Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) cooled in ices water
Lambooij, E. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Foss, A. ; Imsland, A. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2015
Physiology and Behavior 149 (2015). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 23 - 28.
fish - welfare - pain - stress - system - l.
Behavioural, neural and physiological aspects related to pre-slaughter cooling of turbot habituated to two environmental temperatures (18.7 and 12.0 °C) were investigated. Six fish in both treatments were immersed in ice water for 75 min. For control, four fish were immersed in water under their habituated environmental temperature. Turbot did not show a quick reduction of overall power in the EEG (electroencephalogram) to less than 10%, nor did the turbot show a shift in brain wave predominance from high to low frequency waves. At 15 min after immersion in ice water at least 7 out of 12 fish still showed total power values over 10% of pre-immersion values. Significant reductions in responsiveness to needle scratches and reduced breathing after immersion in ice waterwere observed, but none of these parameters had dropped to 0 even after 75 min in icewater. A significant reduction in gill score was found at 2 and 5 min after immersion in ice water compared to the control fish (p
Analysis of individual classification of lameness using automatic measurement of back posture in dairy cattle
Viazzi, S. ; Schlageter Tello, A.A. ; Hertem, T. van; Romanini, C.E.B. ; Pluk, A. ; Halachmi, I. ; Lokhorst, C. ; Berckmans, D. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)1. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 257 - 266.
locomotion score - cow gait - reproductive-performance - hoof pathologies - holstein cows - milk-yield - system - pain - association - assessments
Currently, diagnosis of lameness at an early stage in dairy cows relies on visual observation by the farmer, which is time consuming and often omitted. Many studies have tried to develop automatic cow lameness detection systems. However, those studies apply thresholds to the whole population to detect whether or not an individual cow is lame. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and test an individualized version of the body movement pattern score, which uses back posture to classify lameness into 3 classes, and to compare both the population and the individual approach under farm conditions. In a data set of 223 videos from 90 cows, 76% of cows were correctly classified, with an 83% true positive rate and 22% false positive rate when using the population approach. A new data set, containing 105 videos of 8 cows that had moved through all 3 lameness classes, was used for an ANOVA on the 3 different classes, showing that body movement pattern scores differed significantly among cows. Moreover, the classification accuracy and the true positive rate increased by 10 percentage units up to 91%, and the false positive rate decreased by 4 percentage units down to 6% when based on an individual threshold compared with a population threshold.
Harming others’ task-related efforts: The distinct competitive effects of ranking information on performance and mastery goal individuals
Poortvliet, P.M. - \ 2013
Social Psychology 44 (2013)6. - ISSN 1864-9335 - p. 373 - 379.
achievement goals - conflict regulation - orientations - exchange - context - pleasure - behavior - outcomes - impact - pain
This paper demonstrates that, when individuals with mastery goals and their exchange partners occupy increasingly higher ranks on a task (#4 and #5 vs. #51 and #52 or #96 and #97, on a top-100), they display stronger interpersonally harmful behavior in order to interfere with exchange partners’ task performance. In contrast, performance goal individuals damage the task performance of others more when ranks are low or high rather than average (#4 and #5 or #96 and #97 vs. #51 and #52). These results signify that social comparison information is processed differently by mastery and performance goal individuals. The resulting interpersonally harmful behaviors depend on whether such behavior is instrumental for their particular achievement goal pursuit or not
AU? : pijn, pijnpreventie en pijnbestrijding in de veehouderij
Kluivers-Poodt, Marion - \ 2013
livestock farming - animal production - pain - prevention - animal welfare - animal health
Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity
Lambooij, E. ; Digre, H. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Aursand, I.G. ; Grimso, L. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2012
Fisheries Research 127-128 (2012)2012. - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 1 - 8.
farmed atlantic cod - common carp - fish - pain - welfare - stress - l.
Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For stunning 52 V-rms was applied on individual fish for 1 s. As a result, the cod and haddock received an electrical current of 0.34 +/- 0.09 and 0.36 +/- 0.12 A(rms), respectively. Electrical activity in the brain and heart was measured before and after electrical stunning. The fish remained conscious for at least 2 h after landing and during on-board storage as indicated by the electrical activity measured in brain and heart. Behavioural responsiveness to administered stimuli was absent in both species. After electrical stunning, both species showed a general epileptiform insult which was characterised by a tonic phase followed by a clonic phase and terminating with an exhaustion phase. Since the fish remained conscious after landing and storage, electrical stunning and subsequent killing with a throat cut, may provide an option for improving fish welfare on-board commercial fishing vessels. In particular, we recommend to stun and kill wild cod and haddock as soon as possible after landing on deck using a dry stunner applying 52 V-rms (coupled AC/DC current) for more than 3 s. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Assessing the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle by a modeling approach
Bruijnis, M.R.N. ; Beerda, B. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2012
Animal 6 (2012)6. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 962 - 970.
animal-welfare - holstein cows - digital dermatitis - lameness - locomotion - prevalence - lesions - pain - associations - duration
Foot disorders are the main cause of dairy cow lameness and are considered to have a major impact on the welfare of dairy cattle. This study adopts a modeling approach, using a dynamic stochastic model, to provide more insight into the welfare impact of different types of foot disorders, both clinical and subclinical. The impact of specific foot disorders on welfare was assessed by simulating the incidence and duration of foot disorders and the pain associated with them. Pain assessment was based on locomotion scores, with underlying knowledge obtained from scientific literature and experts. The results demonstrated the seriousness of the welfare impact of foot disorders. The negative welfare impact was measured on a scale from 0 to 60, where the maximum outcome represents a cow having very severe pain during the whole year. On average, each cow achieves a welfare impact score of 12, which is 20% of the maximum welfare impact score. This welfare score equals having severe pain for a period of 3 months, indicating a serious impact on welfare. On average, digital dermatitis impacts most on welfare, which is caused by a high incidence of the painful clinical stage, followed by sole hemorrhages (SoH) and interdigital dermatitis and heel horn erosion (IDHE). The combination of a high incidence and long duration of SoH and IDHE causes this relatively high welfare impact of foot disorders that occur mostly subclinically. On average, over 1 year, 46% of the welfare impact due to foot disorders is caused by clinical foot disorders. The fact that subclinical foot disorders contribute more or less equally to the effects on welfare as clinical ones, indicates that farmers may readily underestimate the welfare impact by a factor two. Modeling welfare impact at cow level, individual cases of foot disorders, stresses the importance of pain intensity, indicating the importance of clinical foot disorders. This study demonstrated the serious welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and pointed out the considerable impact of subclinical foot disorders. Furthermore, the approach of welfare assessment, for example herd v. cow level, influenced the ranking of foot disorders for their impact on animal welfare. Potentially, this leads to different prioritization of specific solution strategies for dairy farmers, for example, focusing on cow comfort, hygiene or preventive medical treatments, foot trimming and/or health monitoring. The findings in this study support in raising awareness about this welfare issue.
Ongewis vissengedrag: discussie over onderzoek aan cognitie en pijn bij vissen (interview met Hans van de Vis)
Hoog, A. van 't; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2011
Visionair : het vakblad van sportvisserij Nederland 5 (2011)22. - ISSN 1569-7533 - p. 14 - 19.
vissen - pijn - stress - neurofysiologie - bewustzijn (consciousness) - visserij - visserijbiologie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - dierethiek - fishes - pain - stress - neurophysiology - consciousness - fisheries - fishery biology - animal welfare - animal health - animal ethics
Hoe staat het met onze kennis van bewustzijn, emoties en pijn bij vissen? Een verslag van een gesprek tussen drie deskundigen over hersenen, cognitieve vaardigheden, subject taalgebruik en de scheiding tussen biologische feiten en morele oordelen. "De wetenschap kan die vraag niet beantwoorden."
Vissen voelen pijn : dier & welzijn
Abbink, W. ; Vis, H. van de; Roques, J. ; Flik, G. - \ 2011
V-focus 8 (2011)5A. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 30 - 31.
dierenwelzijn - vissen - pijn - gedragsveranderingen - onderzoek - animal welfare - fishes - pain - behavioural changes - research
Een bewering die velen zal verbazen. Onze kennis over de fysiologie en gedragsmatige reactie van vissen op een potentiële pijnprikkel was tot voor kort beperkt. IMARES Wageningen UR heeft samen met de Radboud Universiteit van Nijmegen onderzoek gedaan naar acute pijn bij vissen. Daaruit blijkt dat vissen inderdaad prikkels waarnemen die wij als pijnlijk zouden duiden. Maar of vissen het ook ervaren als pijn, is een vraag die moeilijk te beantwoorden is.
Reply to Diggles et al. (2011): Ecology and welfare of aquatic animals in wild capture fisheries
Torgersen, T. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Kristiansen, T.S. - \ 2011
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21 (2011). - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 767 - 769.
fish - pain - consciousness - perspectives - stress
Daar waar mogelijk pijn bestrijden!
Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Driesse, M. - \ 2010
Veehouder en Dierenarts 24 (2010)1. - ISSN 1381-8007 - p. 14 - 15.
varkenshouderij - varkens - dierenwelzijn - pijn - pig farming - pigs - animal welfare - pain
Er is de laatste tijd veel aandacht voor pijn bij dieren in de intensieve veehouderij. Denk aan de discussie rond het verdoofd castreren van biggen. Het is eigenlijk algemeen aanvaard dat dieren pijn kunnen ervaren. Het lastige is echter dat pijn door iedereen anders wordt beleefd en niet makkelijk onbevooroordeeld te meten is
Pijnsignalen, wat doen we ermee?
Driesse, M. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. - \ 2010
Veehouder en Dierenarts 24 (2010)1. - ISSN 1381-8007 - p. 22 - 23.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - vaarzen - kalven - pijnstillende middelen - dierenartsen - pijn - dierenwelzijn - dairy farming - dairy cows - heifers - calving - analgesics - veterinarians - pain - animal welfare
Dieren, dus ook koeien, laten niet snel merken dat ze pijn hebben. Want daarmee laten ze zien dat ze verzwakt zijn en dus een gemakkelijke prooi vormen. Hoogleraar veterinaire anesthesiologie prof. dr. Ludo Hellebrekers zei het vorig jaar tijdens een voordracht voor dierenartsen over pijn als volgt: “De grootste valkuil is: ik zie geen abnormaal gedrag, dus het dier heeft geen pijn.”
Effects of Happiness on All-Cause Mortality During 15 Years of Follow-Up: The Arnhem Elderly Study
Koopmans, T.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Zitman, F.G. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2010
Journal of Happiness Studies 11 (2010)1. - ISSN 1389-4978 - p. 113 - 124.
dispositional optimism - physical-activity - cardiovascular mortality - psychosocial predictors - rheumatoid-arthritis - depressive symptoms - life orientation - risk-factors - pain - disease
Positive psychological characteristics may be beneficial for physical health. However, prospective data on the effects of happiness on survival is scarce. In a population-based cohort study, the Arnhem Elderly Study, happiness was measured by two items, being: "I have many moments of happiness" and "I often laugh happily". In Cox proportional hazard models, happiness was analyzed as a predictor of 15 year all-cause mortality for 861 (85%) of 1,012 elderly subjects aged 65-85 years. Results showed that happiness was inversely associated with mortality (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.78 for happy subjects versus unhappy subjects; 95% confidence interval 0.64-0.95, P = 0.01 for trend), but that this relationship was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for physical activity and prevalent morbidity. Thus, happiness predicts for lower mortality, which may partly be mediated by more physical activity and lower morbidity.
Response to the letter to the editor on the surgical castration of piglets
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Reimert, H. ; Hindle, V.A. ; Lambooij, B. - \ 2009
Animal 3 (2009)11. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1476 - 1477.
carbon-dioxide - welfare implications - inhalation - anesthesia - aversion - stress - pigs - rats - pain - mice
Locomotion and muscle mass measures in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis
Hartog, A. ; Hulsman, J. ; Garssen, J. - \ 2009
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 10 (2009). - ISSN 1471-2474 - 7 p.
