Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Hydrometeorological multi-model ensemble simulations of the 4 November 2011 flash flood event in Genoa, Italy, in the framework of the DRIHM Project
    Hally, A. ; Caumont, O. ; Garrote, L. ; Richard, E. ; Weerts, A.H. ; Delogu, F. ; Fiori, E. ; Rebora, N. ; Parodi, A. ; Mihalovic, A. ; Ivkovic, M. ; Dekic, L. ; Verseveld, W.J. ; Nuissier, O. ; Ducrocq, V.P. ; Agostino, D. d'; Galizia, A. ; Danovaro, E. ; Clematis, A. - \ 2015
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 15 (2015). - ISSN 1561-8633 - p. 537 - 555.
    distributed hydrological model - convection-permitting ensemble - rainfall-runoff model - precipitating events - forecasting system - prediction system - extreme rainfall - mesoscale - scheme - parameterization
    The e-Science environment developed in the framework of the EU-funded DRIHM project was used to demonstrate its ability to provide relevant, meaningful hydrometeorological forecasts. This was illustrated for the tragic case of 4 November 2011, when Genoa, Italy, was flooded as the result of heavy, convective precipitation that inundated the Bisagno catchment. The Meteorological Model Bridge (MMB), an innovative software component developed within the DRIHM project for the interoperability of meteorological and hydrological models, is a key component of the DRIHM e-Science environment. The MMB allowed three different rainfall-discharge models (DRiFt, RIBS and HBV) to be driven by four mesoscale limited-area atmospheric models (WRF-NMM, WRF-ARW, Meso-NH and AROME) and a downscaling algorithm (RainFARM) in a seamless fashion. In addition to this multi-model configuration, some of the models were run in probabilistic mode, thus giving a comprehensive account of modelling errors and a very large amount of likely hydrometeorological scenarios (> 1500). The multi-model approach proved to be necessary because, whilst various aspects of the event were successfully simulated by different models, none of the models reproduced all of these aspects correctly. It was shown that the resulting set of simulations helped identify key atmospheric processes responsible for the large rainfall accumulations over the Bisagno basin. The DRIHM e-Science environment facilitated an evaluation of the sensitivity to atmospheric and hydrological modelling errors. This showed that both had a significant impact on predicted discharges, the former being larger than the latter. Finally, the usefulness of the set of hydrometeorological simulations was assessed from a flash flood early-warning perspective.
    The Challenge of Forecasting the Onset and Development of Radiation Fog Using Mesoscale Atmospheric Models
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2015
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 154 (2015)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 265 - 289.
    boundary-layer - climate models - prediction - resolution - weather - system - parameterization - detrainment - sensitivity - simulation
    The numerical weather prediction of radiation fog is challenging, as many models typically show large biases for the timing of the onset and dispersal of the fog, as well as for its depth and liquid water content. To understand the role of physical processes, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land-surface coupling, and microphysics, we evaluate the HARMONIE and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale models for two contrasting warm fog episodes at the relatively flat terrain around the Cabauw tower facility in the Netherlands. One case involves a radiation fog that arose in calm anticyclonic conditions, and the second is a radiation fog that developed just after a cold front passage. The WRF model represents the radiation fog well, while the HARMONIE model forecasts a stratus lowering fog layer in the first case and hardly any fog in the second case. Permutations of parametrization schemes for boundary-layer mixing, radiation and microphysics, each for two levels of complexity, have been evaluated within the WRF model. It appears that the boundary-layer formulation is critical for forecasting the fog onset, while for fog dispersal the choice of the microphysical scheme is a key element, where a double-moment scheme outperforms any of the single-moment schemes. Finally, the WRF model results appear to be relatively insensitive to horizontal grid spacing, but nesting deteriorates the modelled fog formation. Increasing the domain size leads to a more scattered character of the simulated fog. Model results with one-way or two-way nesting show approximately comparable results.
    Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget
    Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Stacke, T. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Lucas-Picher, P. - \ 2014
    Journal of Hydrometeorology 15 (2014)3. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 1028 - 1050.
    soil-moisture - part i - precipitation - climate - monsoon - scheme - models - cycle - parameterization - representation
    The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation was represented by adding water to the soil moisture to keep it at 90% of the maximum soil moisture storage capacity, regardless of water availability. For two focus regions, the seasonal cycle of irrigation matched that of the reference dataset, but irrigation application varied between the models by up to 0.8 mm day(-1). Because of the irrigation, evaporation increased in all models, but precipitation decreased because of a strong decrease in atmospheric moisture convergence. A moisture tracking scheme was used to track individual evaporated moisture parcels through the atmosphere to determine where these lead to precipitation. Up to 35% of the evaporation moisture from the Ganges basin is recycling within the river basin. However, because of a decreased moisture convergence into the river basin, the total amount of precipitation in the Ganges basin decreases. Although a significant fraction of the evaporation moisture recycles within the river basin, the changes in large-scale wind patterns due to irrigation shift the precipitation from the eastern parts of India and Nepal to the northern and western parts of India and Pakistan. In these areas where precipitation increases, the relative precipitation increase is larger than the relative decrease in the areas where precipitation decreases. It is concluded 1) that the direct effects of irrigation on precipitation are small and are not uniform across the models; 2) that a fraction of up to 35% of any marginal evaporation increase (for example, due to irrigation) will recycle within the river basin; and 3) that when irrigation is applied on a large scale, the dominant effect will be a change in large-scale atmospheric flow that decreases precipitation in eastern India and increases it in western and northern India.
    Effect of rooting depth, plant density and planting date on maize (Zea Mays L.) yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid Zimbabwe: Modelling with AquaCrop
    Nyakudya, I.W. ; Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2014
    Agricultural Water Management 146 (2014). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 280 - 296.
    fao crop model - management options - tillage - soils - parameterization - conservation - simulation - paradigm
    Under low and poorly distributed rainfall higher food production can be achieved by increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE) through optimum soil fertility management and selection of deep-rooting cultivars, appropriate plant density and planting dates. We explored AquaCrop's applicability in selecting adaptive practices for improving maize yield and WUE under rainfed smallholder farming in semi-arid Zimbabwe. AquaCrop was first tested using field measurements without calibration. The model was subsequently applied to estimate the effect of effective rooting depth (ERD), plant density and planting date on maize yield. Simulations were done with daily rainfall data for 25 seasons. During model testing AquaCrop simulated canopy cover development well and simulated biomass accumulation showed good agreement with measured values. The model overestimated soil water, and observed final biomass and grain yield were 96 and 92% of simulated values, respectively. Model application showed that increasing ERD from 0.40 m at 32,500 plants ha-1 to 0.60 m at 44,400 plants ha-1 increased grain yield from 6.0 to 7.8 t ha-1, biomass water use efficiency by 20.5%, grain water use efficiency by 23.6% and transpiration water use efficiency by 26.8%. At 0.60 and 0.80 m ERD and 44,400 plants ha-1, biomass and grain yield, and WUE, were similar. Drainage below the rootzone was =40% of non-productive water losses in normal and wet seasons whilst soil evaporation contributed 47% in dry seasons at 0.80 m ERD. To improve yield and WUE, we recommend: incorporation of deep-rooting legumes, deeper-rooting cultivars (=0.60 m effective rooting depth) and practices that improve ERD, a plant density of 44,400 plants ha-1; and practices that reduce soil evaporation e.g. mulching and addition of organic fertilisers to improve soils’ available water capacity and enhance response to mineral fertilisers. Further research should include field testing of results from this study with farmers.
    Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model for GABLS3: Impact of boundary-layer schemes, boundary conditions and spin-up
    Kleczek, M.A. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 152 (2014)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 213 - 243.
