What reported food-evoked emotions may add: A model to predict consumer food choice
Gutjar, S. ; Dalenberg, J.R. ; Graaf, C. de; Wijk, R.A. de; Palascha, A. ; Renken, Remco J. ; Jager, G. - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 45 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 140 - 148.
consumption experience - responses - satisfaction - liking - taste - package - questionnaires - behavior - design - impact
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers’ emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether emotional responses to these cues combined with liking, predict actual food choice. Participants (n = 103) rated emotional responses to seven products under a blind taste, a package and a package and taste condition using the EsSense Profile™. During the blind taste condition participants also scored liking of the products. Test products were breakfast drinks and desserts. Food choice was measured in two different breakfast sessions reflecting a different choice context. In one choice context, products were presented blind to taste, after which participants chose one out of the seven foods to consume for breakfast. In the other choice context, participants based their choice on the package of the seven foods without tasting them. Results showed that emotions evoked by food products could be organised in a two-dimensional space, representing a valence (pleasantness) and an activation/arousal dimension. Specific emotional profiles generated for products differed across the blind taste, package and the package and taste condition, meaning that intrinsic and extrinsic product properties elicit in part different emotions. Liking and valence together had the strongest predictive value for product choice based on the product’s taste. The combination of liking, valence and arousal had the strongest predictive value for package-based choice. In conclusion, food-evoked emotions add predictive value to solely liking ratings, and may guide consumers’ product choice behaviour.
Contributions to assess the reproducibility and the agreement of respondents in CATA tasks
Worch, T. ; Piqueras Fiszman, B. - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 40 (2015)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 137 - 146.
multiple factor-analysis - contingency-tables - white wines - performance - package - factominer - consumers - responses - tests
In consideration of the widespread use of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions in sensory and consumer research, the investigation of how the panel performs in this methodology is deemed necessary. Checking the reliability of this type of data is relevant, mostly in situations where, as a rapid method, it is obtained from consumers and in less controlled conditions such as online studies. While an excellent performance is expected and required from trained subjects, when working with consumers it is convenient to explore the data obtained, since this can also hint at how seriously they are taking the task, their levels of fatigue, boredom, etc. In this work, we have developed some complementary tools to existing ones to be able to evaluate statistically the reproducibility of both the respondents and the panel. The assessment of the reliability of the panel would not be complete without other methodologies dedicated to the reproducibility at the panel level of the products and of the terms, and to the assessment of the agreements between pairs of respondents, and between each respondent and the panel solution. For those criteria, methodologies based on multiple factor analysis on contingency tables and McNemar test are presented. To illustrate the methodology developed, the statistical complements were applied on data from two studies. The studies, one involving emotions and another one sensory characterisation data, were conducted in two different test–retest sessions. Keywords: Reproducibility Agreement CATA data MFACT Significance testing McNemar test
The impact of evoked consumption contexts and appropriateness on emotion responses
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 277 - 288.
food experience - acceptability - choice - questionnaires - ratings - package - design
Sensory and consumer scientists are seeing the need to explore broader measures, such as product-driven emotions, to be able to fully understand and satisfy consumers’ demands. However, to date, the consumer methodologies used in food-related emotion research have neglected a crucial element linked to emotions: the consumption context. This is a concern, because consumers’ emotional responses to food are elicited by many other sources apart from the sensory properties of the food itself. The present research aimed to fill in this gap of knowledge by exploring how evoked consumption contexts affect responses obtained from an emotion questionnaire. Two food stimuli (apple and chocolate brownie) and three different consumption contexts (a ‘weekend breakfast’, an ‘afternoon snack’, and ‘after a special dinner’) were used to vary the level of product-context appropriateness. A within-subject design was used in which 157 participants first completed an emotion questionnaire (36 terms, checklist format) in response to each of the evoked consumption contexts (presented in written format). A week later, the same participants completed the same emotion questionnaire while imagining themselves eating an apple or chocolate brownie (shown as images) without any given context (control condition), and then under the three different contexts (random monadic sequential order). When the chocolate brownie was the food stimulus, 20 of 36 emotion responses were significantly different from context to context (including the no-context condition). Conversely, only 9 significant differences were established when apple was the food stimulus. It was also found that frequency of use of positive emotion terms was higher in those consumption contexts that were considered more appropriate, whereas negative emotion terms were more frequently selected when the context was perceived as less appropriate for the product. Taken together, these findings highlight how the context in which a food is consumed (even if imagined) can affect consumers’ emotion responses towards it. More broadly, they demonstrate the reciprocal effect that the context and the product have on the elicited emotion responses, which are not situationally invariant. This research also explored how psychological traits related to emotional eating affected the emotion responses and found that in general higher emotional eaters selected a higher number of emotion terms (positive and negative). This study represents a needed advance in food-related emotion research, and upon replication of the results with other product-context combinations, could offer an easy-to-implement methodology that should more closely match the emotion responses that consumers would elicit in real-life situations while eating and drinking.
Serving many at once: How a database approach can create unity in dynamical ecosystem modelling
Mooij, W.M. ; Brederveld, R.J. ; Klein, J.J.M. de; DeAngelis, D.L. ; Downing, A.S. ; Faber, M. ; Gerla, D.J. ; Hipsey, M.R. ; Hoen, J. 't; Janse, J.H. ; Janssen, A.B.G. ; Jeuken, M. ; Kooi, B.W. ; Lischke, B. ; Petzoldt, T. ; Postma, L. ; Schep, S.A. ; Scholten, H. ; Teurlincx, S. ; Thiange, C. ; Trolle, D. ; Dam, A.A. van; Gerven, L.P.A. van; Nes, E.H. van; Kuiper, J.J. - \ 2014
Environmental Modelling & Software 61 (2014). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 266 - 273.
shallow lakes - simulation - eutrophication - management - package - pclake
Simulation modelling in ecology is a field that is becoming increasingly compartmentalized. Here we propose a Database Approach To Modelling (DATM) to create unity in dynamical ecosystem modelling with differential equations. In this approach the storage of ecological knowledge is independent of the language and platform in which the model will be run. To create an instance of the model, the information in the database is translated and augmented with the language and platform specifics. This process is automated so that a new instance can be created each time the database is updated. We describe the approach using the simple Lotka-Volterra model and the complex ecosystem model for shallow lakes PCLake, which we automatically implement in the frameworks OSIRIS, GRIND for MATLAB, ACSL, R, DUFLOW and DELWAQ. A clear advantage of working in a database is the overview it provides. The simplicity of the approach only adds to its elegance. © 2014 The Authors.
