Mothers in the woods: multitrophic interactions and oviposition preference in the bronze big Thaumastocoris pergrinus, a pest of Eucalyptus
Martínez, Gonzalo - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Dicke, co-promotor(en): A. González. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436786 - 172
eucalyptus - forest plantations - forest pests - multitrophic interactions - biological control - hemiptera - oviposition - host plants - uruguay - insect plant relations - eucalyptus - bosplantages - bosplagen - multitrofe interacties - biologische bestrijding - hemiptera - ovipositie - waardplanten - uruguay - insect-plant relaties
The bronze bug is an important pest of Eucalyptus trees. Originally restricted to Australia, it has become an important pest of Eucalyptus plantations, colonizing in 15 years the major production areas worldwide. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the oviposition behavior of the bronze bug within a multitrophic system comprised of its host plant (Eucalyptus spp.), a common co-occurring sap-feeder (Glycaspis brimblecombei) and a specialist egg parasitoid (Cleruchoides noackae). I assessed the life parameters of this species in a newly developed rearing. Based on the preference-performance hypothesis, I tested the effects of host-plant quality, conspecifics, or the infestation by a potential competitor on preference-performance correlations of the bronze bug. The egg parasitoid (C. noackae) was introduced, reared, and released. Finally, I assessed host-selection behavior of the parasitoid, testing its responses towards different contact cues. The findings of this investigation provided new insights on the oviposition behavior by true bugs, and towards the development of management strategies for T. peregrinus.
Getting prepared for future attack : induction of plant defences by herbivore egg deposition and consequences for the insect community
Pashalidou, F.G. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Dicke; Joop van Loon, co-promotor(en): Nina Fatouros. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574120 - 168
insect-plant relaties - planten - insectenplagen - herbivorie - verdedigingsmechanismen - geïnduceerde resistentie - herbivoor-geinduceerde plantengeuren - ovipositie - natuurlijke vijanden - brassica - pieris brassicae - trofische graden - sluipwespen - hyperparasitoïden - insectengemeenschappen - insect plant relations - plants - insect pests - herbivory - defence mechanisms - induced resistance - herbivore induced plant volatiles - oviposition - natural enemies - brassica - pieris brassicae - trophic levels - parasitoid wasps - hyperparasitoids - insect communities
Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive defences that are always present, plants can respond with inducible defences when they are attacked. Insect herbivores can induce phenotypic changes in plants and consequently these changes may differentially affect subsequent attackers and their associated insect communities. Many studies consider herbivore-feeding damage as the first interaction between plants and insects. The originality of this study was to start with the first phase of herbivore attack, egg deposition, to understand the consequences of plant responses to eggs on subsequently feeding caterpillars and their natural enemies. The main plant species used for most of the experiments was Brassica nigra (black mustard), which occurs naturally in The Netherlands. The main herbivore used was the lepidopteran Pieris brassicae, which lays eggs in clusters and feeds on plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family. This study investigated plant-mediated responses to oviposition and their effects on different developmental stages of the herbivore, such as larvae and pupae. Furthermore, the effects of oviposition were extended to four more plant species of the same family, and to higher trophic levels including parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The experiments were conducted under laboratory, semi-field and field conditions. This study shows that B. nigra plants recognize the eggs of P. brassicae and initiate resistance against subsequent developmental stages of the herbivore. Interestingly, plant responses to oviposition were found to be species specific. Plants did not respond to egg deposition by another herbivore species, the generalist moth Mamestra brassicae. Moreover, most of the Brassicaceae species tested were found to respond to P. brassicae eggs, which indicates that plant responses against oviposition are more common among the family of Brassicaceae. To assess effects on other members of the food chain, the effects of oviposition on plant volatile emission and the attraction of parasitic wasps, such as the larval parasitoid Cotesia glomerata, were tested. It was shown that the wasps were able to use the blend of plant volatiles, altered by their hosts’ oviposition, to locate young caterpillars just after hatching from eggs. The observed behaviour of the wasps was associated with higher parasitism success and higher fitness in young hosts. Similar results were obtained in a field experiment, where plants infested with eggs and caterpillars attracted more larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids and eventually produced more seeds compared to plants infested with caterpillars only. This study shows that an annual weed like B. nigra uses egg deposition as reliable information for upcoming herbivory and responds accordingly with induced defences. Egg deposition could influence plant-associated community members at different levels in the food chain and benefit seed production. As the importance of oviposition on plant-herbivore interactions is only recently discovered, more research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie such plant responses and how these interactions affect the structure of insect communities in nature.