    nonlocal closure-model - low-level jets - wrf model - part i - vertical diffusion - diurnal cycles - sea-ice - turbulence - sensitivity - parameterization
    We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study (GABLS3) one-dimensional model intercomparison. The WRF model (version 3.4.1) contains 12 different PBL parametrizations, most of which have been only partially evaluated. The GABLS3 case offers a clear opportunity to evaluate model performance, focusing on time series of near-surface weather variables, radiation and surface flux budgets, vertical structure and the nighttime inertial oscillation. The model results revealed substantial differences between the PBL schemes. Generally, non-local schemes tend to produce higher temperatures and higher wind speeds than local schemes, in particular, for nighttime. The WRF model underestimates the 2-m temperature during daytime (about TeX K) and substantially underestimates it at night (about TeX K), in contrast to the previous studies where modelled 2-m temperature was overestimated. Considering the 10-m wind speed, during the night turbulent kinetic energy based schemes tend to produce lower wind speeds than other schemes. In all simulations the sensible and latent heat fluxes were well reproduced. For the net radiation and the soil heat flux we found good agreement with daytime observations but underestimations at night. Concerning the vertical profiles, the selected non-local PBL schemes underestimate the PBL depth and the low-level jet altitude at night by about 50 m, although with the correct wind speed. The latter contradicts most previous studies and can be attributed to the revised stability function in the Yonsei University PBL scheme. The local, turbulent kinetic energy based PBL schemes estimated the low-level jet altitude and strength more accurately. Compared to the observations, all model simulations show a similar structure for the potential temperature, with a consistent cold bias (TeX2 K) in the upper PBL. In addition to the sensitivity to the PBL schemes, we studied the sensitivity to technical features such as horizontal resolution and domain size. We found a substantial difference in the model performance for a range of 12, 18 and 24 h spin-up times, longer spin-up time decreased the modelled wind speed bias, but it strengthened the negative temperature bias. The sensitivity of the model to the vertical resolution of the input and boundary conditions on the model performance is confirmed, and its influence appeared most significant for the non-local PBL parametrizations
    Seasonal dependence of the urban heat island on the street canyon aspect ratio
    Theeuwes, N.E. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
    Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 140 (2014)684. - ISSN 0035-9009 - p. 2197 - 2210.
    warmte - steden - stedelijke planning - warmtebalans - seizoenvariatie - meteorologie - nederland - heat - towns - urban planning - heat balance - seasonal variation - meteorology - netherlands - boundary-layer - energy-balance - climate zones - model - temperature - parameterization - simulation - schemes - cabauw - field
    In this paper we study the relation between the urban heat island (UHI) in the urban canyon and street geometry, in particular the aspect ratio. Model results and observations show that two counteracting processes govern the relation between the nocturnal UHI and the building aspect ratio: i.e. trapping of longwave radiation and shadowing effects. In general, trapping of longwave radiation supports the UHI, whereas shadowing effects reduce the UHI. The net effect depends on the UHI definition and the amount of available shortwave radiation penetrating the canyon. In summer, autumn and spring the shadowing effects can already reduce the UHI starting at an aspect ratio between 0.5 and 1. The analysis is carried out using several methods. Firstly, the single-column model version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used extensively. Two separate runs, one rural and one urban, are used to estimate the UHI. Secondly, the urban canyon temperature at the two meter level is introduced, which allows for direct comparison between modelled and observed air temperatures within the urban canyon. Finally, the model is evaluated for all four seasons. The results of this research provide important insights for urban planning on how to use the aspect ratio to mitigate the UHI in the urban canyon
    Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection
    Belikov, D.A. ; Maksyutov, S. ; Krol, M.C. ; Fraser, A. ; Rigby, M. ; Bian, H. ; Agusti-Panareda, A. ; Bergmann, D. ; Bousquet, P. ; Cameron-Smith, P. ; Chipperfield, M.P. ; Fortems-Cheiney, A. ; Gloor, E. ; Haynes, K. ; Hess, P. ; Houweling, S. ; Kawa, S.R. ; Law, R.M. ; Loh, Z. ; Meng, L. ; Palmer, P.I. ; Patra, P.K. ; Prinn, R.G. ; Saito, R. ; Wilson, C. - \ 2013
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013)3. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 1093 - 1114.
    general-circulation model - observed radon profiles - cumulus convection - atmospheric transport - climate simulations - meteorological data - cloud ensemble - precipitation - rn-222 - parameterization
    A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation provided by a reanalysis dataset. The representation of vertical transport within the scheme includes entrainment and detrainment processes in convective updrafts and downdrafts. Output from the proposed parametrisation scheme is employed in the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) global chemical transport model driven by JRA-25/JCDAS reanalysis. The simulated convective precipitation rate and mass fluxes are compared with observations and reanalysis data. A simulation of the short-lived tracer Rn-222 is used to further evaluate the performance of the cumulus convection scheme. Simulated distributions of Rn-222 are evaluated against observations at the surface and in the free troposphere, and compared with output from models that participated in the TransCom-CH4 Transport Model Intercomparison. From this comparison, we demonstrate that the proposed convective scheme in general is consistent with observed and modeled results.