rheumatoid-arthritis - cachexia - methotrexate - inflammation - mechanisms - cytokines - pain - mice
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic poly-arthritis, synovial hyperplasia, erosive synovitis, progressive cartilage and bone destruction accompanied by a loss of body cell mass. This loss of cell mass, known as rheumatoid cachexia, predominates in the skeletal muscle and can in part be explained by a decreased physical activity. The murine collagen induced arthritis (CIA) model has been proven to be a useful model in RA research since it shares many immunological and pathological features with human RA. The present study explored the interactions between arthritis development, locomotion and muscle mass in the CIA model. Methods: CIA was induced in male DBA/1 mice. Locomotion was registered at different time points by a camera and evaluated by a computerized tracing system. Arthritis severity was detected by the traditionally used semi-quantitative clinical scores. The muscle mass of the hind-legs was detected at the end of the study by weighing. A methotrexate (MTX) intervention group was included to study the applicability of the locomotion and muscle mass for testing effectiveness of interventions in more detail. Results: There is a strong correlation between clinical arthritis and locomotion. The correlations between muscle mass and locomotion or clinical arthritis were less pronounced. MTX intervention resulted in an improvement of disease severity accompanied by an increase in locomotion and muscle mass. Conclusion: The present data demonstrate that registration of locomotion followed by a computerized evaluation of the movements is a simple non invasive quantitative method to define disease severity and evaluate effectiveness of therapeutic agents in the CIA model.f
Differential responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to fin clip wounding and related stress: perspectives
Abbink, W. ; Roques, J. ; Geurds, F. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2009
Yerseke : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C133/09) - 25
aquacultuur - dierenwelzijn - pijn - prikkels - perceptie - onderzoek - visfauna - aquaculture - animal welfare - pain - stimuli - perception - research - fish fauna
The debate around fish welfare is intensifying in The Netherlands. As a result, more research is carried out to enhance knowledge on fish welfare in aquaculture. Detailed information is lacking on how production procedures causing discomfort to the fish may affect welfare. That fish must perceive adversive stimuli follows from the fact that nociceptive mechanisms similar to those in mammals are present in fish. However, whether and how nociceptive stimuli are perceived or interpreted by a fish is a far more difficult question that requires significantly more effort from fundamental research, both neurophysiological and behavioural studies, than now available. The study presented in this report aimed to define selected readout for the acute response to a supposedly painful stimulus: a standardised tailfin clip to a common carp. In conclusion, we succeeded to demonstrate differential, stronger responses to a presumed painful stimulus than to the handling stress per se associated with the administration of the pain stimulus. These parameters will be the focus of future research within this welfare project.
Development and validation of a quantitative method for the determination of 12 endocannabinoids and related compounds in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Balvers, M.G.J. ; Verhoeckx, K.C.M. ; Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2009
Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 877 (2009)14-15. - ISSN 1570-0232 - p. 1583 - 1590.
fatty-acid amides - cannabinoid receptor - rat-brain - endogenous cannabinoids - anandamide - pain - palmitoylethanolamide - inflammation - disorders - system
A sensitive and specific LC¿MS/MS method for the quantification of the endocannabinoids and related structures anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether, O-arachidonoyl ethanolamide, dihomo-¿-linolenoyl ethanolamide, docosatetraenoyl ethanolamide, N-arachidonoyl dopamine, N-arachidonyl glycine, N-oleoyl dopamine, oleoyl ethanolamide, palmitoyl ethanolamide, and stearoyl ethanolamide in human plasma was developed and validated. Compounds were extracted using acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction. Separation was performed on a Xterra C8 column using gradient elution coupled to a triple-quadrupole MS. LLOQ levels ranged from 0.02 to 1.75 ¿g/mL, LODs ranged from 0.0002 to 0.1266 ng/mL, and accuracies were >80% (except stearoyl ethanolamide at lowest spike level) at all spike levels
Encounters for common illnesses in general practice increased in obese patients
Wayenburg, C.A.M. van; Lerniengre, M.B.T. ; Reenen-Schimmel, A.H. van; Bor, J.H.J. ; Bakx, J.C. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Weel, C. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van - \ 2008
Family Practice 25 (2008)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0263-2136 - p. i93 - i98.
health-care services - chronic diseases - population - prevalence - overweight - pain - association - predictors - mortality - weight
Background. Obese patients are known to have more chronic medical conditions. Objective. To compare the frequency of encounter for episodes of the 10 most common illnesses in general practice between obese and non-overweight patients. Methods. Data were derived from the Continuous Morbidity Registration, containing data from four general practices in and around Nijmegen (The Netherlands). In this research and registration network, a matched cohort study was performed. Each obese patient (body mass index 30 kg/m2), aged 20–75 years, was matched for age, gender, socio-economic status and general practice, to approximately two patients without the diagnosis ‘overweight’ or ‘obesity’. Over a period of 5 years (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004), the frequency of encounter for episodes of the 10 most common illnesses was compared, taking chronic medical conditions into account. Results. At the start, 550 patients with obesity could be identified and were matched to 954 controls. Obese patients presented more common illnesses than non-overweight patients (incidence rate ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.47), in particular common cold (without fever), myalgia of the upper girdle, dermatophytosis and bruise (contusion, haematoma). Conclusion. Obese patients present more common illnesses to their GP, such as common cold (without fever), myalgia of the upper girdle, dermatophytosis and bruise (contusion, haematoma). This is in addition to their higher co-morbidity of chronic medical conditions
Castration of piglets under CO2-gas anaesthesia
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Kluivers, M. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Hindle, V.A. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2008
Animal 2 (2008)11. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1666 - 1673.
