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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Let the numbers speak : Comparing Better Cotton Fast Track Program participants and non-participants in India, Mali, and Pakistan using agronomic data of the Better Cotton Initiative
    Ge, L. ; Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2014
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2013-067) - ISBN 9789086156672 - 82
    katoen - katoenindustrie - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - milieu - arbeid (werk) - watergebruik - pesticiden - landbouwproductie - india - mali - pakistan - cotton - cotton industry - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use - environment - labour - water use - pesticides - agricultural production - india - mali - pakistan
    Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary
    Jamal, S.M. ; Shah, S.I. ; Ali, Q. ; Mehmood, A. ; Afzal, M. ; Dekker, A. - \ 2014
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 61 (2014)6. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 483 - 489.
    neutralizing antibody-response - potency tests - cattle - pakistan - serotype - afghanistan - protection - challenge - epidemic - immunity
    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products.
    Improving resource-use efficiency in rice-based systems of Pakistan
    Awan, M.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Holger Meinke, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans; Pepijn van Oort. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737526 - 151
    oryza sativa - rijst - bedrijfssystemen - hulpbronnengebruik - gebruiksefficiëntie - watergebruiksrendement - fenologie - voedselzekerheid - pakistan - oryza sativa - rice - farming systems - resource utilization - use efficiency - water use efficiency - phenology - food security - pakistan

    Keywords: Aerobic rice, water productivity, pre-flowering phenology, eco-efficiency, perceptions, transformational technology, food security, resource constraints, Punjab, Pakistan.

    Just like in many other parts of the world, diminishing resources of water, labour and energy threaten the sustainability of conventional flooded rice systems in Pakistan. Changing the current production system to non-flooded aerobic rice could considerably increase resource-use efficiencies. However, for subtropical conditions, such as those in South Asia, the non-conventional system is still very much in the development phase. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rice system of the Punjab in Pakistan from a biophysical and socio-technological perspective. I employed a combined approach of experimentation and farmer surveys to contribute important information on aerobic rice crop performance, pre-flowering photothermal responses, and farmers’ perspective.

    Two seasons of field experiments (2009 and 2010) at the research station of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–Pakistan tested local (KSK133, IR6, RSP1) and exotic (Apo, IR74371-54-1-1) genotypes against different combinations of irrigation levels (high, moderate, low) and nitrogen rates (0, 170, 220 kg N ha−1). Under aerobic conditions, the water productivity (WPg; g grain kg–1 total water input) improved significantly, showing a potential water saving of about 20%. However, this improved water productivity was at the cost of declining land productivity, as the actual production per unit area decreased. Grain yield and total aboveground N uptake were mainly limited by irrigation and not by N. The results suggest significant losses of applied N, and indicate that improvements in N use efficiency might be expected if N application is better synchronised with the N-demand of the crop.

    Accurate knowledge on rice phenological development is an important feature when the aim is to better match supply and demand for further improvement in resource use efficiencies. A controlled-environment growth chamber study, aimed at estimating pre-flowering photothermal responses, gave a robust set of photoperiod-parameters and demonstrated that all four tested genotypes (KSK133, RSP1, Apo, IR74371-54-1-1) were strongly photoperiod-sensitive. The temperature range in the field experiments was too narrow to achieve convergence to a unique set of optimal temperature response parameters. Yet, sensitivity analysis clearly showed that commonly used standard cardinal temperatures (base, optimum, maximum: 8, 30, 42°C, respectively) overestimated the time to flowering. Data obtained under a wider range of temperatures should result in more accurate estimation of temperature response parameters.

    To supplement the basic biophysical research, I conducted farmer surveys (n=215) in three major cropping systems viz. rice-wheat, mixed-cropping and cotton-wheat to understand farmers’ perspective about the future prospects of aerobic rice system. Most of the farmers were unaware of aerobic rice technology but expressed their keen interest in experimenting. Farmers perceived aerobic rice as a system to improve resource use efficiency particularly for labour and water but they consider it a knowledge intensive system requiring careful and timely management practices especially for weeds. The unavailability of suitable fine grain aerobic basmati varieties was identified as a major constraint for large scale adoption. Understanding farmers’ perspective helped to develop guidelinesfor the emerging aerobic rice system. The aerobic rice system is a rational approach for improving WPg and eco-efficiencies of water, labour and energy. Associated risks of crop failure can be reduced by filling the identified knowledge and technological gaps through additional research and adequate training of farmers.

    Forest fights in Haripur, Northwest Pakistan
    Nizami, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734556 - 257
    ontwikkelingsstudies - sociologie - politieke processen - acteurs - actor-network theorie - samenleving - natuur - bossen - bosbouw - staat - bosbranden - ecologie - vrouwen - pachtstelsel - pakistan - development studies - sociology - political processes - actors - actor-network theory - society - nature - forests - forestry - state - forest fires - ecology - women - tenure systems - pakistan

    This thesis is an inter-paradigmatic exchange between political ecology and post-structuralist interpretations of actor-structure relationships. The study is founded on multiple discourses where different interpretations of a particular phenomenon by various actors have been analysed. The thesis is meant to show that relationships between society and nature are dynamic, entail multi-sited struggles among many actors at several terrains and are deeply rooted in earlier history.The study transpires that the forest is shaped by a loosely knit network of actors that are linked together by a kaleidoscope of rights, claims and social relationships which seem to determine the fate of the forest in a village.