    Stable atmospheric boundary layers and diurnal Cycles-Challenges for Weather and Climate Models
    Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Svensson, G. ; Baas, P. ; Basu, S. ; Beare, B. ; Beljaars, A.C.M. ; Bosveld, F.C. ; Cuxart, J. ; Lindvall, J. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Tjernstrom, M. ; Wiel, B.J.H. van de - \ 2013
    Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 (2013). - ISSN 0003-0007 - p. 1691 - 1706.
    low-level jets - land-surface - contrasting nights - soil-moisture - ecmwf model - sea-ice - turbulence - cases-99 - parameterization - fluxes
    The representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is an important part of weather and climate models and impacts many applications such as air quality and wind energy. Over the years, the performance in modeling 2 m temperature and 10 m wind speed has improved but errors are still significant. This is in particular the case under clear skies and low wind-speed conditions at night as well as during winter in stably stratified conditions over land and ice. In this paper, we review these issues and provide an overview of the current understanding and model performance. Results from weather forecast and climate models are used to illustrate the state of the art, as well as findings and recommendations from three inter-comparison studies held within the “Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX)” Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). Within GABLS, the focus has been on the examination of the representation of the stable boundary layer and the diurnal cycle over land in clear sky conditions. For this purpose, single-column versions of weather and climate models have been compared with observations, research models and Large Eddy Simulations. The intercomparison cases are based on observations taken in the Arctic, Kansas and at Cabauw in the Netherlands. From these studies, we find that even for the non-cloudy boundary layer important parameterization challenges remain.
    Convective boundary layer wind dynamics and inertial oscillations: the influence of surface stress
    Schröter, J.S. ; Moene, A.F. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2013
    Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 139 (2013)676. - ISSN 0035-9009 - p. 1694 - 1711.
    low-level jets - large-eddy simulations - nocturnal jet - models - momentum - parameterization - parametrization - entrainment - fluxes - shear
    Investigating the influence of surface friction on the inertial oscillation (IO) of an extratropical, non-growing, convective boundary layer (CBL), we paid particular attention to the stability-dependent interactive coupling of shear-induced turbulence and turbulent friction, which leads to a nonlinear relationship between friction and velocity. We showed that in contrast to common perception, IO damping is controlled not only by friction but also by the dependence of friction on velocity. Furthermore, we found that surface friction not only causes damping but also modifies the restoring force. Using these basic principles, we studied the oscillatory properties (equilibrium, periodicity and damping) of the CBL by means of a model based on Monin–Obukhov surface-layer similarity (MOS) and the mixed-layer approximation. We found that the model complies with a quadratic surface stress–velocity relationship (QS) in the neutral limit, and a linear surface stress–velocity relationship (LS) in the proximity of the free-convective limit. Dynamically, the LS leads to a harmonic oscillation with a constant periodicity and exponential damping of the IO. However, the QS displays rather complex anharmonic behaviour; in comparison with the LS it produces a 50% stronger overall damping and a 100% larger contribution to the restoring force. Considering CBLs of arbitrary stability, we found that the MOS stress–velocity relation can be very well approximated by a much simpler linear combination of the LS and the QS which, respectively, represent the convective and the shear-induced contributions to friction. This enabled us to link the set of the external parameters (surface roughness, surface buoyancy flux and boundary layer depth) to a set of three effective parameters: the equilibrium velocity, the convective friction constant and the neutral friction constant. Together with the Coriolis coefficient, these parameters completely determine the IO.
    Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises
    Helmig, D. ; Lang, E.K. ; Bariteau, L. ; Boylan, P. ; Fairall, C.W. ; Ganzeveld, L.N. ; Hare, J.E. ; Hueber, J. ; Pallandt, M. - \ 2012
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117 (2012). - ISSN 2169-897X - 15 p.
