Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Samen werken in gebiedsontwikkeling : een verkenning naar rollen en ambities van Rijkswaterstaat, Dienst Landelijk Gebied en waterschappen in gebiedsontwikkeling
    Pleijte, M. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Hettinga, N. ; Tepic, J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra rapport 2527) - 75
    gebiedsontwikkeling - regionale planning - overheidsdiensten - provincies - waterschappen - samenwerking - inventarisaties - area development - regional planning - public services - provinces - polder boards - cooperation - inventories
    Verschuivingen in gebiedsontwikkeling, in de politiek en in de rol van de eigen organisatie in gebiedsontwikkeling leiden tot meer afhankelijkheden tussen overheden onderling en tussen publieke en private organisaties. Samenwerking tussen uitvoeringsorganisaties en beheerders is in de praktijk nog zeer beperkt. De belangrijkste aanbeveling is om als uitvoeringsorganisaties (Rijkswaterstaat, DLG/provincies en waterschappen) de verbetering van samenwerking vooral op het gebiedsniveau zelf te zoeken en niet zozeer op organisatieniveau. Daarbij is het belangrijk dat uitvoeringsorganisaties eerst (gezamenlijk) gaan nadenken over de beste aanpak.
    Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda
    Katusiimeh, M.W. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732903 - 186
    afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwijdering - uganda - milieubeleid - overheidsdiensten - dienstensector - afrika - cost effective analysis - sociale economie - waste management - solid wastes - waste disposal - uganda - environmental policy - public services - services - africa - cost effectiveness analysis - socioeconomics

    Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private sector in solid waste management. As of today, the contribution by the private sector to solid waste service provision is now a common phenomenon in most cities in developing countries. However, SWM cannot be easily left to be handled by the private sector alone because it has strong external effects and markets may not achieve socially acceptable levels of equity. Therefore, public intervention is necessary for example in form of regulation of the private sector. Public intervention has sometimes involved governments allocating huge sums of money for beautification of cities especially when major events are hosted in those cities with upgrading of waste management services given a special consideration. Even without government involvement, a proportion of people who make a living from activities in the informal sector have played a big role in solid waste management in many cities in the developing world.

    Despite the active involvement of many actors in SWM and the policies and initiatives introduced and implemented in recent decades in East Africa, many urban centres are still facing major problems. Even where successes have been registered, the question is whether that success can be sustained for a long time. This study addresses the situation of household waste collection in Kampala. It is one of the key factors in ensuring the health and safety of the population. This study is part of the Partnerships for Research on Viable Environmental Infrastructure in East Africa (PROVIDE), towards sustainable waste water and solid waste infrastructures in East African cities. It contributes to the PROVIDE project by addressing issues of governance and management of solid waste in Kampala. The study’s contribution is a deeper understanding of the various actors in solid waste collection and the performance of the interventions and policies so far implemented in the solid waste management sector in Kampala. Specifically, the study compares the operations and assesses the effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection in Kampala; examines the effect of removal of communal containers popularly known as ‘skips’ in Kampala; examines how the informal sector co-exists with the formal sector in solid waste collection in Kampala and lastly examines the environmental legacies related to solid waste management from hosting the 2007 CHOGM event in Uganda.

    Chapter two compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container provision and providing timely and fixed collection time tables. Contrary to popular perception, fees charged by private companies are moderate. Public sector clients are charged fees even when the service is supposed to be free. Clients of private sector providers are more satisfied than those of public sector providers. It is however, revealed that while public sector serve mainly the low incomes, the private sector serves mainly the rich. In spite of these notable differences, clients of both public and private sector perceive the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in Kampala to be very serious. The effectiveness of public and private sector operations in solid waste collection in Kampala is hampered by corruption and lack of transparency.