Host preference and offspring performance are linked in three congeneric hyperparasitoid species
Harvey, J.A. ; Gols, R. ; Snaas, H. ; Malcicka, M. ; Visser, B. - \ 2015
Ecological Entomology 40 (2015)2. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 114 - 122.
monoctonus-paulensis hymenoptera - optimal bad motherhood - parasitoid wasps - reproductive strategies - sex allocation - age preference - lysibia-nana - braconidae - ichneumonidae - oviposition
1. The optimisation theory predicts that insect mothers should oviposit on resources on which they attain the highest exclusive fitness. The development of parasitoid wasps is dependent on limited host resources that are often not much larger than the adult parasitoid. 2. In the present study preference and development in three congeneric species of secondary hyperparasitoids attacking cocoons of two congeneric primary parasitoids that differ significantly in size were compared. Gelis agilis (Fabricius) and G. acarorum (L.) are wingless hyperparasitoids that forage in grassy habitats, whereas G. areator (Panzer) is fully winged and forages higher in the canopy of forbs. 3. The three species were reared on cocoons containing pupae of a small gregarious endoparasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L.), and a larger solitary species, C. rubecula (Marshall), both of which develop in the caterpillars of pierid butterflies. 4. Adult mass was correlated with initial cocoon mass in all three species, whereas development time was unaffected. Wasps were larger when developing in C. rubecula. However, for a given host mass, wasps were larger when developing on the smaller host, C. glomerata. This suggests that there is a physiological limit to hyperparasitoid size that was exceeded when C. rubecula served as host. 5. All three hyperparasitoids strongly preferred to attack cocoons of the larger species, C. rubecula, often avoiding cocoons of C. glomerata entirely. 6. Preference and performance are correlated in the three Gelis species. However, owing to variation in the distribution and thus abundance of their hosts, it is argued that cumulative fitness may be still higher in the smaller host species.
Drought stress affects plant metabolites and herbivore preference but not host location by its parasitoids
Weldegergis, B.T. ; Zhu, F. ; Poelman, E.H. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2015
Oecologia 177 (2015)3. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 701 - 713.
volatile emissions - water-stress - abiotic factors - oviposition - genes - biosynthesis - consequences - lepidoptera - complexity - expression
One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and productivity. As a consequence of these changes, the interaction between plants and insects can be altered. Using cultivated Brassica oleracea plants, the parasitoid Microplitis mediator and its herbivorous host Mamestra brassicae, we studied the effect of drought stress on (1) the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) plant hormone titres, (3) preference and performance of the herbivore, and (4) preference of the parasitoid. Higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were recorded in response to herbivory, but no significant differences were observed for salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Drought significantly impacted SA level and showed a significant interactive effect with herbivory for IAA levels. A total of 55 VOCs were recorded and the difference among the treatments was influenced largely by herbivory, where the emission rate of fatty acid-derived volatiles, nitriles and (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene [(E)-DMNT] was enhanced. Mamestra brassicae moths preferred to lay eggs on drought-stressed over control plants; their offspring performed similarly on plants of both treatments. VOCs due to drought did not affect the choice of M. mediator parasitoids. Overall, our study reveals an influence of drought on plant chemistry and insect-plant interactions.
To be in time: egg deposition enhances plant-mediated detection of young caterpillars by parasitoids
Pashalidou, F.G. ; Gols, R. ; Berkhout, B.W. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Fatouros, N.E. - \ 2015
Oecologia 177 (2015)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 477 - 486.
