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Breaching the black box: The role of ramps in Thai sustainable palm oil certification
Innocenti, E. Degli; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2019
Asia Pacific Viewpoint (2019). - ISSN 1360-7456 - 17 p.
palm oil - ramps - Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil - sustainable value chains - Thailand
Certification of sustainable palm oil as organised through the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil is based on a simplified understanding of the global palm oil value chain – according to which instructions about production practices can be directly translated from the palm oil mill to the primary producer. The reality of palm oil provision is much more complex than this as is shown in the case of Thailand. On the basis of qualitative field study in Southern Thailand this paper clarifies that intermediary stages, such as the collection of oil palm fruit bunches at the ramp, play a key role in the organisation of the chain. The fluidity and complexity of the palm oil flow at the local level complicates the promotion of sustainability through certification. Global and national stakeholders, such as processing and trading firms, non-governmental organisations and national governments, should therefore open this black box of local dynamics to more effectively contribute to sustainability in palm oil supply.
Public and Private Governance in Interaction: Changing Interpretations of Sovereignty in the Field of Sustainable Palm Oil
Schouten, A.M. ; Hospes, O. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 15 p.
VSS - public–private interactions - sovereignty - sustainability - palm oil
Since the 1990s, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and businesses have gained prominence as architects of new forms of transnational governance creating Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS). The legitimacy and effectiveness of VSS are dependent on interactions with public authorities and regulation. While studies suggest that the (perceived) gain or loss of sovereignty by a state shapes public–private interactions, we have little understanding on how states use or interpret sovereignty in their interactions with VSS. In this paper, we explore what interpretations of sovereignty are used by states at different ends of global value chains in interactions with VSS. Based on a comparative and longitudinal study of interactions of Indonesian and Dutch state actors with the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, we conclude that states strategically use different and changing notions of sovereignty to control the policy and debate regarding sustainable palm oil.When interactions between public and private governance are coordinative in nature, notions of interdependent sovereignty are used. However, when interactions are competitive, domestic and Westphalian notions of sovereignty are used. Our results show conflicting interpretations and usages of sovereignty by different states, which might negatively impact the regulatory capacity within an issue field to address sustainability issues.
Implementing a palm oil-based biodiesel policy: The case of Thailand
Nupueng, S. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2018
Energy Science & Engineering 6 (2018)6. - ISSN 2050-0505 - p. 643 - 657.
biodiesel - energy policy - palm oil - sustainability - Thailand
Renewable energy promotion is recognized as an important goal in international climate policies in order to reduce CO2-emissions. Biodiesel can potentially be an important contributor in this respect, especially in Thailand with its large biomass production from oil palm cultivation. Palm oil is the main raw feedstock for biodiesel production. However, biodiesel production is also controversial in many respects, in particular considering its sustainability. This paper assesses the collaboration between different actors in the Thai biodiesel and oil palm networks in organizing biodiesel provision. Through qualitative interviews with key political, economic, and societal actors the structure and the dynamic of the biodiesel and oil palm industry, as well as the relevant policy dynamics, were investigated. We found that the implementation of biodiesel policy was dominated by the need to secure the production of palm oil-based
cooking oil leading to frequent adjustments. Sustainable improvement
and environmental considerations hardly played a role in the interactions between the actors involved in the palm oil and biodiesel industries. Government
agencies were dominant and steered the biodiesel and the oil palm industries both directly and indirectly via economic and societal actors. Nevertheless, the promotion of biodiesel continues to be the basis of the national renewable energy master plan with its clear target to balance and stabilize the economic, social and environmental issues. As the renewable energy master plan does not fit with the possible feedstock, the main challenges in achieving these sustainable targets are therefore how to maintain a stable and consistent policy, especially concerning balancing the palm oil used for biodiesel production on the one hand and palm oil-based cooking oil on the other.
Vertically Differentiating Environmental Standards: The Case of the Marine Stewardship Council
Bush, S.R. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015)2. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 1861 - 1883.
global value chains - sustainability standards - developing-countries - private governance - msc certification - agrifood system - palm oil - fisheries - industry - trade
This paper explores the externally-led vertical differentiation of third-party certification standards using the case of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). We analyze this process in two dimensions. First, fisheries employ strategies to capture further market value from fishing practices that go beyond their initial conditions for certification and seek additional recognition for these activities through co-labelling with, amongst others, international NGOs. Second, fisheries not yet able to meet the requirements of MSC standards are being enrolled in NGO and private sector sponsored Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs), providing an alternative route to global markets. In both cases the credibility and authority of the MSC is challenged by new coalitions of market actors opening up new strategies for capturing market value and/or improving the conditions of international market access. Through the lens of global value chains, the results offer new insights on how such standards not only influence trade and markets, but are also starting to change their internal governance in response to threats to their credibility by actors and modes of coordination in global value chains.