    Chapter three examines the impact of the removal of communal containers (skips) in Kampala. From the analysis related to the choices made and the perceptions after most of the skips were removed, the major alternative to skips was the use of the commercial services, mainly private sector’s services. When asked to rate the skips system, the respondents in the surveys indicated a strong association of skips with lack of cleanliness. The lack of satisfaction with the skip system (and appreciation of the current system) was most notably recorded in high-income areas. On average the present system was much better evaluated. We found that the evaluation of skips is negatively affected by not only the income level of the neighbourhood but also the household income and education level. In addition, we found a weak positive effect of the current fees paid. The effects of income are strong enough to render the evaluation of the skips system equal, if not superior to the current system for the households with lower income and education and outside the rich areas. The removal of many of the skips not only induced the former skip-users to switch to commercial services, but also enabled many non-users of skips to avail of these services. The lowest benefits are derived from mere dumping and many households have chosen to abandon this practice in exchange for commercial solid waste collection services, typically much more expensive. Formerly many households paid people (informal workers) to take their waste to collection points, including the skips. These informal workers continued to do so, though some shifted to using commercial services especially (formal) private sector. The advent of the (formal) private sector thus led to a decrease of the demand for informal services. The evaluation by households of the waste disposal services before and after the removal of skips shows that richer households are clearly pleased with the removal, but that poorer households, particularly those with low levels of education do not feel better served than they were before.

    Chapter four addresses the co-existence of formal and informal providers in solid waste collection in Kampala. Study findings show that the informal collectors distinguish themselves from the formal waste collectors by providing ‘first-line’ services only, taking garbage away from households, but not taking this all the way to the dumpsite. They avoid regulation more than large firms. As the opportunities for restricting themselves to this stage are typically enhanced by KCC that offers (free-access) container services, informal collectors can be seen as structurally linked to the formal public sector. And the informal providers provide a cheaper, but lower rated level of service, and more often (but certainly not exclusively) to poorer households. The fairly large market shares of informal collectors can be explained by their competitiveness vis-à-vis the formal private sector: their fees are substantially lower than private sector fees. The informal collectors can do so as they provide less packaging material, have little equipment, and do not carry waste far. In fact they exploit the lapse in enforcement of environmental regulation. Their continued role next to public service provision is explained by them filling a niche in taking garbage from the households to collection points, while earning incomes at par with alternative occupations.

    Chapter five examines the environmental legacies of major events in cities of the developing world. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Kampala is taken as a case study. Although CHOGM was not a mega-event (in terms of infrastructure construction, masses of people attending, and intense global media coverage), for Uganda and Kampala it was a major event with international visibility. Hence, significant efforts were made by the Uganda and Kampala authorities to invest in the city in the road towards CHOGM 2007. Solid waste management was one of the main areas that received additional resources and faced institutional changes. This resulted in considerable improvements in solid waste management practices during CHOGM, as could be expected. As solid waste management often differs throughout metropolitan cities in developing countries and major events are not equally spread over these cities one can expect that environmental legacies are unequally distributed over the city. Following CHOGM, we found that there are no longer significant different perceptions in solid waste management between Central and Kawempe divisions. Central division and Kawempe division are perceived as equally clean (or equally dirty), suggesting that solid waste management innovations are gradually spreading across divisions. In a more fine-tuned comparison between citizens living close to places where the CHOGM events took place and locations more peripheral to CHOGM, the distinction in solid waste management started to fade somewhat during CHOGM, but there are signs of a reemerging distinction, indicating the erosion of leveling effects. However, this does not dispute the fact that, one year after CHOGM, solid waste management was perceived to be still significantly better than before CHOGM.

    Generally, this research has shown the dynamics involved in the public and private provisioning of solid waste services. The reform initiatives introduced have had an impact on the general organization of SWM. What clearly comes out of this study are the challenges faced in public and private provisioning of solid waste services. It is also clear that certain policies like privatization if not well thought out could end up being not helpful to some sections of the population especially the marginalized ones. Finally, in agreement with the modernized mixtures approach, we can derive the conclusion that SWM initiatives and reforms are likely to have a positive impact if all actors and stakeholders are involved. The mixture of actors and strategies are required for solid waste management to improve for instance an appropriate mix of public and private service (formal and informal).