different larval instars - pieris-brassicae - specialist herbivore - volatile emissions - cotesia-glomerata - host location - oviposition - responses - maize - generalist
Animals use information from their environment while foraging for food or prey. When parasitic wasps forage for hosts, they use plant volatiles induced by herbivore activities such as feeding and oviposition. Little information is available on how wasps exploit specific plant volatiles over time, and which compounds indicate changes in host quality. In experiments investigating the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in wasp foraging, induction of plant response is usually achieved by placing larvae on clean plants instead of allowing the natural sequence of events: to let eggs deposited by the herbivore develop into larvae. We compared the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata to volatiles emitted by black mustard (Brassica nigra) plants induced by eggs and successive larval stages of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (Pieris brassicae) to the attraction of this parasitoid to black mustard plant volatiles induced only by larval feeding in a wind tunnel setup. We show that wasps are attracted to plants infested with eggs just before and shortly after larval hatching. However, wasp preference changed at later time points towards plants induced only by larval feeding. These temporal changes in parasitoid attraction matched with changes in the chemical compositions of the blends of plant volatiles. Previous studies have shown that host quality/suitability decreases with caterpillar age and that P. brassicae oviposition induces plant defences that negatively affect subsequently feeding caterpillars. We investigated parasitoid performance in hosts of different ages. Wasp performance was positively correlated with preference. Moreover, parasitism success decreased with time and host stage. In conclusion, the behaviour of Cotesia glomerata is fine-tuned to exploit volatiles induced by eggs and early host stages that benefit parasitoid fitness.
Synergistic effects of direct and indirect defences on herbivore egg survival in a wild crucifer
Fatouros, N.E. ; Pineda, A. ; Huigens, M.E. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Shimwela, M.M. ; Figueroa Candia, I.A. ; Verbaarschot, P. ; Bukovinszky, T. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 281 (2014)1789. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
furcifera horvath homoptera - plant defense - trade-offs - antiherbivore defenses - natural enemies - fitness costs - brassica-rapa - resistance - oviposition - butterflies
Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.), and their natural enemies, tiny egg parasitoid wasps (Trichogramma spp.). Both within and between black mustard populations, we observed variation in the expression of Pieris egg-induced HR. Butterfly eggs on plants with HR-like necrosis suffered lower hatching rates and higher parasitism than eggs that did not induce the trait. In addition, Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles of egg-induced plants that also expressed HR, and this attraction depended on the Trichogramma strain used. Consequently, HR did not have a negative effect on egg parasitoid survival. We conclude that even within a system where plants deploy lethal direct defences, such defences may still act with indirect defences in a synergistic manner to reduce herbivore pressure.
Effectiviteit van Middel X voor de beheersing van champignonmuggen (Lycoriella castanescens) in de champignonteelt
Baars, J.J.P. ; Rutjens, A.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Plant Breeding (Report / Plant Research International 2012-6) - 15
eetbare paddestoelen - champignonmest - lycoriella auripila - bestrijdingsmethoden - behandeling - proefopzet - substraten - ovipositie - edible fungi - mushroom compost - lycoriella auripila - control methods - treatment - experimental design - substrates - oviposition
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van Middel X ter bestrijding van champignonmuggen in de teelt van champignons. De effectiviteit werd onderzocht door ge-CACte dekaarde op een commercieel teeltbedrijf voor eiafzetting aan te bieden aan de aanwezige populatie champignonmuggen. Vervolgens werd de ge-CACte dekaarde behandeld met het equivalent van 2, 4 of 6 ml Middel X/m2 teeltoppervlak. Hiervoor werd Middel X op twee verschillende manieren toegepast; als een begieting op de dekaarde of gemengd door de dekaarde. Ter controle werd Dimilin (werkzame stof diflubenzuron) in halve dosering (1 ml Dimilin/m2) of normale dosering (2 ml Dimilin/m2) toegepast middels een begieting op de dekaarde. De conclusie is dat Middel X niet geschikt is voor de bestrijding van champignonmuggen in de champignonteelt. Daarnaast is gebleken dat entbare compost beter geschikt is als substraat voor de kweek van champignonmuggen dan ge-CACte dekaarde of doorgroeide compost.
Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels
Fatouros, N.E. ; Lucas-Barbosa, D. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Pashalidou, F.G. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Gols, R. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
furcifera horvath homoptera - elm leaf beetle - whitebacked planthopper - cotesia-glomerata - herbaceous plants - pieris-brassicae - host location - rice plants - oviposition - defense
Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant’s volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels.
