An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
Gomez-Ramirez, P. ; Shore, R.F. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Hattum, B. van; Bustnes, J.O. ; Duke, G. ; Fritsch, C. ; Garcia-Fernandez, A.J. ; Helander, B.O. ; Jaspers, V. ; Krone, O. ; Martinez-Lopez, E. ; Mateo, R. ; Movalli, P. ; Sonne, C. - \ 2014
Environment International 67 (2014). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 12 - 21.
brominated flame retardants - eagles haliaeetus-albicilla - kestrel falco-tinnunculus - white-tailed eagles - long-term trends - environmental contaminants - organochlorine pesticides - southeastern spain - accipiter-gentilis - biomonitoring tool
Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50 years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for > 20 years; most monitoring was conducted for > 5 years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6–10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable assessment of the appropriateness of the EU-regulation of substances that are hazardous to humans and the environment, the effectiveness of EU level mitigation policies, and identify pan-European spatial and temporal trends in current and emerging contaminants of concern.
Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed
Adamse, P. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2013.009) - 41
diervoeding - organische chloorverbindingen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voersamenstelling - polychloorbifenylen - voederkwaliteit - voederveiligheid - diergezondheid - animal nutrition - organochlorine compounds - organochlorine pesticides - feed formulation - polychlorinated biphenyls - forage quality - feed safety - animal health
In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in the trend analysis reports about dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the future. This analysis was performed on request of the NVWA (Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority). The results of these analyses will enable the NVWA to develop a risk-directed sampling strategy for the National Feed Monitoring program. More than 5000 feed samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds in the period 2001-2011. The materials in these samples originate from all over the world, but were sampled in the Netherlands. Samples were taken by the NVWA for the Netherlands National Feed Monitoring program and by the feed industry.
Ex situ treatment of sediments with granular activated carbon : a novel remediation technology
Rakowska, M.I. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Bart Koelmans; Tim Grotenhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738981 - 240
polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen - polychloorbifenylen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - verontreinigde sedimenten - remediatie - actieve kool - mariene sedimenten - rivieren - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - polychlorinated biphenyls - organochlorine pesticides - contaminated sediments - remediation - activated carbon - marine sediments - rivers
Over the last decades, industrial and urban development and emisions of many hazardous organic compounds have threatened the ecological quality of marine and freshwater sediments. Sediments accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thus may pose serious risks to ecosystems and human health. Over the past years sediment treatment by sorbent addition such as activated carbon (AC) to achieve sequestration of HOCs in situ has been proposed as an alternative approach to traditional remediation technologies such as dredging and disposal. The present research was meant to explore ex situ extraction of sediment by granular AC (GAC) (‘active stripping’) as a novel approach in comparison to traditional in situ AC sediment remediation technologies using amendments of powdered AC (PAC) or GAC.
Chapter2 discusses the current state of the art in AC amendment technology as a method for sediment remediation. In this chapter, major knowledge gaps are revealed on sediment-AC-HOC interactions controlling the effectiveness of HOC binding such as AC type, particle size, dosage, sediment and sorbate characteristics,and efficiency of AC to reduce bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates.In addition, the review discusses potential negative effects of AC on aquatic life. Finally, we discuss whether the effects of AC addition can be predicted using fate and transport models.
Chapter 3explores the potential of GAC in the context of ex situ sediment remediation technology. Since the added GAC would compete for the sorption of HOCs with natural sediment phases, its effectiveness would strongly depend on its dosage. Consequently, in this chapter we investigate the distribution coefficients for short-term sorption processes, and the optimal dosage level of GAC to be used in intensive sediment remediation. A suite of candidate GAC materials is screened for maximum efficiency in extracting PAHs from sediment with very high PAH and oil pollution levels within 24 h. The effectiveness of GAC is compared to a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) with Tenax beads, Sorption data are interpreted in terms of aqueous phase concentration reduction ratios and distribution coefficients. Despite the considerable fouling of GAC by organic matter and oil, 50-90% of the most available PAH was extracted by the GAC during 28-d contact time, at a dose as low as 4%.