    The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia
    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731883 - 211
    relaties tussen stad en platteland - steden - nutfunctie - invloeden - gezinsinkomen - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - huishoudens - landbouwhuishoudens - gewassen - bemesting - agrarische handel - overheidsdiensten - wegtransport - telefoons - elektriciteit - drinkwater - ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ethiopië - rural urban relations - towns - utility functions - influences - household income - income - employment - households - agricultural households - crops - fertilizer application - agricultural trade - public services - road transport - telephones - electricity - drinking water - development - economic development - rural development - rural areas - ethiopia
    Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to different economic activities is still in development. The thesis sought to add to the literature by conceptually discussing the role of town functions and empirically examining the influence on income, employment opportunities, rural household crop marketing and fertilizer application. For these purposes, data from households in four major regional states of Ethiopia are used. Results show that shorter distances to roads, transport services and telephone centers, and connection to electricity and tap water are likely to increase income and non-farm wage employment. We find also that proximity to roads and markets and strong network connections are associated with improved input-output exchange among rural households
    0ver de Neder-Rijn : onderzoek naar het gebruik van het Lexkesveer
    Vries, J.R. de; Beunen, R. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Departement Omgevingswetenschappen, Leerstoelgroep Landgebruiksplanning (Nota / Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Planvorming nr. 112) - 27
    transport over water - rijn - gelderland - overheidsdiensten - verkeerspatronen - water transport - river rhine - gelderland - public services - traffic patterns
    Onderzoek naar het gebruik van de veerpont tussen Randwijk (Betuwe) en Wageningen (Veluwezoom).
    Dump de doemscenario's : Jozef Keulartz
    Lenssinck, F.A.J. - \ 2005
    Terra 1 (2005)4. - ISSN 1574-9711 - p. 10 - 13.
    transport - overheidsdiensten - innovaties - milieubeheer - transport - public services - innovations - environmental management
    De gruwelverhalen van de milieubeweging, zoals over de klimaatverandering, werken verlammend, vindt milieufilosoof Jozef Keulartz. Hij pleit voor een pragmatische koers. Een interview met de bijzonder hoogleraar Duurzaamheid en Levensbeschouwing aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en hoofddocent Toegepaste Filosofie aan Wageningen Universiteit
    De Bergsche Maasveren anno 2001. Maatschappelijke betekenis en effecten van door Rijkswaterstaat voorgestelde maatregelen
    Willems, K.P.J. ; Jaarsma, C.F. ; Heijman, W.J.M. ; Doorn, T. van der - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel - ISBN 9789067546546 - 82
    binnenvaart - overheidsdiensten - verkeerspatronen - noord-brabant - inland waterway transport - public services - traffic patterns - noord-brabant
    Eind negentiende eeuw is in het Noorden van de provincie Noord-Brabant ten behoeve van een betere waterafvoer de Bergsche Maas gegraven. Omdat hierdoor het Land van Heusden en Altena in tweeën werd gesplitst, heeft Rijkswaterstaat ter compensatie van de nadelen een aantal veerponten in de vaart gebracht. Later zijn ook twee bruggen aangelegd. Rijkswaterstaat (directie Noord-Brabant) wil nu in het kader van bezuinigingen de pontveren afstoten. De Vereniging De Bergse Maasveren heeft aan de Wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR gevraagd om een onderzoek te bemiddelen dat inzicht verschaft in de maatschappelijke betekenis van de Bergsche Maasveren en mogelijke verkeerskundige, economische, duurzaamheids- en leefbaarheidseffecten van de voorgestelde maatregelen. De Vereniging De Bergse Maasveren wil het onderzoek gebruiken om bezwaren tegen het besluit van Rijkswaterstaat te onderbouwen. Het onderzoek wordt als afstudeerstudie verricht bij de Leerstoelgroep Landgebruiksplanning van Wageningen Universiteit.
    DASSIM, een simulatiemodel voor de evaluatie van verkeersscenario's: calibratie en validatie
    Apeldoorn, R.C. van; Verboom, J. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 1997
    Delft : Rijkswaterstaat DWW - 59
    verspreiding - Mustelidae - ecologie - diergedrag - gewoonten - overheidsdiensten - transport - ongevallen - dieren - fauna - schade - wegen - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - Nederland - kalibratie - diergemeenschappen - menselijke invloed - dispersal - Mustelidae - ecology - animal behaviour - habits - public services - transport - accidents - animals - fauna - damage - roads - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - Netherlands - calibration - animal communities - human impact
    Amfibieen en verkeerswegen; een modelstudie naar het effect van verminderen of compenseren van barrierewerking.
    Bugter, R.J.F. ; Vos, C.C. - \ 1997
    Delft : Rijkswaterstaat, DWW - 62
    hylidae - bufonidae - overheidsdiensten - transport - ongevallen - wegen - levensduur - verouderen - veroudering - dood - dieren - fauna - schade - modellen - onderzoek - nederland - salamanders - menselijke invloed - hylidae - bufonidae - public services - transport - accidents - roads - lifespan - aging - senescence - death - animals - fauna - damage - models - research - netherlands - salamanders - human impact
    Kwaliteitsaspecten van maaltijdsystemen : een vergelijkend onderzoek naar warme-, koelverse- en diepvriesmaaltijden voor ouderen
    Woerkum, M. van; Hobbelink, A. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Adviesbrief / Landbouwuniversiteit, Wetenschapswinkel 133)
    catering - centrale keukens - basisproducten - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - consumptiepatronen - borden - ouderen - voedsel - voedselhygiëne - voedselbereiding - voedingsmiddelen - gezondheidszorg - thuiszorg - thuisbezorgde maaltijden - ziekenhuiscatering - ziekenhuizen - huishoudens - keukens - maaltijden - Nederland - verpleeghuizen - voedingstoestand - ouderdom - overheidsdiensten - keukengerei - institutionele huishoudens - catering - central kitchens - commodities - community development - consumption patterns - dishes - elderly - food - food hygiene - food preparation - foods - health care - home care - home delivered meals - hospital catering - hospitals - households - kitchens - meals - Netherlands - nursing homes - nutritional state - old age - public services - cooking utensils - institutional households
    The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention : policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin
    Mongbo, R.L. - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; J.H.B. den Ouden. - S.l. : Mongbo - ISBN 9789054854821 - 283
    plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale economie - ontwikkelingsprojecten - planning - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - overheidsdiensten - benin - economische planning - rural planning - rural development - socioeconomics - development projects - planning - community development - public services - benin - economic planning - cum laude