    Chapter 2 elaborates the theoretical foundation and methodological trajectory of this thesis. The concept of arena is central and analytically useful for this study as it connotes and involves social actors, their social relationships, practices and struggles between them. The notion of social arena is a metaphor for the site or place where action takes place between social actors. These places are not limited by geographical, natural or administrative borders. Arenas are social locations in which contests over issues, resources, values and representations take place. These are either spaces in which contestation associated with different practices and values of different domains takes place; or they are spaces within a single domain where attempts are made to resolve discrepancies in value interpretation and incompatibilities between actor interests. I argue that the forest as a social arena stretches beyond its natural and physical borders.The arena as the site of the struggle is not just geographically confined within natural (e.g. forest) and/or administrative (e.g. political) boundaries but it stretches beyond the locality. These arenas are diverse, they overlap and co-exist, and the boundaries at a given time are defined by networks of relationships between forest users and consumers, relationships between the State, bureaucrats, forest owners, dwellers, and so on.

    Chapter 3 gives a detailed account of history of Haripur and how forests were legally categorised and distributed. History helps understand the political alliances and the power struggles in the region, the district, and (sub district) Khanpur. The State, during British rule introduced a new management regime for natural resources which changed the entire social landscape of Khanpur by attaching private property rights to the trees as well as forest lands in the region. The government authorities, notably the Forest department have most often seen forest dwellers destructive for the forest, depleting its resources and interfering with nature. This premise lays foundation of mistrust between people and the government. Contrary to this, the initiatives to introduce people in forestry governance are based on the realisation that the ownership, or at least management control over forests, is critical to responsible management by the people.

    Chapter 4 provides a detailed account of how the Forest department operates in relation to people and forest resources. There are multiple scales of articulation, alliances and struggles within and around the department and these positions are changeable from time to time with several internal and external factors. The case of Forest department manifests that the State is to be seen as a multifaceted organ and not as an individual actor. Structural changes were introduced in the department but the core on which the foundation of the department was laid, was never changed. Many women firmly believe that the department must continue to use authority to control local people who cause degradation. Each reform initiative taken in the name of participation ended up with basically continuing the same centralised system. Forests were never handed over to the community along with management responsibility (e.g. Guzara forests). Only joint management of forests was enacted – yet not implemented. Trust remained a major issue in all these struggles.

    The subject of forest fire, which I perceive and have experienced as a strong manifestation of resistance and also as a tool to manipulate natural resources, has been dealt with in different places in this thesis, but particularly in Chapter 5. Burning forests is an old practice for clearing land for agriculture.Fire therefore had a significant role in defining farmers’ territories. Gradually these practices changed but grazers continued to light up forests to produce lush green grass for their livestock. This led to a persistent discourse based on appropriating every fire incident to the grazers’ practices. This study highlights that fire is now increasingly used as a management tool for manipulating the resource. Firewood collectors and big owners use fire for obtaining dry firewood or build the case for felling dead / dry trees which is allowed in the policy after ban on green felling. Even if fires may occur due to the will of the forest owner, the policy blindly holds grazersresponsible for their wasteful and damaging practices. The collectors of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), mostly women, are not happy with fire since their resources are burnt down due to the productive fire requirement of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii). There is an incline in the graph of forest fires, decreasing self initiative among people to control fires, along with the Forest department’s management bias towards Chir pine trees in fire control operations; these concerns echo in various voices from the field. The chapter also highlights a form of connivance between the owner and the occupants of lands (peasants / tenants) and also the owners and Forest department staff.

    Chapters 6 deals with actors in their struggle to secure their rights to the forest through acquiring forest land title deeds. This initiative from the side of the new owners can be understood as a response to what is explained in Chapter 5. No forests have been handed over with management responsibilities to non owner forest users in nearly one and a half centuries. Non owners have resorted to buying forest lands in little parcels in creating private forests. This way, new meanings are given to the forest and new spaces are created through tactical networking among various actors. Field evidence and opinions from several actors suggest that Reserved forests are frequently being accessed by people for their needs in a de facto manner. Several new owners have acquired land entitlement comprising small pieces of lands which do not have a huge timber value in future. Followed by this, it is also visible that the nature of power in the contemporary society of Khanpur (and beyond) is changing. Power, which was once measured through landholding, is now measured through other symbols, such as political connectivity and affiliation.

    Regular access to NTFP by non-right holders for the sake of earning an income (Chapter 7) is an illustration of their struggle, or more strongly put, an in-between expression of resistance. Poor women remain invisible in their daily practice to access NTFPs. They use spaces that are considered undesirable by other forest actors. These spaces cannot be completely separated within the social arena, but they are knitted into the day to day practices of people. State intrusion into women’s customary and de facto practices concerns them. They fear that this will only reduce their chances of earning a modest livelihood from the forest. However, the women are also highly creative in reshaping their practices and relationships with every change that takes place around them. Firewood collection is the most visible, uninterrupted and non-compromising activity for women. In their daily struggle to feed the family, they virtually manage and control the forest. Contrary to this, women are not part of any dialogue on forestry reform. They need to be part of the negotiation process in which their spaces remain secure. The most important challenge is to create the mechanisms for discussion, negotiation, and arbitration of gendered access regimes under a variety of circumstances.

    Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep
    Khan, N.A. ; Habib, G. - \ 2012
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 44 (2012)7. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 1375 - 1381.
    tree leaves - northern grasslands - nutrient digestion - detergent fiber - pakistan - feed - degradability - rangeland - rumen
    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (> 164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P <0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 +/- 3 kg BW; age 11 +/- 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P <0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep.
    Pakistan seafood exports: Quick scan of the EU market potential
    Pijl, W. van der; Duijn, A.P. van - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report ) - 24
    visserij - aquacultuur - zeevruchten - visproducten - export - pakistan - fisheries - aquaculture - seafoods - fish products - exports - pakistan
    The Asian region is a major supplier of fish products to the EU market. The aquaculture sector in some Asian countries has become an important producer as well as exporter of white fish and shrimp, especially during the past five years. Within the Asian region CBI is currently developing an integrated programme for the seafood sector. For the development of this programme, a good understanding of the supply and de-mand side of the industry is necessary. In order to investigate whether it is advisable for CBI to invest in a programme to support further export growth of the seafood sectors of Pakistan and Sri Lanka, additional research is needed.
    Role of sediment transport in operation and maintenance of supply and demand based irrigation channels : application to Machai Maira Branch canals
    Munir, S. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Schulz, co-promotor(en): C.T. Hoanh. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858508 - 267
    geologische sedimentatie - irrigatiekanalen - hydrodynamica - modelleren - pakistan - geological sedimentation - irrigation channels - hydrodynamics - modeling - pakistan
    Like in many emerging and least developed countries, agriculture is vital for Pakistan’s
    national economy. It contributes 21% to the annual gross domestic product (GDP),
    engages 44% of total labour force and contributes 60% to the national export. Pakistan
    has a total area of 80 Mha (million hectares) with 22 Mha arable land, out of which 17
    Mha is under irrigation, mostly under canal irrigation. Due to the arid to semi-arid
    climate, the irrigation is predominantly necessary for successful crop husbandry in
    The development of modern irrigation in Indo-Pakistan started in 1859 with the
    construction of the Upper Bari Doab Canal on Ravi River and with the passage of time
    the irrigation system of Pakistan grew up to the world’s largest contiguous gravity flow
    irrigation system, known as the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS). In the IBIS almost
    all irrigation canals are directly fed from rivers, while river flows carry heavy sediment
    loads. Irrigation canals receiving such flows get massive amounts of sediments, which
    are then deposited in the irrigation canals depending upon the hydrodynamic conditions
    of the canals. Sediment deposition in irrigation canals causes serious operation and
    maintenance problems. Studies reveal that silt reduces up to 40% of the available
    discharge in irrigation canals.
    Researchers have been striving since long to manage this problem in a sustainable
    way and a number of approaches have been introduced in this connection. As a first step
    sediments are controlled at river intakes by silt excluders and ejectors. Then a canal
    design approach is adopted for keeping sediments in suspension and to distribute them
    as much as possible on the irrigated fields. Even then sediments tend to deposit in
    irrigation canals and become a serious problem in canal operation and maintenance,
    which then requires frequent desilting campaigns to keep water in the canals running. It
    causes a continuous burden on the national economy. In emerging and least developed
    countries, adequate and timely availability of funds for operation and maintenance is
    generally a problem. It causes delays in canal maintenance, which affects their hydraulic
    performance. Water is then delivered inadequately and inequitably to the water users.
    The story becomes further complicated when it comes to downstream controlled
    demand based irrigation canals under flexible operation. In fixed supply based operation,
    canals always run at full supply discharge and such operation, generally, does not allow
    sediment deposition in the canal prism due to sufficient velocities. Whereas in demand
    based flexible operation the canals cannot run always at full supply discharge but instead
    the discharge is changing depending upon the crop water requirement in the canal
    command area. Such type of canal operation is not always favourable to sediment
    transport as under low discharges, flow velocities fall quite low and hence sediment
    deposition may occur in the canal prism. The questions arise here what sort of
    hydrodynamic relationships prevent sediment deposition in downstream controlled
    irrigation canals and how these relationships can be adopted, while catering crop water
    requirements of the command area? How the maintenance needs can be minimized by
    managing sediment transport through better canal operation?
    This study has been designed to investigate such type of relationships and practices
    in order to manage sediment transport in downstream controlled demand based irrigation
    canals and to attain maximum hydraulic efficiency with minimum maintenance needs.
    The hypothesis of the study states that in demand based irrigation canals the volume of
    silt deposition can be minimized and even the sediments which deposit during low crop
    water requirement periods can be re-entrained during peak water requirement periods. In
    this way a balance can be maintained in sediment deposition and re-entrainment by
    adequate canal operation.
    Two computer models have been used in this study, namely, Simulation of
    Irrigation Canals (SIC) and SEdiment TRansport in Irrigation Canals (SETRIC). Both
    models are one-dimensional and are capable of simulating steady and unsteady state
    flows (SETRIC only steady state flows) and non equilibrium sediment transport in
    irrigation canals. The SIC model has the capability to simulate sediment transport under
    unsteady flow conditions and can assess the effect of sediment deposition on hydraulic
    performance of irrigation canals. Whereas the SETRIC model has the advantage of
    taking into account the development of bed forms and their effect on resistance to flow,
    which is the critical factor in irrigation canal design and management. In the SETRIC
    model, a new module regarding sediment transport simulations in downstream
    controlled irrigation canals has been incorporated.
    The study has been conducted on the Upper Swat Canal – Pehure High Level Canal
    (USC-PHLC) Irrigation System, which consists of three canals, Machai Branch Canal,
    PHLC and Maira Branch Canal. The Machai Branch Canal has upstream controlled
    supply based operation and the two other canals have downstream controlled demand
    based operation respectively. These canals are interconnected. The PHLC and Machai
    Branch canals feed Maira Branch Canal as well having their own irrigation systems.
    PHLC receives water from Tarbela Reservoir and Machai Branch Canal from the Swat
    River through USC. Water from Tarbela Reservoir, at present, is sediment free, whereas
    the water from Swat River is sediment laden. However, various studies have indicated
    that soon Tarbela Reservoir will be filled with sediments and will behave as run of the
    river system. Then PHLC will also receive sediment laden flows. The design discharges
    of Machai, PHLC and Maira Branch canals are 65, 28 and 27 m3/s respectively. The
    command area of the USC-PHLC Irrigation System is 115,800 ha.
    The USC-PHLC Irrigation System has been remodelled recently and water
    allowance has been increased from 0.34 l/s/h to 0.67 l/s/h. The upper USC system, from
    Machai Branch head to RD 242 (a control structure from where the downstream control
    system starts), was remodelled in 1995, whereas the system downstream of RD 242 was
    remodelled in 2003. The upper part of Machai Branch Canal up to an abscissa of about
    74,000 m is under fixed supply based operation, whereas the lower part of Machai
    Branch Canal, Maira Branch Canal and the PHLC are under semi-demand based flexible
    operation. The semi-demand based system is operated according to crop water
    requirements and follows a Crop Based Irrigation Operations (CBIO) schedule. When