Management swing potential for bioenergy crops
Davis, S.C. ; Boddey, R.M. ; Alves, B.J.R. ; Cowie, A.L. ; George, B.H. ; Ogle, S.M. ; Smith, P. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Wijk, M.T. van - \ 2013
Global change biology Bioenergy 5 (2013)6. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 623 - 638.
greenhouse-gas emissions - land-use change - life-cycle assessment - soil organic-carbon - miscanthus x giganteus - oil production systems - palm oil - mallee biomass - western-australia - mitigation options
Bioenergy crops are often classified (and subsequently regulated) according to species that have been evaluated as environmentally beneficial or detrimental, but in practice, management decisions rather than species per se can determine the overall environmental impact of a bioenergy production system. Here, we review the greenhouse gas balance and management swing potential' of seven different bioenergy cropping systems in temperate and tropical regions. Prior land use, harvesting techniques, harvest timing, and fertilization are among the key management considerations that can swing the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy from positive to negative or the reverse. Although the management swing potential is substantial for many cropping systems, there are some species (e.g., soybean) that have such low bioenergy yield potentials that the environmental impact is unlikely to be reversed by management. High-yielding bioenergy crops (e.g., corn, sugarcane, Miscanthus, and fast-growing tree species), however, can be managed for environmental benefits or losses, suggesting that the bioenergy sector would be better informed by incorporating management-based evaluations into classifications of bioenergy feedstocks.
Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens
Smink, W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Hovenier, R. ; Geelen, M.J.H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2010
Poultry Science 89 (2010)11. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2432 - 2440.
abdominal fat - unsaturated fats - adipose-tissue - beef tallow - palm oil - accumulation - oxidation - digestion - digestibility - purification
The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50:50 mix of hydrogenated and native SO, palm oil, and randomized palm oil were fed to broiler chickens. Intake of digestible fat and fatty acids, whole body fatty acid deposition, hepatic fatty acid profile, and hepatic enzyme activities involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were measured. The fat deposition:digestible fat intake ratio was significantly lower for the SO group in comparison with the groups fed the vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids. The difference between digestible intake and deposition of C18:2, reflecting its maximum disappearance rate, was highest for the SO group and lowest for the palm oil- and randomized palm oil-fed birds. The calculated minimal rate of de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), calculated as deposition minus digestible intake, was more than 50% lower for the SO group than for the other 3 dietary groups. Based on the fatty acid profiles in the liver, it would appear that increasing contents of C18:2 decrease the desaturation of saturated fatty acids into MUFA. It is concluded that a diet rich in C18:2 in comparison with different kinds of vegetable saturated fatty acids decreases the deposition of fat, especially of MUFA. It appears to be caused by a higher ß-oxidation and a reduced de novo synthesis of MUFA, but this conclusion is not fully supported by the measured activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.
Bioenergy revisited: Key factors in global potentials of bioenergy
Dornburg, V. ; Vuuren, D. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Langeveld, C.A. ; Meeusen, M. ; Banse, M.A.H. ; Oorschot, M. van; Ros, J. ; Born, G.J. van den; Aiking, H. ; Londo, M. ; Mozaffarian, H. ; Verweij, P. ; Lysen, E. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2010
Energy & Environmental Science 3 (2010)3. - ISSN 1754-5692 - p. 258 - 267.
land-use scenarios - biomass energy - environmental-impact - water-use - palm oil - exploration - biofuels - habitat - willow - diet
he growing use of bioenergy goes hand in hand with a heated public debate, in which conflicting claims are made regarding the amount of biomass that can be sustainably used for this purpose. This article assesses the current knowledge on biomass resource potentials and interrelated factors such as water availability, biodiversity, food demand, energy demand and agricultural commodity markets. A sensitivity analysis of the available information narrows the range of biomass potentials from 0–1500 EJ/yr to approximately 200–500 EJ/yr in 2050. In determining the latter range, water limitations, biodiversity protection and food demand are taken into consideration. Key factors are agricultural efficiency and crop choice. In principle, global biomass potentials could meet up to one third of the projected global energy demand in 2050.