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The actions on which the theoretical discussion is based took place in various settings: in ministry offices, within the development intervention institution (the CARDER) and at village level. The Community Development Programme ran in all the six provinces of Benin from 1989-1993 and involved five to eight villages in each province. The programme was implemented by the CARDERs, which held a quasi-monopoly over development interventions in Benin from 1975 (when they were created) until they were disbanded in the early 1990s with the demise of the Marxist-Leninist regime

    The programme's goal, as formulated in the policy statement, was 'to turn our dying villages into dynamic places'. It was presented as an open ended participatory type of programme, meant to be an original approach to improving the living conditions of rural people, since, according to an assessment made of the village situation, all previous projects implemented had failed to lift rural peoples from their poverty. But looked at closely, the programme seemed more an attempt by the Minister and his close staff to contribute to the general campaign launched by the regime to win back the people's enthusiasm and support, then at its lowest ebb due to the particularly severe socio-political and economic crisis in Benin at the end of the 1980s. The sharp drop in state earnings following the persistent crisis in Nigeria, together with, among other things, the weak management of state resources, had made it difficult for the government to meet its running costs, the most visible aspect being the delay in paying civil servant's salaries, sometimes by as much as five to eight months. A structural adjustment programme was being negotiated with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, together with a restructuring of agricultural services under which staff were to be reduced by more than 50 percent. This was to extend to all civil servants. The Community Development Programme, as with other aspects of the regime's campaign, failed to win back people's confidence. There were street demonstrations and various political and economic pressures, from within and without the country, that finally brought the regime to an end at the famous National Conference of February 1990. This context was neither outside nor above the people but was a part of the everyday reality of intervention institutions and villages alike, and contributed to the making of the socio-political landscape surrounding the programme.