    the crop water demand falls below 80% of the full supply discharge, a rotation system is
    introduced among the secondary offtakes. During very low crop water requirement
    periods the supplies are not reduced beyond a minimum limit of 50% of the full supply
    discharge because of the canal operation rule.
    The study consisted of fieldwork of two years in which daily canal operation data,
    monthly sediment inflow data in low sediment periods and weekly sediment data in peak
    concentration periods were collected. Three mass balance studies were conducted in
    which all the water and sediment inflows and outflows were measured with suspended
    sediment sampling at selected locations along the canal and boil sampling at the
    offtaking canals, immediately downstream of the head regulators. Further in the four
    months during the peak sediment season June, July, August and September, mass
    balance studies were conducted by boil sediment sampling in order to estimate water and
    sediment inflow to and outflow from the system. To determine the effect of sediment
    transport on the canals’ morphology, five cross-sectional surveys were conducted and
    changes in bed levels were measured. On the basis of these field data the two computer
    models, used in this study, were calibrated and validated for flow and sediment transport
    The downstream control component of the system is controlled automatically and
    the PHLC has been equipped with the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
    (SCADA) system at the headworks. Any discharge withdrawal or refusal by Water
    Users Associations (WUA) through offtaking secondary canals, or any discharge
    variation in the inflow from Machai Branch Canal is automatically adjusted by the
    SCADA system at Gandaf Outlet, the PHLC headworks. The SCADA system has
    Proportional Integral (PI) discharge controllers. The study found that the existing PI
    coefficients led to delay in discharge releases and resulted in a long time to achieve flow
    stability. The discharge releases showed an oscillatory behaviour which affected the
    functioning of hydro-mechanically operated downstream control “Aval Orifice” (AVIO)
    and “Aval Surface” (AVIS) gates. After calibration and validation of the model the PI
    controllers were fine-tuned and proposed for improved canal operation, which would
    help in system sustainability and in improved operational efficiency of the canals.
    Field data show that during the study period sedimentation in the studied irrigation
    canals remained within control limits. The incoming sediment loads were, generally,
    lower than the sediment transport capacities of the studied irrigation canals. Hence this
    incoming sediment load was transported by the main canals and distributed to the
    offtaking canals. The sediment transport capacities of the studied irrigation canals were
    computed at steady and unsteady state conditions. The canal operation data showed that
    the system was operated on Supply Based Operation (SBO) approach rather than CBIO.
    The morphological data revealed that there was no significant deposition in the studied
    canals. Therefore there was no particular effect on the canal operation and the hydraulic
    efficiencies, attributed to sediment transport.
    As mentioned earlier, the Tarbela Reservoir will soon be filled with sediments and
    consequently PHLC will get sediment laden flows from the reservoir. Various studies
    have been taken into account to project the time when sediment laden flows will flow
    into the PHLC and what will be the characteristics and concentrations of the incoming
    sediments to the PHLC from the reservoir. The studies project that the sediment inflow
    from the Tarbela Reservoir will be much higher than the sediment transport capacities of
    the PHLC and Maira Branch Canal under full supply discharge conditions. This scenario
    will create sediment transport problems in downstream controlled canals, particularly
    when they will be operated under CBIO.
    Various management options have been simulated and are presented in order to
    better manage sediments in the studied canals under the scenario of sediment inflow
    from Tarbela Reservoir. The hydraulic performance of downstream controlled canals
    will be affected under this scenario and frequent maintenance and repair will be required
    to maintain the canals. Various options have been analysed to deal with the problem.
    The study presents a sediment management plan for downstream controlled irrigation
    canals by improvements in canal design and operation in combination with the need of
    settling ponds at the canal headworks.
    Currently sedimentation in the irrigation canals under study is not a big issue for
    canal operation and maintenance (O&M). However, it would emerge as a major problem
    when sediment discharge from the Tarbela Reservoir starts. The canals’ maintenance
    costs will soar and the hydrodynamic performance of these canals will also be affected.
    In this study, a number of ways have been evaluated and proposed to deal with the
    approaching problem of sediment transport in these irrigation canals in order to keep
    their hydraulic performance at desired levels and to minimize the maintenance costs.
    The first and the foremost effect of sediment deposition will be reduction in canals’ flow
    conveyance capacities, which will result in raise of water levels. The raise of water
    levels will cause a reduction in water supply to the canals due to automatic flow releases.
    It can be dealt with by a temporary and limited raise in target water levels depending
    upon the maximum headloss at the downstream AVIS/AVIO cross regulator. Further, to
    minimize the effect of water level raise on discharge through the AVIS/AVIO gates, the
    decrement in such canals can be kept relatively small, in order to make the gates less
    sensitive to water level changes. Further, for efficient withdrawal of sediment to the
    secondary canals, it is needed to locate the secondary offtakes close to AVIS/AVIO
    cross regulators on the downstream side. More sediment will be discharged because the
    turbulent mixing of sediment at the downstream side of the control structures keeps
    more sediment in suspension. In addition, during the peak sediment concentration
    periods, the canals need to be operated at supply based operations, in order to minimize
    the deposition.
    Sediment transport in general and in irrigation canals in particular, is one of the
    most studied and discussed topic in the field of fluid mechanics all over the world. It
    also has been studied extensively in Indus Basin in order to design and manage irrigation
    canals receiving sediment laden flows. The outcome of Lacey’s regime theory and the
    subsequent work are the result of these studies. In addition to regime method various
    other methods like permissible velocity method, tractive force method and the rational
    methods, etc., have been developed for stable canal design. Anyhow, as a matter of fact,
    the management of sediment transport in irrigation canals is still a challenging task even
    after all these investigations and studies. Because most of the knowledge on sediment
    transport is empirical in nature, most sediment transport formulae have inbuilt
    randomness, which makes predictions difficult, when conditions are changed. It needs a
    lot of care while applying a sediment transport formula, developed under one set of
    conditions, to other situations. Therefore, it becomes extremely important to understand
    the origin of the development of the formulae and the limitations associated with them
    before applying some sediment transport formulae to different conditions and
    circumstances. The introduction of numerical modelling made it comparatively easy to
    test and shape the sediment transport relationships to some local conditions by running a
    variety of simulations and calibrating the formula in light of the field measurements. The
    sediment transport predictions can be made reliable in this way and can be used for
    further analysis.
    Remote Sensing and Economic Indicators for Supporting Water Resources Management Decisions
    Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Soppe, R. ; Perry, C.J. - \ 2010
    Water Resources Management 24 (2010)11. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 2419 - 2436.
    indus basin - productivity - land - evapotranspiration - precipitation - irrigation - pakistan - scales
