcription assays show that the enhanced protection also leads to enhanced transcriptional repression. Whereas the lower affinity of the H-NS D68V-D71V for DNA could be caused by competition between oligomerization in solution and oligomerization on DNA, the larger size of protected regions clearly confirms the notion that cooperative binding of H-NS to DNA is related to protein–protein interactions. These results emphasize the relative contributions of protein–protein interactions and substrate-dependent oligomerization in the control of gene repression operated by H-NS.
Quantitative label-free phosphoproteomics of six different life stages of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals abundant phosphorylation of members of the CRN effector family
Resjö, S. ; Ali, A. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Seidl, M.F. ; Snel, B. ; Sandin, M. ; Levander, F. ; Govers, F. ; Andreasson, E. - \ 2014
Journal of Proteome Research 13 (2014)4. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 1848 - 1859.
tandem mass-spectrometry - protein-kinases - arabidopsis-thaliana - in-vitro - proteomics - identification - expression - potato - organization - specificity
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight in potato and tomato. Since the underlying processes that govern pathogenicity and development in P. infestans are largely unknown, we have performed a large-scale phosphoproteomics study of six different P. infestans life stages. We have obtained quantitative data for 2922 phosphopeptides and compared their abundance. Life-stage-specific phosphopeptides include ATP-binding cassette transporters and a kinase that only occurs in appressoria. In an extended data set, we identified 2179 phosphorylation sites and deduced 22 phosphomotifs. Several of the phosphomotifs matched consensus sequences of kinases that occur in P. infestans but not Arabidopsis. In addition, we detected tyrosine phosphopeptides that are potential targets of kinases resembling mammalian tyrosine kinases. Among the phosphorylated proteins are members of the RXLR and Crinkler effector families. The latter are phosphorylated in several life stages and at multiple positions, in sites that are conserved between different members of the Crinkler family. This indicates that proteins in the Crinkler family have functions beyond their putative role as (necrosis-inducing) effectors. This phosphoproteomics data will be instrumental for studies on oomycetes and host–oomycete interactions. The data sets have been deposited to ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD000433).
Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions
Vries, J.R. de - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Anne Marike Lokhorst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571013 - 152
overtuigingen - governance - longitudinaal onderzoek - natuurbeleid - samenwerking - ruimtelijke ordening - overheid - groepen - contracten - organisatie - beliefs - governance - longitudinal studies - nature conservation policy - cooperation - physical planning - public authorities - groups - contracts - organization
Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public policies. These governance approaches focus more and more on network governance and on organising more horizontal interactions. In these contexts, trust is seen as a means to control and manage relations. It is therefore surprising that empirical studies on trust are lacking. Consequently, little is known about how trust emerges and develops in governance processes. This thesis addresses this gap and focuses on the question: How does trust emerge and develop in governance interactions? In answering this question, I take a dynamic perspective on trust. Here, trust is seen as a positive expectation about an actor’s ways of doing. This perspective in particular takes into account the dynamics of governance interactions. In this thesis, I focus on the field of spatial planning, as one of the fields of governance. In planning processes, four aspects are important. First, planning processes consist of a series of interactions that are organised in a certain way and have specific characteristics. Second, in these interactions, various policy instruments are used to guide the process and work towards a collective objective. Third, these interactions take place between groups and their members. These groups have their own identity and related roles and rules that influence the planning process. Fourth, in these interactions, people express trust and distrust to support their ideas, collaboration, or preferred choice. In studying trust dynamics, I focus in the subsequent chapters on these four aspects and how they influence and are influenced by trust dynamics.
The complete genome sequences of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and their relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses
Souza Richards, R. ; Adams, I.P. ; Kreuze, J.F. ; Souza, J. de; Cuellar, W. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der; Glover, R. ; Hany, U. ; Dickinson, M. ; Boonham, N. - \ 2014
Archives of Virology 159 (2014)4. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 811 - 815.