Whether ideal free or not, predatory mites distribute so as to maximize reproduction
Hammen, T. van der; Montserrat, M. ; Sabelis, M.W. ; Roos, A.M. ; Janssen, A. - \ 2012
Oecologia 169 (2012)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 95 - 104.
free distribution models - unequal competitors - egg predation - interference - density - prey - phytoseiidae - oviposition - tests
Ideal free distribution (IFD) models predict that animals distribute themselves such that no individual can increase its fitness by moving to another patch. Many empirical tests assume that the interference among animals is independent of density and do not quantify the effects of density on fitness traits. Using two species of predatory mites, we measured oviposition as a function of conspecific density. Subsequently, we used these functions to calculate expected distributions on two connected patches. We performed an experimental test of the distributions of mites on two such connected patches, among which one had a food accessibility rate that was twice as high as on the other. For one of the two species, Iphiseius degenerans, the distribution matched the expected distribution. The distribution also coincided with the ratio of food accessibility. The other species, Neoseiulus cucumeris, distributed itself differently than expected. However, the oviposition rates of both species did not differ significantly from the expected oviposition rates based on experiments on single patches. This suggests that the oviposition rate of N. cucumeris was not negatively affected by the observed distribution, despite the fact that N. cucumeris did not match the predicted distributions. Thus, the distribution of one mite species, I. degenerans, was in agreement with IFD theory, whereas for the other mite species, N. cucumeris, unknown factors may have influenced the distribution of the mites. We conclude that density-dependent fitness traits provide essential information for explaining animal distributions
Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes
Ondiaka, S.N. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem Takken; Marcel Dicke, co-promotor(en): W.R. Mukabana. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732934 - 179
anopheles gambiae - vectoren, ziekten - malaria - vectorbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - metarhizium anisopliae - diergedrag - paringsgedrag - gedrag bij zoeken van een gastheer - voedingsgedrag - ovipositie - anopheles gambiae - disease vectors - malaria - vector control - biological control - metarhizium anisopliae - animal behaviour - mating behaviour - host-seeking behaviour - feeding behaviour - oviposition
Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or vectors. A high degree of drug resistance and the absence of malaria vaccines are a major hindrance to control of the disease. In such circumstances, vector control becomes an alternative and has remained the most effective means to prevent malaria transmission. Contemporary adult mosquito control is almost exclusively based on indoor application of chemical insecticides in the form of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of walls and ceilings and insecticide-impregnated bed nets. However, sustainable use of chemicals is undermined by problems of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations, environmental contamination and risks to human health. Biological control based on fungal pathogens has shown potential to complement existing vector control methods. The entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated ability to infect, kill and reduce the survival of malaria vectors. However, the effect of EPF on the behaviour of malaria vectors has not been fully addressed.
This thesis was designed to provide baseline information on mosquito-fungus interaction focusing on the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae ICIPE 30 on the important life-history behaviours of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The information is important to facilitate the further development of malaria vector control based on biological control agents. Host-seeking, sugar-feeding, mating and oviposition were the behaviours investigated. Since mosquito-fungus contact is crucial for infection with EPF, a paper sheet (28.6 × 14.3 cm) lined inside a plastic cylinder (9-cm diameter and 15-cm height) was developed as a cost effective method of infection. Moreover, 0.1 g (approx. 1011 conidia/m2) of dry conidia and 6 hr exposure time sufficient for An. gambiae to pick up large numbers of conidia were established to cause high pathogenicity (Chapter 3). As the impact of EPF on insect behaviour was reported to occur at least three days post-exposure to fungal pathogen (Chapter 2), all experiments were conducted with a special focus on mosquitoes three days post-exposure to fungus. It is, however, important to mention that on average 50% of the mosquitoes died on the third day after fungal exposure (Chapter 3) and only those that survived were used for behavioural assays.