    In the CARDERs, the Minister's policy statement - that was to launch this new approach - was incoporated into a state intervention framework and culture that dated back to or had its roots in the colonial administration. It had been reproduced continuously in the process of creating a nation state out of what was a heterogenous Dahomean colonial territory. In the Zou Province, the implemenatation of the programme started with an initiation phase that resulted in almost standard development plans for all the eight villges concerned. Yet the plans had been formulated and presented with a participatory rhetoric that had matched the Minister's orders and the development intervention language then current, while giving to the CARDERs structure and functioning an image of coherency. But behind the coherent image, the programme both reflected and generated many conflictive situations. Ad hoc as well as more stable groupings and leadership emerged or were reproduced out of unspoken criteria and preoccupations as varied as people's regions of origin, ethnic affiliation, religion, patron-client relations, career perspectives, private (family) problems and sometimes purely technical matters. The social interactions in which the actors involved in the Community Development Programme were engaged, generally guided by the various groupings, criteria and preoccupations mentioned above, were determining for decisions which afterwards were presented as state policy. Such interactions were also an integral part of the process of policy transformation to which the Community Development Programme was subjected. They helped to produce both formal and informal I charts' for the implementation of the programme, which were at odds with the official ones. Nevertheless, the process showed itself to be efficient in reproducing the hidden social realities within the Zou CARDER while at the same time giving it the image of being up to date in the latest fashion of development language and practice.

    In the villages, the programme was variously implemented, with very little connection to what had been planned or to the regular injunctions and instructions from the General Director and his monitoring staff. Activities developed in the name of the programme, and particularly the everyday life of these activities, differed from one village to the next depending on a multiplicity of factors, such as the balance of power between local political forces (the socio-political landscape), recent intervention adventures in a village, the particular interests of the village agents appointed to the programme, etc. In Togoudo (the case documented in this book), a significant factor in the implementation of the programme, and a factor that might have played some role in other villages too, was the settlement patterns of the local population. This factor contributed to producing the existing socio- political landscape, to the pattern of the local economy, and to individual and household income generating activities.

    In fact, Togoudo, a residential composite of Idaca people who had arrived from villages in the surrounding Dassa hills during the early years of the colonial administration, enjoyed a dynamic and diversified economy. It was linked to the national and regional economy through the market of Gbomina and by frequent short and long term migrations of its inhabitants to Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast. The main income generating activity of the village was agricultyural production, on land over which the settlers held only insecure and problematic ownership rights, a situation typical for the relatively recent farm settlements of the Idaca, Fon and Ditamari cultivators on Nagot and Mahi territory of central Benin. But for men, the most successful survival and self-achievement strategies in the village were those in which agricultural production was combined with animal husbandry and, in some cases, the trading of agricultural products. For women, in addition to agriculture and animal (pig) husbandry, activities such as food processing (mainly cakpalo from millet and maize, and oil and kluiklui from groundnuts), trading of agricultural products and petty trade were important for economic and social success. These activities were combined in different ways and in varying degree, depending on several factors relating to the capability and organisational skills and strategies of individuals and groups of actors for mobilising productive resources - chiefly land, labour and credit. One further asset, crucial to self-achievement strategies, was the mobilisation or insertion into the networks of people in different geographical locations. This was instrumental to people's access to labour, credit, market and other external opportunities and depended on (but at the same time protrayed) the local ideologies on development and the different ways in which the people individually and collectively conceived of and worked to improve their own well-being (the local definition of 'rural development').