A prerequisite for the application of active stripping with GAC in contaminatedsediment remediation is effective transport of pollutantsfrom the sediment to the GAC during the relatively short mixing stage. Therefore, in Chapter 4kinetics of PAH transfer from sediment using GAC at a relatively low dose as a solid extraction phase kinetic parameters are obtained by modeling experimental sediment-GAC exchange kinetic data following a two-stage model calibration approach. Rate constants (kGAC) for PAH uptake by GAC range from 0.44 to 0.0005 d-1, whereas GAC sorption coefficients (KGAC) range from 105.57to 108.57L kg-1. These results show that ex situ extraction with GAC is sufficiently fast and effective to reduce the risks of the most available PAHs among those studied, such as fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene.
It is unclear how the GAC/sediment mixing step affects desorption kinetics of HOCs for instance by changing the sediment particle size distributions, and whether these factors may influence the effectiveness of ex situ GAC extraction technology. Chapter 5 presents the results of investigations on the effect of mixing intensity on the extraction rate of PAHs from contaminated sediment. Desorption data are interpreted using a radial diffusion model. Mixing caused the 161 µm particles originally present at a stirring rate of 200 rpm to decrease in size to 9 µm at a rate of 600 rpm. Desorption rate constants decreased with increasing PAH hydrophobicity but increased with the intensity of mixing. The results demonstrate that desorption of PAHs is significantly accelerated by a reduction of particle aggregate size caused by shear forces induced by mixing.
So far, the remediation effectiveness and ecological side effects of AC application have been studied in the short term, and mainly in laboratory studies. However, it is still not clear to what extent these reduced pore water concentrations change over longer times and how they differ for chemicals and for different AC remediation scenarios under field conditions. Chapter 6 presents (pseudo-)equilibrium as well as kinetic parameters for in situ sorption of a series of PAHs and PCBs to powdered and granular activated carbons (AC) after three different sediment treatments: sediment mixed with powdered AC (PAC), sediment mixed with granular AC (GAC), and addition of GAC followed by 2 d mixing and subsequent removal (‘sediment stripping’) in the field. Remediation efficiency is assessed by quantifying fluxes towards SPME passive samplers inserted in the sediment top layer, which shows that efficiency decrease in the order of PAC > GAC stripping > GAC addition. Sorption was very strong to PAC, with log KAC (L/kg) values up to 10.5. Log KAC values for GAC ranged from 6.3 - 7.1 and 4.8 - 6.2 for PAHs and PCBs, respectively. Log KAC values for GAC in the stripped sediment were 7.4 - 8.6 and 5.8 - 7.7 for PAH and PCB. Apparent first order adsorption rate constants for GAC (kGAC) in the stripping scenario were calculated with a first-order kinetic model and ranged from 1.6×10-2 (PHE) to 1.7×10-5 d-1 (InP). This study showed that sediment treatment with PAC is most effective and less prone to organic matter fouling and ongoing natural processes in the field. The effectiveness of GAC is higher in the 48 h sediment stripping scenario than in the GAC amendment approach.
In Chapter 7 the effects of three different AC treatments (see above) on HOC concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish (Leuciscus idus melanotus) are tested. The AC treatments result in a significant decrease in HOC concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, macrophytes and fish. In 6 months, PAC treatment caused a reduction of accumulation of PCBs in fish by a factor of 20 bringing pollutant levels below toxic thresholds. All AC treatments supported growth of fish, but growth was inhibited in the PAC treatment, which is likely to be explained from reduced nutrient concentrations, resulting in lower zooplankton (i.e., food) densities for the fish. During the course of the field study, sediment stripping as well as sediment treatment with GAC turned out to be slower in reducing PCB bioaccumulation in biota, but the treatments were not harmful to any of the biota either.
In the final chapter (Chapter 8), overarching answers to the main research questions (see above) are formulated and an outlook regarding the actual use of ex situ GAC is provided.