The host-seeking capability of An. gambiae mosquitoes is an important parameter in the vectorial capacity equation. At short-range (1 m from host) assessment using a dual-choice olfactometer under semi-field conditions, infection with EPF strongly reduced the host-seeking response of mosquitoes, but did not impair their olfactory-based capability to discriminate between hosts (Chapter 4). At medium-range, using experimental cages (3 x 3 x 2 m) under laboratory conditions, fungal infection reduced the host-seeking response and feeding propensity of female An. gambiae mosquitoes (Chapter 7) whereas at long-range (7 m from host) inside a semi-field enclosure, infection with EPF sharply reduced the house-entry response and the hourly human-biting responses of host-seeking mosquitoes indoors and outdoors (Chapter 5). Plant sugar feeding is an important component in the biology of mosquitoes and is the main priority for both sexes at emergence. Infection with fungal pathogen strongly reduced the survival and sugar-feeding propensity of both sexes of the malaria vector An. gambiae but did not affect their potential to feed and digest meals (Chapter 6). Mating behaviour plays a key role in population growth. The activity takes place after sugar feeding and thereafter, the females search for their blood meal host. Infection with M. anisopliae strongly reduced multiple mating propensity and the mating performance of adult male An. gambiae mosquitoes in a large arena such as a screenhouse. Although this resulted in a reduction in the number of females inseminated, it facilitated the transfer of fungal conidia to conspecific healthy females during mating (Chapter 8). Finally, after blood meal intake, the females prepare to lay eggs. Infection with M. anisopliae reduced the oviposition propensity of female An. gambiae mosquitoes although the number of eggs laid remained unaffected (Chapter 7).
In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae alters the major life history behaviours of An. gambiae mosquitoes. This is possible because the fungus strongly impairs flight performance of mosquitoes that makes the insect less able to fly and engage in host-seeking, sugar-feeding, mating and oviposition behaviours. The high mortalities observed in the early days of infection prior to conducting behavioural assays, mortalities observed while conducting behavioural assays and a reduction in behavioural response of M. anisopliae-infected mosquitoes collectively are likely to have a significant impact in suppressing a vector population. The susceptibility of male mosquitoes to fungal conidia opens a new strategy for mosquito vector control. Overall, this thesis has demonstrated that EPF may be a good complement to other mosquito vector control tools for the reduction of mosquito bites, and transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.
Resource use of specialist butterflies in agricultural landscapes: conservation lessons from the butterfly Phengaris (Maculinea) nausithous
Jansen, S.H.D.R. ; Holmgren, M. ; Langevelde, F. van; Wynhoff, I. - \ 2012
Journal of Insect Conservation 16 (2012)6. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 921 - 930.
large blue butterflies - host-ant specificity - calcareous grasslands - european butterflies - land-use - oviposition - lepidoptera - habitat - lycaenidae - teleius
Most of the European grassland butterfly species are dependent on species rich grasslands shaped by low intensity farming. Conservation of these specialist species in agricultural landscapes relies on knowledge of their essential resources and the spatial distribution of these resources. In The Netherlands, the dusky large blue Phengaris (Maculinea) nausithous butterflies were extinct until their reintroduction in 1990. In addition, a spontaneous recolonization of road verges in an agricultural landscape occurred in 2001 in the southern part of The Netherlands. We analyzed the use of the essential resources, both host plants and host ants, of the latter population during the summers of 2003 and 2005. First we tested whether the distribution of the butterflies during several years could be explained by both the presence of host plants as well as host ants, as we expected that the resource that limits the distribution of this species can differ between locations and over time. We found that oviposition site selection was related to the most abundant resource. While in 2003, site selection was best explained by the presence of the host ant Myrmica scabrinodis, in 2005 it was more strongly related to flowerhead availability of the host plant. We secondly compared the net displacement of individuals between the road verge population and the reintroduced population in the Moerputten meadows, since we expected that movement of individuals depends on the structure of their habitat. On the road verges, butterflies moved significantly shorter distances than on meadows, which limits the butterflies in finding their essential resources. Finally we analyzed the availability of the two essential resources in the surroundings of the road verge population. Given the short net displacement distances and the adverse landscape features for long-distance dispersal, this landscape analysis suggests that the Phengaris population at the Posterholt site is trapped on the recently recolonized road verges. These results highlight the importance of assessing the availability of essential resources across different years and locations relative to the movement of the butterflies, and the necessity to careful manage these resources for the conservation of specialist species in agricultural landscapes, such as this butterfly species
Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones
Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Bruck, D.J. ; Griepink, F.C. ; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2012
Journal of Economic Entomology 105 (2012)1. - ISSN 0022-0493 - p. 169 - 175.