carbon-dioxide - inhalation anesthesia - behavioral-responses - newborn piglets - young-pigs - pain - co2 - euthanasia - rats - stimulation
It has become common practice in pig fattening production systems to castrate young boar piglets without the use of anaesthesia. In this study, we examined whether or not CO2 gas is capable of inducing an acceptable anaesthetic state during which castration can be performed. The first step was to identify the most promising CO2/O2 mixture. Based on the results from this first experiment, a mixture of 70% CO2 + 30% O2 was chosen for further investigation as a potential anaesthetic during the castration of young piglets. Thereby, it was established whether the duration and depth of anaesthesia were acceptable for castration where the animal has to be insensible and unconscious. Physiological effects were assessed based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, blood gas values and behavioural responses. During the induction phase, the only typical behaviour the piglets exhibited when exposed to the 70/30 gas mixture was heavy breathing. All piglets (n = 25) lost consciousness after approximately 30 s according to the EEG. Heart rate decreased slowly during the induction phase, a serious drop occurred when piglets lost their posture. Immediately after this drop, the heart rate neared zero or showed a very irregular pattern. Shortly after loss of posture, most animals showed a few convulsions. None of the animals showed any reaction to castration in behaviour and/or on the EEG and ECG. On average, the piglets recovered within 59 s, i.e. EEG returned to its pre-induction pattern and piglets were able to regain a standing position. After 120 s, heart rate returned to pre-induction levels. In order to explore the usage range of CO2 concentration, 24 piglets were exposed to 60% CO2 + 20% O2 + 20% N2 for up to 30 s after loss of consciousness (as registered on EEG), and castrated after removal from the chamber. Sixteen of the 24 animals showed a reaction to the castration on the EEG. To establish the maximum time piglets survive in 70% CO2 + 30% O2, five piglets were placed in this mixture for 3 min. Two of them died. After that, four piglets were placed in this mixture for 2 min after unconsciousness, one died after 2 min. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to anaesthetise piglets with a mixture of 70% CO2 + 30% O2, but that there are limits to its safety in terms of CO2 concentration and duration of exposure. Before implementation for practical use, further research is essential to assess the limits of gas concentration and exposure times
Verdoofd castreren neemt pijn deels weg
Kluivers, M. - \ 2008
V-focus 5 (2008)2. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25.
varkenshouderij - biggen - beren (varkens) - castratie - bedwelmen - pijn - dierenwelzijn - pig farming - piglets - boars - castration - stunning - pain - animal welfare
ASG heeft in 2007 onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van het geven van een locale verdoving en/of een pijnstiller op het welzijn van de big tijdens en na castratie
A humane protocol for electro-stunning and killing of Nile tilapia in fresh water
Lambooij, E. ; Gerritzen, M.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Burggraaf, D. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2008
Aquaculture 275 (2008)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 88 - 95.
catfish clarias-gariepinus - anguilla-anguilla l. - fish - consciousness - slaughter - quality - pain
Behavioural, neural and physiological parameters were scored after electro-stunning of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three positions to an electric field in fresh water. An overall current density, 1.0 Arms/dm2, 50 Hz sinusoidal, applied for 1 s top-to-bottom in water (700 ¿S/cm), induced a general epileptiform insult on the EEG for 26 ± 10 s (n = 24). The ECG revealed fibrillation for 9 ± 4 s in 15 out of 24 fish. To kill without recovery, the current was applied for 5 s, followed by chilling in ice water for 15 min. Killing of the stunned fish by gill-cutting instead of chilling is not recommended, as 2 out 4 tilapias responded 10 min post stun. When electricity was applied head-to-tail on tilapia (n = 8), the overall current density could be reduced to 0.4 Arms/dm2, 50 Hz sinusoidal, to induce a general epileptiform insult, which lasted 27 ± 10 s. A pulsed square wave alternating current (overall density of 0.6 Arms/dm2, 133 Hz and 43% duty cycle) was applied for 1 s side-to-side on tilapia in water (650 ¿S/cm). This induced a general epileptiform insult for 51 ± 37 s (n = 14). Fibrillation occurred for 16 ± 7 s (n = 10). Free-swimming fish righted between 68 and 95 s (n = 5) and between 438 and 1139 s (n = 5) after 1 and 5 s electro-stunning, respectively. Our results show that protection of welfare of tilapia at slaughter can be obtained with electro-stunning followed by killing the stunned fish in ice water.