complete nucleotide-sequence - grapevine-fanleaf-virus - arabis-mosaic-virus - n-terminal region - tobacco ringspot - cleavage site - in-vitro - polyprotein - organization - rna2
The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of the nepovirus potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) from two different isolates were determined, as well as partial sequences from two additional isolates. RNA1 is 7,579-7,598 nucleotides long and contains one single open reading frame (ORF), which is translated into a large polyprotein with 2,325 amino acids and a molecular weight of 257 kDa. The complete sequence of RNA2 ranges from 3857 to 3918 nt between the different isolates. It encodes a polyprotein of 1079-1082 amino acids with a molecular weight of 120 kDa. Sequence comparison using the Pro-Pol region and CP showed that all four isolates formed two distinct groups, corresponding to potato and arracacha, that were closely related to each other and also to tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV). Comparing our data to those obtained with other nepoviruses, our results confirm that PBRSV belongs to a distinct species and is a member of subgroup A in the genus Nepovirus based on its RNA2 size, genome organization, and nucleotide sequence
Nonlinear Amplification of a Supramolecular Complex at a Multivalent Interface
Hsu, S.H. ; Yilmaz, M.D. ; Reinhoudt, D.N. ; Velders, A.H. ; Huskens, J. - \ 2013
Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 52 (2013)2. - ISSN 1433-7851 - p. 714 - 719.
self-assembled monolayers - molecular printboards - chemistry - binding - membrane - nanostructures - organization - selection - discrete - peptides
Competition with a monovalent cyclodextrin host (blue cones) in solution drives the multivalent binding of a Eu3+ complex and a sensitizer molecule to cyclodextrin monolayers through a nonlinear self-assembly process. Adamantyl groups (light-blue spheres) are attached to the EDTA ligand (black) and the antenna molecule (orange), which has a carboxylate group for coordination to the Eu3+ ion (yellow or red in free or complexed form, respectively).
Auxin reflux between the endodermis and pericycle promotes lateral root initiation
Marhavy, P. ; Vanstraelen, M. ; Rybel, B.P.M. de; Ding, Z.J. ; Bennett, M.J. ; Beeckman, T. ; Benkova, E. - \ 2013
The EMBO Journal 32 (2013)1. - ISSN 0261-4189 - p. 149 - 158.
arabidopsis-thaliana - gene-expression - cell-cycle - efflux - transport - family - organization - gradients - proteins - meristem
Lateral root (LR) formation is initiated when pericycle cells accumulate auxin, thereby acquiring founder cell (FC) status and triggering asymmetric cell divisions, giving rise to a new primordium. How this auxin maximum in pericycle cells builds up and remains focused is not understood. We report that the endodermis plays an active role in the regulation of auxin accumulation and is instructive for FCs to progress during the LR initiation (LRI) phase. We describe the functional importance of a PIN3 (PIN-formed) auxin efflux carrier-dependent hormone reflux pathway between overlaying endodermal and pericycle FCs. Disrupting this reflux pathway causes dramatic defects in the progress of FCs towards the next initiation phase. Our data identify an unexpected regulatory function for the endodermis in LRI as part of the fine-tuning mechanism that appears to act as a check point in LR organogenesis after FCs are specified. The EMBO Journal (2013) 32, 149-158. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.303; Published online 23 November 2012
Geraniol hydroxylase and hydroxygeraniol oxidase activities of the CYP76 family of cytochrome P450 enzymes and potential for engineering the early steps of the (seco)iridoid pathway
Hofer, R. ; Dong, L. ; Andre, F. ; Ginglinger, J.F. ; Lugan, R. ; Gavira, C. ; Grec, S. ; Lang, G. ; Memelink, J. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Werck-Reichhart, D. - \ 2013
Metabolic Engineering 20 (2013). - ISSN 1096-7176 - p. 221 - 232.
indole alkaloid biosynthesis - catharanthus-roseus - madagascar periwinkle - expression - 10-hydroxylase - metabolomics - organization - arabidopsis - iridoids - cloning
The geraniol-derived (seco)iridoid skeleton is a precursor for a large group of bioactive compounds with diverse therapeutic applications, including the widely used anticancer molecule vinblastine. Despite of this economic prospect, the pathway leading to iridoid biosynthesis from geraniol is still unclear. The first geraniol hydroxylation step has been reported to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP76B6 from Catharanthus roseus and CYP76C1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, an extended functional analysis of CYP76 family members was carried-out to identify the most effective enzyme to be used for pathway reconstruction. This disproved CYP76C1 activity and led to the characterization of CYP76C4 from A. thaliana as a geraniol 9- or 8-hydroxylase. CYP76B6 emerged as a highly specialized multifunctional enzyme catalyzing two sequential oxidation steps leading to the formation of 8-oxogeraniol from geraniol. This dual function was confirmed in planta using a leaf-disc assay. The first step, geraniol hydroxylation, was very efficient and fast enough to outcompete geraniol conjugation in plant tissues. When the enzyme was expressed in leaf tissues, 8-oxogeraniol was converted into further oxidized and/or reduced compounds in the absence of the next enzyme of the iridoid pathway
Global streamflow and thermal habitats of freshwater fishes under climate change
Vliet, M.T.H. van; Ludwig, F. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2013
Climatic Change 121 (2013)4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 739 - 754.