Implications of differences between temperate and tropical freshwater ecosystems for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides
Daam, M.A. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2010
Ecotoxicology 19 (2010)1. - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 24 - 37.
agricultural diffuse pollution - active ingredient chlorpyrifos - outdoor experimental ditches - animal diversity assessment - sahelian temporary ponds - nontarget aquatic fauna - short-term toxicity - organochlorine pesticides - global diversity - semifield condi
Despite considerable increased pesticide use over the past decades, little research has been done into their fate and effects in surface waters in tropical regions. In the present review, possible differences in response between temperate and tropical freshwaters to pesticide stress are discussed. Three underlying mechanisms for these differences are distinguished: (1) climate related parameters, (2) ecosystem sensitivity, and (3) agricultural practices. Pesticide dissipation rates and vulnerability of freshwaters appear not to be consistently higher or lower in tropical regions compared to their temperate counterparts. However, differences in fate and effects may occur for individual pesticides and taxa. Furthermore, intensive agricultural practices in tropical countries lead to a higher input of pesticides and spread of contamination over watersheds. Field studies in tropical farms on pesticide fate in the enclosed and surrounding waterways are recommended, which should ultimately lead to the development of surface water scenarios for tropical countries like developed by the Forum for the co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their use for temperate regions. Future tropical effect assessment studies should evaluate whether specific tropical taxa, not represented by the current standard test species in use, are at risk. If so, tropical model ecosystem studies evaluating pesticide concentration ranges need to be conducted to validate whether selected surrogate indigenous test species are representative for local tropical freshwater ecosystems.
Response to "Comment on Halogenated Contaminants in Farmed Salmon, Trout Tilapia, Pangasius, and Shrimp"
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Velzen, M.J.M. van; Swart, C.P. ; Veen, I. van der; Traag, W.A. ; Boer, J. de - \ 2009
Environmental Science and Technology 43 (2009)19. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7586 - 7587.
polybrominated diphenyl ethers - pearl river delta - health-risk assessment - fresh-water fish - south china - organochlorine pesticides - seafood products - hong-kong - exposure - hydrocarbons
Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease
Berg, H. van den - \ 2009
Environmental Health Perspectives 117 (2009)11. - ISSN 0091-6765 - p. 1656 - 1663.
insecticide-treated nets - resistance management strategies - anopheles-gambiae diptera - african malaria vectors - south-africa - sri-lanka - organochlorine pesticides - breast-cancer - environmental-management - child-mortality
Objective - I review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Data sources and extraction - Contemporary data on DDT use were largely obtained from questionnaires and reports. I also conducted a Scopus search to retrieve published articles. Data synthesis - DDT has been recommended as part of the arsenal of insecticides available for indoor residual spraying until suitable alternatives are available. Approximately 14 countries use DDT for disease control, and several countries are preparing to reintroduce DDT. The effectiveness of DDT depends on local settings and merits close consideration in relation to the alternatives. Concerns about the continued use of DDT are fueled by recent reports of high levels of human exposure associated with indoor spraying amid accumulating evidence on chronic health effects. There are signs that more malaria vectors are becoming resistant to the toxic action of DDT, and that resistance is spreading to new countries. A comprehensive cost assessment of DDT versus its alternatives that takes side effects into account is missing. Effective chemical methods are available as immediate alternatives to DDT, but the choice of insecticide class is limited, and in certain areas the development of resistance is undermining the efficacy of insecticidal tools. New insecticides are not expected in the short term. Nonchemical methods are potentially important, but their effectiveness at program level needs urgent study. Conclusions - To reduce reliance on DDT, support is needed for integrated and multipartner strategies of vector control and for the continued development of new technologies. Integrated vector management provides a framework for developing and implementing effective technologies and strategies as sustainable alternatives to reliance on DDT
Qualitative screening and quantitative determination of pesticides and contaminants in animal feed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chomatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Lee, M.K. van der; Weg, G. van der; Traag, W.A. ; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2008
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1186 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 325 - 339.