olfactory antennal responses - plant volatiles - host plants - fruit-fly - curculionidae - coleoptera - strawberry - oviposition - pheromone - varieties
Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures. Because of the night-activity of the adult weevils growers do not observe the emerging weevils in a timely manner and oviposition often starts before effective control measures are taken. Several vine weevil electroantennogram-active plant volatiles were identiÞed from a preferred host plant, Euonymus fortunei. Main compounds evoking antennal responses on the weevilsÕ antennae were (Z)-2-pentenol, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl benzoate, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7- nonatriene, methyl eugenol, and (E, E)-_-farnesene. Several of these compounds were tested alone and in mixtures on attractiveness for the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) in Þeld-grown strawberry in Oregon. O. sulcatus were attracted to (Z)-2-pentenol (_3_ more than control) and a 1:1 ratio mixture of (Z)-2-pentenol and methyl eugenol (4.5_ more than control). This is the Þrst report of Þeld-active attractants for O. sulcatus which holds promise for the development of new monitoring strategies for growers in the near future
Identification of silverleaf whitefly resistance in pepper
Firdaus, S. ; Heusden, S. van; Harpenas, Asep ; Supena, E.D.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2011
Plant Breeding 130 (2011)6. - ISSN 0179-9541 - p. 708 - 714.
bemisia-argentifolii homoptera - hirsutum f-glabratum - trialeurodes-vaporariorum - sweet-pepper - wild tomato - aleyrodidae - tabaci - oviposition - cotton - insecticide
Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify whitefly-resistant accessions that will form the basis for future resistance breeding. Forty-four pepper accessions representing four species (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum) were screened for resistance to whiteflies. Screening parameters were adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) in a no-choice test and whitefly, egg and nymphal density in free-choice tests. To combine parameters in free-choice tests, a plant resistance value was calculated. The results show that AS and OR were significantly different among accessions and were positively correlated, which was also the case for the parameters in the free-choice tests. Accessions identified as highly resistant in no-choice and free-choice tests generally were C. annuum. Whitefly density and OR correlated positively with trichome density and negatively with cuticle thickness of leaves.
Not only the butterflies: managing ants on road verges to benefit Phengaris (Maculinea) butterflies
Wynhoff, I. ; Gestel, R. van; Swaay, C. van; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2011
Journal of Insect Conservation 15 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 189 - 206.
large blue - myrmica-scabrinodis - species richness - host-ants - habitat - restoration - oviposition - populations - grasslands - diversity
Obligate myrmecophilic butterfly species, such as Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius and P. nausithous, have narrow habitat requirements. Living as a caterpillar in the nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra, respectively, they can only survive on sites with both host ants and the host plant Great Burnet Sanguisorba officinalis. After having been reintroduced into a nature reserve in the Netherlands in 1990, both butterfly species expanded their distribution to linear landscape elements such as road verges and ditch edges outside this reserve. As additional habitat of both butterfly species, vegetation management of these landscape elements became important. Our results show that a management beneficial for Phengaris butterflies should aim to increase the nest density of Myrmica species, at the same time reducing the density of nests of the competitor Lasius niger or at least keeping them at a low density. Unfavourable grassland management under which L. niger thrives, includes not mowing or flail-cutting the grass, or depositing dredgings along the side of the ditch. Management favourable for the two Myrmica species differs, demanding some flexibility if both species are to benefit. M. scabrinodis is best supported with early mowing of the road verge vegetation or late mowing in the nature reserve, both of which result in an open vegetation and warm microclimate. In contrast, the nest sites of M. rubra should be left undisturbed during the summer, and mown in late autumn. Mowing of butterfly habitat should be avoided between mid-June and mid-September as this would remove the flowerheads of the Sanguisorba plants, on which the butterflies lay their eggs.