potential impacts - surface-water - temperature - ecosystems - model - biodiversity - organization - perspective - challenges - regimes
Climate change will affect future flow and thermal regimes of rivers. This will directly affect freshwater habitats and ecosystem health. In particular fish species, which are strongly adapted to a certain level of flow variability will be sensitive to future changes in flow regime. In addition, all freshwater fish species are exotherms, and increasing water temperatures will therefore directly affect fishes’ biochemical reaction rates and physiology. To assess climate change impacts on large-scale freshwater fish habitats we used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modelling framework forced with an ensemble of climate model output. Future projections on global river flow and water temperature were used in combination with current spatial distributions of several fish species and their maximum thermal tolerances to explore impacts on fish habitats in different regions around the world. Results indicate that climate change will affect seasonal flow amplitudes, magnitude and timing of high and low flow events for large fractions of the global land surface area. Also, significant increases in both the frequency and magnitude of exceeding maximum temperature tolerances for selected fish species are found. Although the adaptive capacity of fish species to changing hydrologic regimes and rising water temperatures could be variable, our global results show that fish habitats are likely to change in the near future, and this is expected to affect species distributions
The Impact of the Product Generation Life Cycle on Knowledge Valorization at the Public Private Research Partnership, the Centre for BioSystems Genomics
Garbade, P.J.P. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Hall, R.D. ; Leone, G.O.M. - \ 2013
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 67 (2013). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 1 - 10.
industry - innovation - exploitation - organization - exploration - science
The present paper aims to address the impact of the product generation life cycle (PGLC) on knowledgevalorization in public private research partnerships (PPRPs). Data were collected from participants in theCentre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG), a Dutch PPRP program in the plant breeding sector. In total, 15commercial partners participated in the study, 7 with a relatively short PGLC of 5 to 6 years, active in thetomato sector, and 8 potato partners, having a very long PGLC of up to 25 years. The results show a clearrelationship between CBSG’s valorization support activities and the level of knowledge utilization by theparticipants, although the preferred type of support activities differs between the potato and tomatocompanies. Firms with a long PGLC, having a higher complicacy of the R&D process, require more basicresearch support and extra communication tools that help to bridge the gaps caused by the long durationof the development process. Companies with short PGLCs, being challenged to keep development timeof new products as short as possible in order not to miss out on market opportunities, value the PPRPmost for the networking possibilities and as provider of the latest technological developments.
A predicted functional gene network for the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans as a framework for genomic biology
Seidl, M.F. ; Schneider, A. ; Govers, F. ; Snel, B. - \ 2013
BMC Genomics 14 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 16 p.
protein-protein interactions - zoospore motility - complexes - reveals - yeast - families - tool - organization - translation - innovations
Background - Associations between proteins are essential to understand cell biology. While this complex interplay between proteins has been studied in model organisms, it has not yet been described for the oomycete late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Results - We present an integrative probabilistic functional gene network that provides associations for 37 percent of the predicted P. infestans proteome. Our method unifies available genomic, transcriptomic and comparative genomic data into a single comprehensive network using a Bayesian approach. Enrichment of proteins residing in the same or related subcellular localization validates the biological coherence of our predictions. The network serves as a framework to query existing genomic data using network-based methods, which thus far was not possible in Phytophthora. We used the network to study the set of interacting proteins that are encoded by genes co-expressed during sporulation. This identified potential novel roles for proteins in spore formation through their links to proteins known to be involved in this process such as the phosphatase Cdc14. Conclusions - The functional association network represents a novel genome-wide data source for P. infestans that also acts as a framework to interrogate other system-wide data. In both capacities it will improve our understanding of the complex biology of P. infestans and related oomycete pathogens