    This paper demonstrates that combining spatial land surface data with socio-economic analysis provides a number of indicators to strengthen decision making in integrated water and environmental management. It provides a basis to: track current water consumption in the Inkomati Basin in South-Africa; adjust irrigation water management; select crop types; facilitate planning; estimate crop yields before harvesting, and consequently to forecast market price development. Remote sensing data and economic analysis can also be used to study the spatial distribution of water consumption as an indicator of equity in access to water resources. It even enables identification of farms that consume more irrigation water than formally allocated. Finally, it provides a basis to assess the cost-effectiveness of various ways to reduce agricultural water consumption. So, this approach is potentially useful for determining water consumption, refining water allocation policies, and determining the potential for water transfers through mechanisms such as water trading
    A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa
    Speelman, S. ; Haese, M.F.C. D'; Buysse, J. ; Haese, L. D' - \ 2008
    Agricultural Systems 98 (2008)1. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 31 - 39.
    data envelopment analysis - technical efficiency - productive efficiency - benchmarking - farms - spain - agriculture - bangladesh - pakistan - industry
    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water resources and the approaching introduction of water charges raise the concern for more efficient water use. With the data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques used to compute farm-level technical efficiency measures and sub-vector efficiencies for water use, it was shown that under constant returns to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS) specification, substantial technical inefficiencies, of 49% and 16%, respectively, exist among farmers. The sub-vector efficiencies for water proved to be even lower, indicating that if farmers became more efficient using the technology currently available, it would be possible to reallocate a fraction of the irrigation water to other water demands without threatening the role of small-scale irrigation. In a second step, Tobit regression techniques were used to examine the relationship between sub-vector efficiency for water and various farm or farmer characteristics. Farm size, landownership, fragmentation, the type of irrigation scheme, crop choice and the irrigation methods applied showed a significant impact on the sub-vector efficiency for water. Such information is valuable for extension services and policy makers since it can help to guide policies towards increased efficiency.
    Performance assessment of subsurface drainage systems : case studies from Egypt and Pakistan
    Ritzema, H.P. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra-ILRI - 137
    ondergrondse drainage - monitoring - egypte - pakistan - agrohydrologie - subsurface drainage - monitoring - egypt - pakistan - agrohydrology
    A case study set-up for the performance assessment of subsurface drainage systems for agricultural land drainage has been developed and 76 case studies from Egypt and Pakistan have been prepared. Based on these case studies, performance indicators for subsurface drainage systems have been derived and the main lessons learned to assess the performance of these systems have been summarized.
    Of flumes, modules and barrels: the failure of irrigation institutions and technologies to achieve equitable water control in the Indus Basin
    Halsema, G.E. van; Vincent, L.F. - \ 2006
    In: A history of water. Volume 1. Water control and river biographies London : I.B. Tauris - ISBN 9781850434450 - p. 55 - 91.
    irrigatie - hydraulische systemen - pakistan - geschiedenis - irrigation - hydraulic structures - pakistan - history
    Gendered Participation in water Management: Issues from Water Users' Associations in South Asia
    Meinzen-Dick, R. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2003
    In: Household Decisions, Gender, and Development. A synthesis of recent research / Quisumbing, A.R., Washington : International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) - ISBN 9780896297173 - p. 153 - 158.
    waterbeheer - irrigatie - watergebruik - india - pakistan - participatie - vrouwen - associaties - geslacht (gender) - water management - irrigation - water use - participation - women - india - pakistan - associations - gender
    Reuse of drainage water for rice and wheat growth during reclamation of saline-sodic soils in Pakistan under the national drainage program (NDP)
    Ghafoor, A. ; Boers, T.M. - \ 2003
    rijst - padigronden - hergebruik van water - irrigatie - pakistan - zoute gronden - rice - saline soils - paddy soils - water reuse - irrigation - pakistan
    Pakistan is facing scarcity of canal water for irrigated agriculture on 16 mha land. This problem is caused, among others, by the loss of surface storage capacity and by the current prolonged dry spell lasting over the several past years. Siltation of Mangla, Tarbela and Chashma Dams have caused a loss of . 5 km3 which is 25 % of the design capacity. Since this problem is increasing, there may be a gradual decrease of food production for a population of 140 million, which is expected to have doubled by 2025. Water shortage is the most serious for the provinces of Punjab and Sindh, where ground water is of hazardous quality and about 75 % of pumped ground water is not safe for irrigation without amendments. In this scenario, it appears wise and timely to study the prospects of growing food grains during reclamation of salt-affected soils using ground water to save good quality canal water for irrigating good soils. Under arid and semi-arid conditions of Pakistan with scarce and irregular rainfall, limited leaching of salts promotes soil salination followed by sodication, induced by irrigation with ground water of high EC, SAR and RSC without amendments or other agronomic management practices. In this way, 6 mha of soils have become salt-affected, of which 60 % are saline-sodic and needs a source of calcium for amelioration. For initial reclamation of salt-affected soils, low quality irrigation waters are generally useful and some times even better than canal water, due to favorable effects of electrolytes on infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity. For a variety of reasons, farmers are not properly applying the technologies for reclamation and management of saline-sodic soils. To improve this situation on sustainable basis, Univ. Agri., Faisalabad has launched a three-year research study on reclamation of saline-sodic soils by reusing drainage water, in which farmers are participating. The experiments were started in June 2001 in the Fourth Drainage Project Area located in the Central Punjab and are funded by the National Drainage Programme. The reclamation technologies include split application of gypsum @ soil or water GR alone and in combination with FYM or green manure, and on-farm wheat seed priming. This paper will present preliminary results and recommendations pertaining to economical as well as sustainable reuse of drainage water on saline-sodic soils, farmers' constraints and limitations for adapting the required technologies in this regard on the basis of the on-going experiments.
    Strategies for productive use of brackish water for sustainable food grain productiuon [sic] in dry regions
    Zia, M.H. ; Ghafoor, A. ; Boers, T.M. - \ 2003
    irrigatie - pakistan - bodemchemie - zoutgehalte - zoute gronden - ontginning - oogstschade - irrigation - saline soils - soil chemistry - salinity - reclamation - crop damage - pakistan
    Due to unavoidable, prolonged irrigation with marginal quality water, secondary salinization of irrigated soils in Pakistan has necessitated to a need for better understanding of the water management alternatives. Although H2SO4 and gypsum have far been recognized for their benefits in treating brackish water but during field trials, their relative performance still remains controversial for counteracting the Na-hazards in soil/water system. As alternative sulfur burners are also being marketed but up till now there is not even a single field study published in some journal about their efficiency and economical viability for the treatment of brackish water. Therefore a field study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of sulfurous acid generator (SAG) and other water/soil applied amendments on a normal, calcareous, well drained, sandy loam soil. Rice 2001, wheat 2001-02, and rice 2002 were planted in rotation during the experimentation period with a total of 54 treated and 8 untreated irrigations (each of 7.5 cm). Tube well water used had EC = 3.24 dS m-1, SAR=17.23 and RSC = 5.44 mmolc L-1. The treatments were: T0) Brackish tube well water without any amendment; T1) All irrigation with water passed through SAG; T2) Alternate irrigation-one of SAG treated and one of tube well water, T3) One irrigation with SAG treated water and two with untreated tube well water; T4) FYM @ 15 t ha-1yr-1; T5) Soil applied gypsum to each crop equivalent to affect a decrease in WRSC of tube well water treated with SAG, and T6) H2SO4- fertigation at each irrigation equivalent to affect a decrease in RSC of tube well water with SAG. Water analysis after treatment with SAG (an average of 20 irrigations) revealed that SAG treatment affected only one parameter i.e. water RSC from 5.44 to 3.55, and had no beneficial effect on SARiw and ECiw. After three crops, a minor decrease (up to 2.5%) and increase (up to 5.3%) in soil pHs over initial values was noted at 0-15 & 15-30 cm depth. After three crops the soil ECe and SAR were maintained below the threshold levels and the treatments had non-significant differences. On the basis of three crops, net benefit was maximum, from T4 followed by T5, T3, T0, T2, T6 and T1. The use of sulfur burner/ sulfuric acid was found to be 5 times costlier than gypsum in our study. It is concluded that soil application of gypsum and/or farmyard manure to counter the sodic hazards of irrigation water will be useful as well as economical for rice-wheat rotation on a normal, calcareous well drained soil. However, for fine textured soils with low infiltration rates, to expect similar situation might not be correct for which additional studies are imperative.