gc x gc - fish feed - organochlorine pesticides - extraction - residues - pressure - volumes - dioxins - fruit - pcbs
A method has been developed for the target analysis of over 100 pesticides and contaminants in a complex feed matrix. The method is based on extraction with ethyl acetate, cleanup by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE) with primary secondary amine phase (PSA), and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with full scan time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC¿TOF-MS). Parameters studied during method development included a dispersive SPE cleanup step after GPC, large volume injection into the GC system and the GC × GC separation. Qualitative and quantitative performance of the GC × GC system was evaluated by analyzing spiked extracts in the range equivalent to 1¿100 ¿g/kg in feed. At levels of 50 ¿g/kg and higher, all compounds targeted for could be identified fully automatically by the software based on their mass spectra. At lower levels the hit rate decreased with the concentration. System linearity was excellent in solvent and only slightly affected by matrix (correlation coefficients r ¿ 0.995 for 90% of the compounds). Limits of quantification were in the 1¿20 ¿g/kg range for most compounds. The overall method was validated for 106 compounds at the 10 and 100 ¿g/kg level. Recoveries between 70% and 110% and RSDs below 20% were obtained for the majority of the compounds.
Penguin colonies as secondary sources of contamination with persistent organic pollutants
Roosens, L. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Riddle, M. ; Blust, R. ; Neels, H. ; Covaci, A. - \ 2007
Journal of Environmental Monitoring 9 (2007)8. - ISSN 1464-0325 - p. 822 - 825.
polybrominated diphenyl ethers - arctic lake ecosystems - organochlorine pesticides - polychlorinated-biphenyls - adelie penguin - antarctica - transport - belgium - island - soils
Although long-range atmospheric transport has been described as the predominant mechanism for exposing polar regions to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recent studies have suggested that bird activity can also contribute substantially to contaminant levels in some environments. However, because the species so far reported have all been migratory, it has not been demonstrated conclusively whether locally elevated contamination represents transport from lower latitudes by the migrating birds or, alternatively, redistribution and concentration of contaminants that were already present in the high-latitude environments. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that several POPs are present in elevated concentrations in an environment frequented by a non-migratory species (Adélie penguins) that spends its entire life in the Antarctic. Levels of POPs, such as p,p-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (CHLs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were 10 to 100-fold higher in soil samples from penguin colonies than from reference areas. This significant difference is likely related to local penguin activity, such as a higher abundance of guano and the presence of bird carcasses. This hypothesis is also supported by a higher percentage of persistent congeners (PCB 99, 118, 138 and 153) in the soil from the colonies compared to the reference areas. This profile of PCB congeners closely matched profiles seen in penguin eggs or penguin blood.
PIMM-Biota 2002/2003, analyses in het kader van het Provinciaal Integraal Meetnet Mileukwaliteit (PIMM), provincie Zuid-Holland; deelrapport 2: organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen in mollen en wormen en mogelijke risico's
Brink, N.W. van den; Pol, J.J.C. van der - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 855.2) - 75
gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - pesticiden - lumbricus rubellus - kleine zoogdieren - aporrectodea caliginosa - milieueffect - risicoschatting - nederland - ecotoxicologie - organochlorine pesticides - pesticides - lumbricus rubellus - small mammals - aporrectodea caliginosa - environmental impact - risk assessment - netherlands - ecotoxicology
