Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra
Khaling, E. ; Papazian, S. ; Poelman, E.H. ; Holopainen, J.K. ; Albrectsen, B.R. ; Blande, J.D. - \ 2015
Environmental Pollution 199 (2015). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 119 - 129.
elevated atmospheric co2 - beetle epilachna-varivestis - betula-pendula roth - glucosinolate concentrations - secondary metabolites - feeding preference - oviposition preference - specialist herbivores - plutella-xylostella - leaf beetle
When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools.
A tritrophic approach to the preference-performance hypothesis involving an exotic and a native plant
Fortuna, T.F.M. ; Woelke, J.B. ; Hordijk, C.A. ; Jansen, J.J. ; Dam, N.M. van; Vet, L.E.M. ; Harvey, J.A. - \ 2013
Biological Invasions 15 (2013)11. - ISSN 1387-3547 - p. 2387 - 2401.
parasitoids cotesia-glomerata - phytophagous insects - oviposition preference - invasive plant - c-rubecula - specialist herbivore - bunias orientalis - natural enemies - host - butterflies
Exotic plants often generate physical and chemical changes in native plant communities where they become established. A major challenge is to understand how novel plants may affect trophic interactions in their new habitats, and how native herbivores and their natural enemies might respond to them. We compared the oviposition preference and offspring performance of the crucifer specialist, Pieris brassicae, on an exotic plant, Bunias orientalis, and on a related native plant, Sinapis arvensis. Additionally, we studied the response of the parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) and determined the volatile blend composition to elucidate which compound(s) might be involved in parasitoid attraction. On both host plants we also compared the parasitism rate of P. brassicae by C. glomerata. Female butterflies preferred to oviposit on the native plant and their offspring survival and performance was higher on the native plant compared to the exotic. Although, headspace analysis revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the volatile blends of both plant species, C. glomerata did not discriminate between the HIPV blends in flight-tent bioassays. Nevertheless, parasitism rate of P. brassicae larvae was higher on the native plant under semi-field conditions. Overall, P. brassicae oviposition preference may be more influenced by bottom-up effects of the host plant on larval performance than by top-down pressure exerted by its parasitoid. The potential for dietary breadth expansion of P. brassicae to include the exotic B. orientalis and the role of top-down processes played by parasitoids in shaping herbivore host shifts are further discussed
Inhibition of lipoxygenase affects induction of both direct and indirect plant defences against herbivorous insects
Bruinsma, M. ; Broekhoven, S. ; Poelman, E.H. ; Posthumus, M.A. ; Müller, M.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2010
Oecologia 162 (2010)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 393 - 404.
volatile biosynthesis - oviposition preference - differential induction - tritrophic interaction - arabidopsis-thaliana - nicotiana-attenuata - parasitic wasps - specialist - responses - arthropods
Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of insects associated with the plant. For biting–chewing herbivores the octadecanoid signal-transduction pathway has been suggested to play a key role in induced plant defence. To test this hypothesis in our plant—herbivore—parasitoid tritrophic system, we used phenidone, an inhibitor of the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX), that catalyses the initial step in the octadecanoid pathway. Phenidone treatment of Brussels sprouts plants reduced the accumulation of internal signalling compounds in the octadecanoid pathway downstream of the step catalysed by LOX, i.e. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and jasmonic acid. The attraction of Cotesia glomerata parasitoids to host-infested plants was significantly reduced by phenidone treatment. The three herbivores investigated, i.e. the specialists Plutella xylostella, Pieris brassicae and Pieris rapae, showed different oviposition preferences for intact and infested plants, and for two species their preference for either intact or infested plants was shown to be LOX dependent. Our results show that phenidone inhibits the LOX-dependent defence response of the plant and that this inhibition can influence the behaviour of members of the associated insect community.
Lack of correlation between constitutive and induced resistance to a herbivore in crucifer plants: real or flawed by experimental methods?