    In Togoudo, the activities within the programme fell broadly into two categories: the building of socio-economic infrastructure in the village, and the formation of men and women's groups whose objective was to create income-generating opportunities. Socio- economic infrastructure had already been initiated by villagers before the arrival of the RDV. These included a storehouse for agricultural inputs (mainly cotton), a maternity centre, a classroom for the village school (with the assistance of a German donor) and the maintenance of water pumps and wells. The buildings were funded, and expected to be funded, entirely from the resources of the CV - the cotton grower's association - and from the cash and labour contributions of villagers. The RDV, taking advantage on his arrival of the pressure put on the CV board by young Communitst Party members, introduced himself as a specialist in peasant cooperatives (which he indeed was) and managed to gain access to the village scene. He smuggled himself into village affairs and was given authority to look at the management of CV resources. This allowed him to secure a significant share of these resources for what he called development work in the village. But this authority was resented and frequently challenged by groups within the village, as well as groups in the CARDER, who felt the RDVs intervention was a threat to their own professional prerogatives and hierarchical position in the village and within CARDER. For the CV Secretary, for individual members of the CV Board and for some CARDER agents who had interests in the existing state of affairs, the involvement of the RDV in the management of the CV was intolerable. These people made various attempts to divert CV resourses to usages other than those agreed upon at the CV general assembly or as dictated by CV byelaws; they favoured an increase in the share of CV revenue distributed to board members; they allocated credit to individual cotton growers; they increased the running cost of the CV etc. In doing so, even though their actions solved the critical problems of some growers, their motives were more to hamper the plans of the RDV than to serve the best interests of village development.

    The income generating men and women's groups were formally presented as the cooperative or pre-cooperative ventures of groups of poor peasants working together and sharing the produce on an equitable basis. But in fact they were either family groupings, or made up of members coopted selectively by their leaders on the basis of a number of criteria. Such groups rarely included people from the lowest rank of the locally constructed socio- economic ladder. Furthermore, collective activities were limited to a minimum, while sub-groups were informally constituted within the groups around activities and concerns not disclosed to the RDV (at least he seemed not to know of them) but considered more relevant to the survival needs of the members. In some ways, as had occurred in its incorporation into the CARDER, the Community Development Programme helped reproduce the conflicts, groupings and leadership already existing among actors at local level. Here too, the RDV smuggled himself into the existing village trends in group formation, which were based on a mixture of logics and principles derived from various previous intervention fashions and operations, and all somehow deviant from what were considered good cooperative ways and practice. But the RDV had his reasons for embarking on such trends. Through his contacts with the head of CARDER and potential donors he appropriated the activities started by the groups, using his rhetorical skills to bridge the gaps and presenting all as ligitimate attempts on his part to implement the Community Development Programme in the village.

    These activities, supposed to turn the dying village into a dynamic place, actually covered only very marginal aspects of the local economy. Moreover, many of them served only a limited range of the socio-economic categories present in the village, excluding those barely surviving or keeping their heads above water, while including those considered to be the well- off. In fact, the rhetorical presentations of CARDER and the programme in various settings, drawing on different bits of the programme, served more the self-reproducing ends of the intervention itself than they did the development they sought to bring about. They processed old jargons and permanently created their own realities and problems. Within the village itself, and within the CARDER, the programme as such was considered to be irrelevant. People were prone to forget its existence. Any social changes occurring in this context derived from dismembered pieces of the package being incorporated and utilised by individuals to serve the aims of their own daily preoccupations and survival strategies. The pieces were made concrete as they were taken up in the local 'field of rural development', in the arenas and grounds that emerged from putting into practice existing normative conceptions of well-being in rural areas, and developed historically into a specific field of social interaction where policy makers, development practitiioners, social scientists and rural producers engage, as stakeholders, in struggles and negotiations over individual and collective interests. The various pieces are to be found, therefore, in various arenas and grounds where people meet over issues that are important to them but that seem to have nothing to do with the programme itself. In such conditions, structural ignorance, gaps and discrepancies become normal and attempts to bridge them or document the process turn development practitioners and social scientists into stakeholders themselves in the field of rural development.

    Een adresseersysteem
    Oostindie, K. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding no. 1717)
    computertechnieken - computers - gegevensverwerking - databanken - microcomputers - minicomputers - overheidsdiensten - machines - computer techniques - computers - data processing - databases - microcomputers - minicomputers - public services - machines
    Zwemwater in strandbaden
    Lier, H.N. van - \ 1970
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Verspreide overdrukken. Instituut voor cultuurtechniek en waterhuishouding no. 116) - 7
    nederland - eigenschappen - overheidsdiensten - zwembaden - water - waterrecreatie - watervoorziening - netherlands - properties - public services - swimming pools - water - water recreation - water supply
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