In het kader van het Provinciaal Integraal Meetnet Milieukwaliteit (PIMM) van de Provincie Zuid-Holland is een studie uitgevoerd waarin OCBs in wormen zijn geanalyseerd. Tevens is een risicoanalyse van andere contaminanten (dioxine-achtige stoffen, estrogene stoffen en bestrijdingsmiddelen) in mollen uitgevoerd. Doelstellingen van het onderzoek waren om (a) trends in concentraties van OCBs te bepalen (b) een risicoanalyse voor wormen en voor risico’s van doorvergiftiging naar hogere organismen uit te voeren en (c) het screenen van blootstelling van mollen aan andere contaminanten en de daaraan verbonden risico’s. De gehalten van p,p’-DDE in wormen zijn hoger op natuurlocaties dan op agrarische locaties. Andere OCBs geven dit beeld niet. Overschrijding van referentiegetallen wordt in geval van wormen niet waargenomen. In mollen is overschrijding van de referentiedata voor een aantal stoffen aantoonbaar gebleken, met name p,p’-DDE, Som DDT, dieldrin en cis-HCE. Er worden geen directe effecten van de OCBs op de groei van wormen gevonden, en ook geen potentiële risico’s op doorvergiftiging naar hogere organismen berekend (OMEGA). Op één van de onderzochte locaties is bij de mol blootstelling aan dioxine-achtige stoffen aannemelijk gemaakt met behulp van biomarkers en bioassays (potentieel risico), actuele risico’s zijn niet aangetoond. Dioxine-achtige stoffen vormen mogelijk een potentieel risico voor mollen
Ontwikkelen van een bevestigingsmethode voor de simultane bepaling van polychloorbifenylen (pcb's) en organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen (oc's) in dierlijke vetten, plantaardige vetten/oliën, vetzuren en diervoeders
Weg, G. van der; Traag, W.A. - \ 2003
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2003.010) - 15
polychloorbifenylen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - analytische methoden - spectroscopie - polychlorinated biphenyls - organochlorine pesticides - analytical methods - spectroscopy
Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location
Hamers, T.H.M. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Mos, L. ; Linden, S.C. van der; Legler, J. ; Koeman, J.H. ; Murk, A.J. - \ 2003
Environmental Pollution 123 (2003). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 47 - 65.
reporter gene assays - organochlorine pesticides - pyrethroid insecticides - atmospheric transport - cell-line - in-vivo - receptor - trout - organophosphate - xenobiotics
In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between SPRING and SUMMER were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in HORT than in BACK and BULB. Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and GARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for aquatic organisms and was highest in SPRING. Although estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated with OC concentrations, the ER-CALUX responses could not be attributed to any particular pesticides. Besides, the contribution of non-analyzed xeno-estrogens as alkylphenol(-ethoxylates) and bisphenol-A to the estrogenic potency of rainwater could not be excluded. Further research should focus on the chemical identification of estrogenic compounds in rainwater. In addition, more attention should be given to the ecological consequences of atmospheric deposition of individual pesticides and of total toxic potencies that regularly exceed environmental criteria for Dutch surface waters and/or toxic threshold values for aquatic organisms. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resultaten onderzoek organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen, chloorbifenylen en zware metalen in organen en vetten : jaaroverzicht 1997 (Nationaal plan hormonen en overige stoffen en concept nationaal plan pluimvee)
Roos, A.H. ; Kamp, H.J. van der; Oostrom, J.J. van - \ 1998
Wageningen : RIKILT-DLO (Rapport / DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten 98.009) - 9
dierlijk vet - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - zware metalen - polychloorbifenylen - pesticidenresiduen - animal fat - organochlorine pesticides - heavy metals - polychlorinated biphenyls - pesticide residues
|Resultaten onderzoek organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen, chloorbifenylen en zware metalen in organen en vetten. Jaaroverzicht 1994 (Nationaal Plan Overige Stoffen en concept Nationaal Plan Pluimvee)
Roos, A.H. ; Kamp, H.J. van der; Oostrom, J.J. van; Polanen, A. van - \ 1995
Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor land- en tuinbouwprodukten (RIKILT-DLO) (Rapport RIKILT-DLO 95.03) - 10 p.
organochlorine pesticides - chlorobiphenyls - heavy metals - monitoring
|Onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid van tris (4-chloorfenyl)methanol en tris (chloorfenyl)-methaan in marine toppredatoren uit de Noordzee en Waddenzee
Boer, J. de; Wester, P.G. - \ 1994
IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO rapport C006/94) - 11
gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - zeehonden - zeedieren - predatoren - analytische methoden - organochlorine pesticides - seals - marine animals - predators - analytical methods
Een methode werd ontwikkeld voor de analyse van tris(4-chloorfenyl)methanol (TCP) in organismen. Met behulp van soxhletextractie, gelpermeatiechromatografie, fractionering over silicagel en gaschromato-grafische analyse met massaspectrometrische detectie (negatieve chemische ionisatie) kan TCP in organismen bepaald worden met een recovery van 90% en een detectiegrens van 0,02 µg/kg.