    Groundwater modelling to assess the effect of interceptor drainage and lining; hydrological and modelling concepts
    Jansen, H.C. - \ 2003
    pakistan - irrigatiekanalen - bekledingen - lekkage - hydrologie - modellen - irrigation channels - linings - leakage - hydrology - models - pakistan
    Recharge to the aquifer through seepage from irrigation canals is often quoted as one of the main causes for waterlogging in Pakistan. In the design of drainage systems to control this waterlogging, rules-of-thumb are often used to quantify the seepage from canals. This paper presents the option to use a groundwater model for a more detailed assessment. Groundwater models can assist in evaluating the effect of recharge reducing measures such as interceptor drains along irrigation canals and lining. These measures are commonly aimed at reducing the drainage requirement of adjacent agricultural lands. In this paper the hydrological concepts with respect to leakage from irrigation canals and interception by interceptor drains are presented. A good understanding of these concepts is critical for the proper application of numerical groundwater models and for the correct quantification of model parameters. Key hydraulic parameters are the infiltration resistance of the bed and slopes of irrigation canals, the drain entry resistance of interceptor drains, hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic resistance of soil layers and equivalent depth of groundwater flow. The paper shows how the hydrological concepts can be transferred into model parameters for the widely used groundwater modelling package MODFLOW. Most concepts, however, can also be applied in other modelling packages. The presented hydrological and modelling concepts have been applied in a numerical model for the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia project, Pakistan. This model application is reported in a separate paper.
    Groundwater modelling to assess the effect of interceptor drainage and lining; example of model application in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia project, Pakistan
    Jansen, H.C. ; Bhutta, M.N. ; Javed, I. ; Wolters, W. - \ 2003
    pakistan - irrigatiekanalen - waterverzadiging - kwel - drainage - irrigation channels - waterlogging - seepage - drainage - pakistan
    Recharge to the aquifer through seepage from irrigation canals is often quoted as one of the main causes for waterlogging in Pakistan. In the design of drainage systems to control this waterlogging, rules-of-thumb are often used to quantify the seepage from canals. This paper presents the option to use a groundwater model for a more detailed assessment. Groundwater models may assist in evaluating the effect of recharge reducing measures such as interceptor drains along irrigation canals and lining. These measures are commonly aimed at reducing the drainage requirement of adjacent agricultural lands. In this paper an example is given of the application of a numerical groundwater model, aimed at assessing the effect of interceptor drainage and canal lining in the Fordwah Eastern Sadiqia project, being a typical and well-monitored location in Pakistan. The paper also presents references to other conditions. The model was used to obtain a better insight in the key hydraulic parameters, such as the infiltration resistance of the bed and slopes of irrigation canals, the drain entry resistance of interceptor drains and the hydraulic conductivity of soil layers. The model was applied to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of interceptor drains under various conditions. The results of the study show that the net percentage of intercepted seepage is too low to have a significant effect on the drainage requirement of the adjacent agricultural lands. Besides, the operation of the system, with pumping required, is often an added headache for the institution responsible for operation of the system. The marginal effect of interceptor drains and lining on the drainage requirement of adjacent agricultural land does not always justify the large investments involved. It can be concluded that: · Use of rules-of-thumb to estimate components of the water balance of irrigation systems in designing drainage can be very misleading; · Interceptor drainage may cause induced seepage from irrigation canals, which is often an order of magnitude more than the net intercepted seepage; · Interceptor drains and canal lining do not significantly reduce the drainage requirements, or in other words, cannot prevent the need for the installation of a drainage system. · A numerical model can aid to evaluate proposed measures and strategies to alleviate water losses and drainage problems. Relevant hydrological concepts and modelling parameters with respect to leakage from irrigation canals and interception by interceptor drains are presented in a separate paper.
    Sustainable use of groundwater for irrigation: A numerical analysis of the subsoil water fluxes
    Ahmad, M.U.D. ; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M. ; Feddes, R.A. - \ 2002
    Irrigation and Drainage 51 (2002)3. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 227 - 241.
    watervoorziening - grondwater - irrigatie - pakistan - water supply - groundwater - irrigation - pakistan - evaporation - model - soil - simulation - recharge - zone
    The food-producing regions of the world increasingly rely on irrigation from groundwater resources. Further increases of groundwater use can adversely affect the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and put food security at risk. Sustainability of irrigation at field scale with groundwater is obtained if groundwater recharge is in equilibrium with tubewell extractions and capillary rise. Traditional information on phreatic surface behaviour does not explain the processes causing a phreatic surface to decline or incline. In this study, the physically based numerical model Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) was applied to compute soil moisture content and vertical soil water fluxes in the unsaturated zone for the cotton-wheat and rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. SWAP has been calibrated and verified with in situ measurements of soil moisture content and evapotranspiration fluxes measured by means of the Bowen ratio surface energy balance technique. Accurate data of the soil hydraulic properties are critical for the calibration of the soil moisture distribution. With knowledge of the van Genuchten-Mualem parameters available, SWAP could be applied to assess recharge and capillary rise for most field conditions, including basin irrigation. The results under Pakistani conditions show that deep percolation cannot always be estimated from root zone water balances. An annual recharge of 23.3 cm was computed for the cotton-wheat area. Sustainability of irrigation with groundwater is obtained if a reduction in irrigation with groundwater by 36% is obtained. An annual recharge of 38.9 cm is estimated in rice-wheat systems, and a reduction of 62% in groundwater extraction is required to reach sustainability of groundwater use at field scale. Such information cannot be obtained from classical phreatic surface fluctuation data, and unsaturated zone modelling therefore provides additional insights for groundwater policy making.
    Estimation of net groundwater use in irrigated river basins using geo-information techniques : a case study in Rechna Doab, Pakistan
    Ahmad, M.D. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; W.G.M. Bastiaanssen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087614 - 143
    landbouw met irrigatie - rivierdalen - grondwaterwinning - grondwater - kwantiteitscontrole - schatting - geografische informatiesystemen - pakistan - irrigated farming - river valleys - groundwater extraction - groundwater - quantity controls - estimation - geographical information systems - pakistan
    Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, water balance, groundwater, net groundwater use, recharge, water management, Rechna Doab, Pakistan.