Assessing risks and benefits of floral supplements in conservation biological control
Winkler, K. ; Wackers, F.L. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2010
BioControl 55 (2010)6. - ISSN 1386-6141 - p. 719 - 727.
diamondback moth - euphydryas-chalcedona - field conditions - honeydew sugars - nectar sources - lepidoptera - parasitoids - resources - oviposition - herbivores
The use of flowering field margins is often proposed as a method to support biological control in agro-ecosystems. In addition to beneficial insects, many herbivores depend on floral food as well. The indiscriminate use of flowering species in field margins can therefore lead to higher pest numbers. Based on results from field observations and laboratory experiments we assessed risks as well as benefits associated with the provision of nectar plants in field margins, using Brussels sprouts as a model system. Results show that Brussels sprouts bordered by nectar plants suitable for the cabbage white Pieris rapae L., suffered higher infestation levels by this herbivore. In contrast, nectar plants providing accessible nectar for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L., did not raise densities of P. xylostella larvae in the Brassica crop. Margins with Anethum graveolens L., selected on the basis of its suitability as nectar plant for parasitoids, significantly increased the number of adult Diadegma semiclausum Hellen in the crop. This didn't translate into enhanced parasitism rates, as parasitism of P. xylostella by D. semiclausum exceeded 65 % in all treatments, irrespective of the plants in the field margin. Our findings emphasize the importance of taking a multitrophic approach when choosing flowering field margin plants for biocontrol or other ecosystem services
Tarsal taste neuron activity and proboscis extension reflex in response to sugars and amino acids in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
Zhang, Y.F. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Wang, C.Z. - \ 2010
Journal of Experimental Biology 213 (2010). - ISSN 0022-0949 - p. 2889 - 2895.
pyrameis atalanta linn - cabbage root fly - heliothis-virescens - contact chemoreceptors - feeding responses - pieris-brassicae - inachis-io - oviposition - nectar - sensitivity
In adult female Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the fifth tarsomere of the prothoracic legs bears 14 gustatory trichoid chemosensilla. These chemosensilla were characterized through electrophysiological experiments by stimulating with sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, myo-inositol and 20 common amino acids. In electrophysiological recordings from nine sensilla, responses were obtained to certain compounds tested at 100 mmol l–1, and the response spectra differed from broad to narrow. The four sugars excited the same receptor neuron in sensillum a and sensillum b; sucrose and myo-inositol, sucrose and lysine, myo-inositol and lysine excited two different receptor neurons respectively in sensillum a; fructose and lysine excited two different receptor neurons in sensillum n. Furthermore, the four sugars, myo-inositol and lysine all elicited concentration-dependent electrophysiological responses. These six compounds also induced the proboscis extension reflex (PER) followed by ingestion of the solution when they were applied on the tarsi. Lysine and sucrose caused the strongest electrophysiological responses. However, sucrose had the strongest stimulatory effect on the PER whereas lysine had the weakest. Mixtures of sucrose with the other sugars or with lysine had a similar stimulatory effect on the PER as sucrose alone. The electrophysiological and behavioural responses caused by a range of sucrose concentrations were positively correlated. We conclude that the tarsal gustatory sensilla play an essential role in perceiving sugars available in floral nectar and provide chemosensory information determining feeding behaviour. Tarsal taste-receptor-neuron responses to lysine are implicated in oviposition behaviour.
Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production
Fatouros, N.E. ; Pashalidou, F.G. ; Aponte Cordero, W.V. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Mumm, R. ; Dicke, M. ; Hilker, M. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2009
Journal of Chemical Ecology 35 (2009)11. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 1373 - 1381.
pieris-rapae - methyl salicylate - predatory mite - defense responses - pinus-sylvestris - cabbage white - host location - insect - volatiles - oviposition
During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Accessory reproductive gland (ARG) secretion of a mated female P. brassicae that is deposited with an egg clutch contains traces of BC, inducing Brussels sprouts plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) to arrest certain Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Here, we assessed whether deposition of one egg at a time by the closely related small cabbage white, Pieris rapae, induced B. oleracea var. gemmifera to arrest Trichogramma wasps, and whether this plant synomone is triggered by substances originating from male P. rapae seminal fluid. We showed that plants induced by singly laid eggs of P. rapae arrest T. brassicae wasps three days after butterfly egg deposition. Elicitor activity was present in ARG secretion of mated female butterflies, whereas the secretion of virgin females was inactive. Pieris rapae used a mixture of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and indole as an anti-aphrodisiac. We detected traces of both anti-aphrodisiacal compounds in the ARG secretion of mated female P. rapae, whereas indole was lacking in the secretion of virgin female P. rapae. When applied onto the leaf, indole induced changes in the foliar chemistry that arrested T. brassicae wasps. This study shows that compounds of male seminal fluid incur possible fitness costs for Pieris butterflies by indirectly promoting egg parasitoid attack
The effect of water turbidity on the near-surface water temperature of larval habitats of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Paaijmans, K.P. ; Takken, W. ; Githeko, A.K. ; Jacobs, A.F.G. - \ 2008
International Journal of Biometeorology 52 (2008)8. - ISSN 0020-7128 - p. 747 - 753.