Verontreinigingen in aal en snoekbaars : monitorprogramma ten behoeve van de Nederlandse sportvisserij 1992
Boer, J. de; Dao, Q.T. ; Pieters, H. - \ 1993
IJmuiden : RIVO (RIVO rapport 93.006) - 26
polychloorbifenylen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - kwik - waterverontreiniging - palingen - snoekbaars - sportvissen - ecotoxicologie - polychlorinated biphenyls - organochlorine pesticides - mercury - water pollution - eels - pike perch - game fishes - ecotoxicology
Stability of organochlorine pesticides in a candidate animal feed reference material (CRM 115)
Roos, A.H. ; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T. ; Matser, A.M. - \ 1992
Wageningen : DLO-State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Report / RIKILT-DLO 92.22)
gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - referentienormen - diervoedering - organochlorine pesticides - reference standards - animal feeding
Preparation and homogeneity of a candidate animal feed reference material organochlorine pesticides (CRM 115)
Roos, A.H. ; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T. ; Matser, A.M. - \ 1991
Wageningen : DLO-State lnstitute tor Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Report / RIKILT-DLO 91.59) - 15
gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voer - monsterverwerking - referentienormen - organochlorine pesticides - feeds - sample processing - reference standards
Een kandidaat referentiemateriaal mengvoeder gecontamineerd met organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen werd bereid. Door aan een olie gecontamineerd met organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen een hoeveelheid van het gehomogeniseerde basisvoeder, gebaseerd op legpluimvee en varkensvoer, toe te voegen en te homogeniseren werd eerst een premix verkregen. Deze premix werd na controle op homogeniteit met het overige basisvoeder gemengd en gehomogeniseerd. Het verkregen voeder werd geampulleerd. Tijdens de bereiding is nagegaan of er in de afzonderlijke grondstoffen geen interferenties met de bestrijdingsmiddelen optraden. Tevens is in alle fasen van de bereiding de homogeniteit gecontroleerd. Na het uitvullen van het mengvoeder in de ampullen is opnieuw de homogeniteit bepaald. Deze was vergelijkbaar met de voor ampulleren gemeten variatiecoëfficiënt voor de herhaalbaarheid.
|Negen jaren van organochloor-pesticiden onderzoek in rode aal
Kerkhoff, M. ; Boer, J. de; Vries, A. de - \ 1986
IJmuiden : R.I.V.O. (Rapport Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek no. MO 86-02) - 12
anguillidae - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - palingen - visziekten - nederland - ecotoxicologie - anguillidae - organochlorine pesticides - eels - fish diseases - netherlands - ecotoxicology
Het gehalte aan organochloor-bestrijdingsmiddelen in afgebroeide tulpebollen
Roos, A.H. ; Munsteren, A.J. van; Neer, T.C.H. van; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th. - \ 1981
Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 81.64) - 6
gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - tulpen - bloembollen - broeien - organochlorine pesticides - tulips - ornamental bulbs - scalding
Doel is het geven van een overzicht van de besmetting met organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen van afgebroeide tulpebollen toegepast voor veevoederdoeleinden en de gevolgen hiervan voor de besmetting van melk en zuivelprodukten.
Interne niveaucontrole I : de bepaling van organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen in rundvet, kalfsvet en varkensvet (periode januari-december 1979)
Roos, A.H. ; Struys-van de Putte, H.M. van der; Munsteren, A.J. van; Werdmuller, G.A. ; Driessen, J.J.M. ; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th. - \ 1980
Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 80.80)
gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - pesticiden - vet - vetten - organochlorine pesticides - pesticides - fat - fats
Doel van dit onderzoek was: Het verkrijgen van een inzicht in de recovery van organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen en de spreiding van deze recovery's in rund-, kalfs- en varkensvetten.