    marine boundary-layer - dry deposition - surface - atlantic - iodine - water - coastal - parameterization - enhancement - chemistry
    A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vessel Ronald Brown during 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of Mexico, the southern as well as northern Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the persistent stratus cloud region off Chile in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These experiments resulted in the first ship-borne open-ocean ozone flux measurement records. The median of 10 min oceanic ozone deposition velocity (v(d)) results from a combined similar to 1700 h of observations ranged from 0.009 to 0.034 cm s(-1). For the Gulf of Mexico cruise (Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)) the median v(d) (interquartile range) was 0.034 (0.009-0.065) cm s(-1) (total number of 10 min measurement intervals, N-f = 1953). For the STRATUS cruise off the Chilean coast, the median v(d) was 0.009 (0.004-0.037) cm s(-1) (N-f = 1336). For the cruise from the Gulf of Mexico and up the eastern U. S. coast (Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise (GOMECC)) a combined value of 0.018 (0.006-0.045) cm s(-1) (N-f = 1784) was obtained (from 0.019 (-0.014-0.043) cm s(-1), N-f = 663 in the Gulf of Mexico, and 0.018 (-0.004-0.045) cm s(-1), N-f = 1121 in the North Atlantic region). The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), the Southern Ocean and northeastern Atlantic cruises, respectively, resulted in median ozone v(d) of 0.009 (-0.005-0.026) cm s(-1) (N-f = 2745) and 0.020 (-0.003-0.044) cms(-1) (N-f = 1147). These directly measured ozone deposition values are at the lower end of previously reported data in the literature (0.01-0.12 cm s(-1)) for ocean water. Data illustrate a positive correlation (increase) of the oceanic ozone uptake rate with wind speed, albeit the behavior of the relationship appears to differ during these cruises. The encountered wide range of meteorological and ocean biogeochemical conditions is used to investigate fundamental drivers of oceanic O-3 deposition and for the evaluation of a recently developed global oceanic O-3 deposition modeling system.
    Evaluation of the Diurnal Cycle in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Land as Represented by a Variety of Single-Column Models: The Second GABLS Experiment
    Svensson, G. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Kumar, V. ; Mauritsen, T. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Angevine, W.M. ; Bazile, E. ; Beljaars, A. ; Bruijn, E.I.F. de; Cheng, A. - \ 2011
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology 140 (2011)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 177 - 206.
    turbulence closure scheme - large-eddy simulations - part i - contrasting nights - morning transition - parameterization - mesoscale - cases-99 - surface - system
    We present the main results from the second model intercomparison within the GEWEX (Global Energy andWater cycle EXperiment) Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). The target is to examine the diurnal cycle over land in today’s numerical weather prediction and climate models for operational and research purposes. The set-up of the case is based on observations taken during the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99), which was held in Kansas, USA in the early autumn with a strong diurnal cycle with no clouds present. The models are forced with a constant geostrophic wind, prescribed surface temperature and large-scale divergence. Results from 30 different model simulations and one large-eddy simulation (LES) are analyzed and compared with observations. Even though the surface temperature is prescribed, the models give variable near-surface air temperatures. This, in turn, gives rise to differences in low-level stability affecting the turbulence and the turbulent heat fluxes. The increase in modelled upward sensible heat flux during the morning transition is typically too weak and the growth of the convective boundary layer before noon is too slow. This is related to weak modelled nearsurface winds during the morning hours. The agreement between the models, the LES and observations is the best during the late afternoon. From this intercomparison study, we find that modelling the diurnal cycle is still a big challenge. For the convective part of the diurnal cycle, some of the first-order schemes perform somewhat better while the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) schemes tend to be slightly better during nighttime conditions. Finer vertical resolution tends to improve results to some extent, but is certainly not the solution to all the deficiencies identified
    Understanding the daily cycle of evapotranspiration: a method to quantify the influence of forcings and feedbacks
    Heerwaarden, C.C. van; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Gounou, A. ; Guichard, F. ; Couvreux, F. - \ 2010
    Journal of Hydrometeorology 11 (2010)6. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 1405 - 1422.