western kenya - spatial-distribution - culicidae larvae - aquatic stages - sensu-lato - arabiensis diptera - giles complex - oviposition - survival - simulations
Water temperature is an important determinant in many aquatic biological processes, including the growth and development of malaria mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis and A. gambiae) immatures. Water turbidity affects water temperature, as suspended particles in a water column absorb and scatter sunlight and hence determine the extinction of solar radiation. To get a better understanding of the relationship between water turbidity and water temperature, a series of semi-natural larval habitats (diameter 0.32 m, water depth 0.16 m) with increasing water turbidity was created. Here we show that at midday (1300 hours) the upper water layer (thickness of 10 mm) of the water pool with the highest turbidity was on average 2.8 degrees C warmer than the same layer of the clearest water pool. Suspended soil particles increase the water temperature and furthermore change the temperature dynamics of small water collections during daytime, exposing malaria mosquito larvae, which live in the top water layer, longer to higher temperatures.
Male-derived butterfly anti-aphrodisiac mediates induced indirect plant defense
Fatouros, N.E. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Mumm, R. ; Huigens, M.E. ; Dicke, M. ; Hilker, M. - \ 2008
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (2008). - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 10033 - 10038.
parasitic wasps - pierid butterflies - oral secretions - gene-expression - host location - atp synthase - insect - elicitors - volatiles - oviposition
Plants can recruit parasitic wasps in response to egg deposition by herbivorous insects¿a sophisticated indirect plant defense mechanism. Oviposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprout plants induces phytochemical changes that arrest the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae. Here, we report the identification of an elicitor of such an ovipositioninduced plant response. Eliciting activity was present in accessory gland secretions released by mated female butterflies during egg deposition. In contrast, gland secretions from virgin female butterflies were inactive. In the male ejaculate, P. brassicae females receive the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) that reduces the females¿ attractiveness for subsequent mating. We detected this pheromone in the accessory gland secretion released by mated female butterflies. When applied onto leaves, BC alone induced phytochemical changes that arrested females of the egg parasitoid. Microarray analyses revealed a similarity in induced plant responses that may explain the arrest of T. brassicae to egg-laden and BC-treated plants. Thus, a male-derived compound endangers the offspring of the butterfly by inducing plant defense. Recently, BC was shown to play a role in foraging behavior of T. brassicae, by acting as a cue to facilitate phoretic transport by mated female butterflies to oviposition sites. Our results suggest that the antiaphrodisiac pheromone incurs fitness costs for the butterfly by both mediating phoretic behavior and inducing plant defense.
The response specificity of Trichogramma egg parasitoids towards infochemicals during host location
Fatouros, N.E. ; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G. ; Dicke, M. ; Hilker, M. - \ 2007
Journal of Insect Behavior 20 (2007)1. - ISSN 0892-7553 - p. 53 - 65.
pieris-brassicae l - evanescens westwood - behavioral variations - mamestra-brassicae - biological-control - strains - hymenoptera - oviposition - lepidoptera - kairomones
Parasitoids are confronted with many different infochemicals of their hosts and food plants during host selection. Here, we investigated the effect of kairomones from the adult host Pieris brassicae and of cues present on Brussels sprout plants infested by P. brassicae eggs on the behavioral response of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens. Additionally, we tested whether the parasitoid¿s acceptance of P. brassicae eggs changes with different host ages. The wasps did not discriminate between olfactory cues from mated and virgin females or between mated females and males of P. brassicae. T. evanescens randomly climbed on the butterflies, showing a phoretic behavior without any preference for a certain sex. The parasitoid was arrested on leaf parts next to 1-day-old host egg masses. This arrestment might be due to cues deposited during oviposition. The wasps parasitized host eggs up to 3 days old equally well. Our results were compared with former studies on responses by T .brassicae showing that T. evanescens makes less use of infochemicals from P. brassicae than T. brassicae.