    Over-exploitation of groundwater resources threatens the future of irrigated agriculture, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In order to reverse this trend and to ensure future food security, the achievement of sustainable groundwater use has become a global issue. To address the challenges of aquifer mining and sustainable management, a quantitative analysis of recharge and groundwater use is essential. Spatio-temporally distributed information on net groundwater use - i.e. the difference between tubewell withdrawals for irrigation and net recharge - is often unknown at the river basin scale. Conventionally, groundwater managers and policy makers look at either groundwater withdrawal by tubewells or phreatic surface fluctuations (if available). However, these methods are ineffective for describing the vertical water fluxes occurring between the unsaturated and saturated zones. Even in detailed groundwater modelling, these vertical water fluxes are difficult to assess.

    This endeavour aspires to develop a methodology for computing the various water balance components of the unsaturated zone by using geo-information techniques. These water balance components are then used to compute the net groundwater use. With this approach, groundwater recharge will not be quantified explicitly, but is a part of net groundwater use. Records of routine climatic data, canal discharges at major offtakes, phreatic surface depth, and coarse information on soil textural properties are required as input data. The Rechna Doab region (approximately 2.97 million ha), located in the Indus basin irrigation system of Pakistan, has been used for this case study.

    In order to better understand the interaction and dynamics of sub-soil water fluxes, field studies were conducted in rice-wheat and cotton-wheat areas representing shallow (2 m), as well as deep (10 m), phreatic surface conditions. A detailed physically-based transient agro-hydrological model (SWAP) has been used to compute sub-soil water fluxes including recharge, and capillary rise. The SWAP model was calibrated using in situ measurements of soil moisture content and actual evapotranspiration. The results of the field modelling were used to develop and test a new, simple method for computing soil moisture storage changes in the unsaturated zone, using root zone soil moisture content and depth to the phreatic surface. This method can also be applied in combination with Remote sensing and GIS data to compute soil moisture storage changes across vast areas.