Zhang, P.J. ; Shu, J.P. ; Wu, Z.Y. ; Dicke, M. ; Liu, S.S. - \ 2009
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 131 (2009)1. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 58 - 66.
jasmonate-induced responses - diamondback moth - oviposition preference - arabidopsis-thaliana - volatile emission - indirect defenses - methyl jasmonate - trade-offs - acid - lepidoptera
The correlation between constitutive and induced resistance to herbivores in plants has long been of interest to evolutionary biologists, and various approaches to determining levels of resistance have been used in this field of research. In this study, we examined the relationship between constitutive and induced resistance to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in 11 closely related species of wild crucifers. We assessed the survival, development, and reproduction of the test insects and calculated their intrinsic rate of increase as an indicator of constitutive and induced resistance for the plants. We used larvae of P. xylostella and jasmonic acid as elicitors of the induced response. We failed to find a correlation between constitutive and induced resistance in these crucifer plants when the induction of resistance was initiated by either herbivory or jasmonic acid application. Analysis of the results suggests that the failure to detect a relationship between the two types of resistance could be caused by flaws in measuring constitutive resistance, which was apparently confounded with induced resistance. We discuss the difficulties and pitfalls in measuring constitutive resistance and ways to improve the methodology in investigating the relationships between constitutive and induced resistance in plants
Genetic analysis of larval host-plant preference in two sibling species of Helicoverpa
Tang, Q.B. ; Jiang, J.W. ; Yan, Y.H. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Wang, C.Z. - \ 2006
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 118 (2006)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 221 - 228.
phytophagous insects - drosophila-melanogaster - swallowtail butterflies - oviposition preference - evolutionary genetics - heliothis-virescens - foraging behavior - food preference - h-assulta - lepidoptera
The genetic basis of larval host-plant preference was investigated in reciprocal F1, F2, and backcrossed generations derived from hybrid crosses between the generalist species Helicoverpa armigera (Hu¿bner) and the closely related specialist species Helicoverpa assulta (Guene¿e) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Host-plant preference for cotton [Gossypium arboreum L. (Malvaceae)] and pepper [Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae)] of fifth-instar caterpillars was tested by using a two-choice leaf-disk assay. Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta were significantly different in their feeding preferences, but the difference was not significant in the reciprocal hybrids, which showed there were no maternal/cytoplasmic effects. Comparisons of feeding preference between different groups of females or males demonstrated that the trait was not controlled by sex-linked loci. The distributions of feeding preference index values for crosses that carried similar complements of autosomal genes were not significantly different, whereas crosses with different complements of autosomal genes were associated with significantly different feeding preferences, indicating that feeding preference of the two species for cotton and pepper, respectively, is controlled by autosomal genes. It was found that one major autosomal locus affected this feeding preference, with the H. armigera-derived alleles being partially dominant to those carried by H. assulta. The genetic analysis of hybrids contributes to understand the evolution of feeding preference in these closely related species
Genetics of host-plant preference in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae), and evolutionary implications
Nylin, S. ; Nygren, G.H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Janz, N. ; Bergstrom, A. - \ 2005
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84 (2005). - ISSN 0024-4066 - p. 755 - 765.
life-history traits - oviposition preference - herbivorous insects - larval host - sex-linkage - lepidoptera - behavior - specialization - associations - performance
In the Lepidoptera, sex-linked genes have been found to be of importance for species differences in, for example, hostplant preference, and have been implicated in ecological speciation. Variation within species is typically not sexlinked. However, in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae) an X-linked gene has been found to play a major role in determining differences in host-plant use between two well separated populations. For this reason, we studied the role of sex-linked genes for host-plant preference within a single Swedish population of this species. Three generations of females with known pedigrees were studied in the laboratory, and they were given a choice between Urtica dioica and Salix caprea in flight cages. We found strong variation among females and significant genetic variance for host-plant preference, but no evidence for major importance of sex linkage of host-plant preference on this local scale. To what extent the observed genetic variation was due to additive genes and/or effects of major genes was not clear from the maximum likelihood analysis. In a follow-up study we sampled females over a larger area. We found strong variation among females, but not among localities, suggesting an open population structure with strong gene flow. From the combined stock, a selection experiment was performed over 2 years and six generations. The selection lines diverged after the first generation of selection and remained separate, but did not diverge further, suggesting a low degree of narrow-sense heritability and that the genetic differences may be effects of major genes. We discuss these results in relation to the possible role of genetics in the radiation of the Lepidoptera and other phytophagous insects