User-friendly solutions for microarray quality control and pre-processing on ArrayAnalysis.org
Eijssen, L.M. ; Jaillard, M. ; Adriaens, M.E. ; Gaj, S. ; Groot, P.J. de; Müller, M.R. ; Evelo, C.T. - \ 2013
Nucleic acids research 41 (2013)W1. - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. W71 - W76.
affymetrix-genechip data - expression analysis - probe level - bioconductor - interface - database - package - biology - biomart - update
Quality control (QC) is crucial for any scientific method producing data. Applying adequate QC introduces new challenges in the genomics field where large amounts of data are produced with complex technologies. For DNA microarrays, specific algorithms for QC and pre-processing including normalization have been developed by the scientific community, especially for expression chips of the Affymetrix platform. Many of these have been implemented in the statistical scripting language R and are available from the Bioconductor repository. However, application is hampered by lack of integrative tools that can be used by users of any experience level. To fill this gap, we developed a freely available tool for QC and pre-processing of Affymetrix gene expression results, extending, integrating and harmonizing functionality of Bioconductor packages. The tool can be easily accessed through a wizard-like web portal at http://www.arrayanalysis.org or downloaded for local use in R. The portal provides extensive documentation, including user guides, interpretation help with real output illustrations and detailed technical documentation. It assists newcomers to the field in performing state-of-the-art QC and pre-processing while offering data analysts an integral open-source package. Providing the scientific community with this easily accessible tool will allow improving data quality and reuse and adoption of standards.
Reintroductions and genetic introgression from domestic pigs have shaped the genetic population structure of Northwest European wild boar
Goedbloed, D.J. ; Hooft, W.F. van; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Langenbeck, K. ; Lutz, W. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Ydenberg, R.C. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2013
BMC Genetics 14 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2156
deer cervus-elaphus - sus-scrofa - hybridization - ecology - microsatellite - conservation - association - management - diversity - package
Background: Population genetic studies focus on natural dispersal and isolation by landscape barriers as the main drivers of genetic population structure. However, anthropogenic factors such as reintroductions, translocations and wild x domestic hybridization may also have strong effects on genetic population structure. In this study we genotyped 351 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers evenly spread across the genome in 645 wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Northwest Europe to evaluate determinants of genetic population structure. Results: We show that wild boar genetic population structure is influenced by historical reintroductions and by genetic introgression from domestic pigs. Six genetically distinct and geographically coherent wild boar clusters were identified in the Netherlands and Western Germany. The Dutch Veluwe cluster is known to be reintroduced, and three adjacent Dutch and German clusters are suspected to be a result of reintroduction, based on clustering results, low levels of heterozygosity and relatively high genetic distances to nearby populations. Recent wild x domestic hybrids were found geographically widespread across clusters and at low frequencies (average 3.9%). The relationship between pairwise kinship coefficients and geographic distance showed male-biased dispersal at the population genetic level. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that wildlife and landscape management by humans are shaping the genetic diversity of an iconic wildlife species. Historical reintroductions, translocation and recent restocking activities with farmed wild boar have all influenced wild boar genetic population structure. The current trend of wild boar population growth and range expansion has recently led to a number of contact zones between clusters, and further admixture between the different wild boar clusters is to be expected.
Interfacial Properties of an Ionic Liquid by Molecular Dynamics
Heggen, B. ; Zhao, W. ; Leroy, F. ; Dammers, A.T. ; Müller-Plathe, F. - \ 2010
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical 114 (2010)20. - ISSN 1520-6106 - p. 6954 - 6961.
nuclear magnetic-relaxation - 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate - surface-tension - physicochemical properties - force-field - temperature - simulation - imidazolium - package
We studied the influence of a liquid-vapor interface on dynamic properties like reorientation and diffusion as well as the surface tension of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) by molecular dynamics simulations. In the interfacial region, reorientation of a short molecular axis is slightly faster than that in the central layer, while that of the longer molecular axis is retarded. The molecular reorientation is well-described by a stretched exponential decay modeled by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation. Analysis of the average translational diffusion coefficient of molecules in a central layer shows consistency with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann equation in a temperature range from 300 to 380 K. A first-passage time analysis of the system at 380 K yields a more refined spatial characterization of translational diffusion perpendicular to the liquid-vapor interfaces. In the central region of the slab, the diffusion coefficient of cations is only marginally higher than that of anions, but close to an interface, this difference is much higher, up to 50%. Apparent activation energies for rotational and diffusional dynamics, respectively, were estimated assuming Arrhenius behavior. They indicate that reorientation of the long molecular axis depends on the diffusion ability, whereas for the reorientation of the short axis, no such correlation is observed. The results are in general agreement with the literature, with slightly overestimated absolute values. This applies as well for the surface tension, where, however, a dependence on the treatment of the electrostatics was found. Particle-mesh Ewald (PME) or reaction field (RF) and the treatment of bonds by constraints have an influence. If no bond constraints are applied, the results are consistent for both methods for the description of the electrostatics.