    Regional scale actual evapotranspiration and soil moisture maps were derived using the remote sensing algorithm termed SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land). New geomatic approaches were developed and tested that estimate the disaggregated canal water distribution in an irrigated basin, using discharge measurements at main canal offtakes and satellite imagery. The accuracy of the computed canal water distribution was highest when Landsat image (with a resolution of 30 m) was used to identify the shape of the irrigated areas. This implies that high-resolution satellite images can be used to discern canal water use from groundwater use.

    Net groundwater use was computed for the entire Rechna Doab using the derived maps of spatially distributed water balance components. On an annual basis, an average net groundwater use of 82 mm yr -1was estimated, which coincides with groundwater inflows of 53 mm yr -1that conserve the water balance of the saturated zone. Using the technique presented in this thesis, the computed net groundwater use, based on an unsaturated zone water balance, deviates from classical method estimates, using specific yield and fluctuation of the phreatic surface, by 65%. The deviation from estimates using tubewell withdrawal related data is even higher (several hundred percent).

    Trial & re-trial : the evolution of irrigation modernisation in NWFP, Pakistan
    Halsema, G.E. van - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L.F. Vincent; D.H. Murray-Rust. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086846 - 322
    irrigatie - modernisering - plattelandsontwikkeling - waterbeheer - noordwestelijke grensprovincie (pakistan) - pakistan - irrigation - modernization - rural development - water management - north-west frontier (pakistan) - pakistan

    Keywords: irrigation modernisation, systems theory, design processes, operational management, water management, performance assessment, institutional reform, Pakistan, Indus-basin, Lower Swat Canal, Upper Swat Canal, Pehur High Level Canal, Chasma Right Bank Canal, National Drainage Project, protective irrigation, productive irrigation, design concepts, Mardan- and Swabi-SCARP.

    "Trial & Re-Trial" reviews four irrigation modernisation projects in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan, which had as aim to transform the traditional "protective" irrigation systems into "productive" 'crop-based' irrigation systems. The framework of systems analysis is used to analyse how concepts of modern irrigation are construed. Specific attention is given to how (operational) management issues are integrated in the designed concepts of modern "productive" irrigation, and how the different conceptions on management and 'modernity' by designers, operation agencies and water users shape the post-implementation outcomes. To gain understanding of how the practices, conceptions and strategies of water management of water users and operation agencies have been shaped by past experiences and developments, an historical analysis is made of the establishment of the Indus basin and its "protective" irrigation systems, and its development up to the modernisation programme. The modernisation projects reviewed cover the different phases of design and construction, performance evaluation, and impact assessment. It is argued that the imposition of technical design concepts through externalised interventions hampers the process of change management. Finally, the institutional reform process started with the National Drainage Project is briefly reviewed as a new approach for handling the water management issues governing the Indus basin.

    Netherlands Research Assistance Project : Final report : 1988 - 2000
    Anonymous, - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 354) - 93
    zoutgehalte - drainage - zoute gronden - ontginning - programma-evaluatie - ontwikkelingshulp - beoordeling - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - pakistan - nederland - hydrologie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - waterbeheer - Azië - salinity - drainage - saline soils - reclamation - program evaluation - development aid - assessment - development programmes - pakistan - netherlands
    The Netherlands research assistance project was implemented from 1988 till 2000. The project was a joint undertaking by the International Waterlogging and Salinity Research Institute (IWASRI), Lahore, Pakistan, and the International Institute for LandReclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, the Netherlands. The project focused on drainage technical research during its first years, and on participatory drainage development in the last years.
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