    convective boundary-layer - land-atmosphere interaction - diurnal time scales - soil-moisture - surface - model - evaporation - parameterization - entrainment - inversion
    A method to analyze the daily cycle of evapotranspiration over land is presented. It quantifies the influence of external forcings, such as radiation and advection, and of internal feedbacks induced by boundary layer, surface layer, and land surface processes on evapotranspiration. It consists of a budget equation for evapotranspiration that is derived by combining a time derivative of the Penman–Monteith equation with a mixed-layer model for the convective boundary layer. Measurements and model results for days at two contrasting locations are analyzed using the method: midlatitudes (Cabauw, Netherlands) and semiarid (Niamey, Niger). The analysis shows that the time evolution of evapotranspiration is a complex interplay of forcings and feedbacks. Although evapotranspiration is initiated by radiation, it is significantly regulated by the atmospheric boundary layer and the land surface throughout the day. In both cases boundary layer feedbacks enhance the evapotranspiration up to 20 W m-2 h-1. However, in the case of Niamey this is offset by the land surface feedbacks since the soil drying reaches -30 W m-2 h-1. Remarkably, surface layer feedbacks are of negligible importance in a fully coupled system. Analysis of the boundary layer feedbacks hints at the existence of two regimes in this feedback depending on atmospheric temperature, with a gradual transition region in between the two. In the low-temperature regime specific humidity variations induced by evapotranspiration and dry-air entrainment have a strong impact on the evapotranspiration. In the high-temperature regime the impact of humidity variations is less pronounced and the effects of boundary layer feedbacks are mostly determined by temperature variations
    Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation
    Jiménez, P.A. ; González-Rouco, J.F. ; García-Bustamante, E. ; Navarro, J. ; Montávez, J.P. ; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Dudhia, J. ; Muñoz-Roldan, A. - \ 2010
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 49 (2010)2. - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 268 - 287.
    speed distributions - objective analysis - diagnostic model - isolated hill - flow - forecast - climate - fields - energy - parameterization
    This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the period 1992–2005. The evaluation focuses on the performance of the simulation to reproduce the wind variability within subregions identified from observations over the 1999–2002 period in a previous study. By comparing with wind observations, the model results show the ability of the WRF dynamical downscaling over a region of complex terrain. The higher spatiotemporal resolution of the WRF simulation is used to evaluate the extent to which the length of the observational period and the limited spatial coverage of observations condition one’s understanding of the wind variability over the area. The subregions identified with the simulation during the 1992–2005 period are similar to those identified with observations (1999–2002). In addition, the reduced number of stations reasonably represents the spatial wind variability over the area. However, the analysis of the full spatial dimension simulated by the model suggests that observational coverage could be improved in some subregions. The approach adopted here can have a direct application to the design of observational networks.
    Estimation of orographically induced wave drag in the stable boundary layer during the CASES-99 experimental campaign
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Nappo, C.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2009
    Acta Geophysica 57 (2009)4. - ISSN 1895-6572 - p. 857 - 881.
    self-correlation - turbulence - model - simulations - surface - wind - parameterization - intermittency - level - flow
    This paper addresses the quantification of gravity wave drag due to small hills in the stable boundary layer. A single column atmospheric model is used to forecast wind and temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Next, these profiles are used to calculate vertical profiles of gravity wave drag. Climatology of wave drag magnitude and ¿wave drag events¿ is presented for the CASES-99 experimental campaign. It is found that gravity wave drag events occur for several relatively calm nights, and that the wave drag is then of equivalent magnitude as the turbulent drag. We also illustrate that wave drag events modify the wind speed sufficiently to substantially change the surface sensible heat flux
    Mesoscale modelling of the CO2 interactions between the surface and the atmosphere applied to the April 2007 CERES field experiment
    Sarrat, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Lacarrère, P. ; Ceschia, E. ; Ciais, P. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Gerbig, C. ; Gioli, B. ; Lauvaux, T. ; Miglietta, F. ; Neininger, B. ; Ramonet, M. ; Vellinga, O.S. ; Bonnefonds, J.M. - \ 2009
    Biogeosciences 6 (2009)4. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 633 - 646.
    hapex-mobilhy - regional-scale - fluxes - parameterization - simulation - resolution - database - strategy
    This paper describes a numerical interpretation of the April 2007, CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) campaign, devoted to the study of the CO2 cycle at the regional scale. Four consecutive clear sky days with intensive observations of CO2 concentration, fluxes at the surface and in the boundary layer have been simulated with the Meso-NH mesoscale model, coupled to ISBA-A-gs land surface model. The main result of this paper is to show how aircraft observations of CO2 concentration have been used to identify surface model errors and to calibrate the CO2 driving component of the surface model. In fact, the comparisons between modelled and observed CO2 concentrations within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) allow to calibrate and correct not only the parameterization of respired CO2 fluxes by the ecosystem but also the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the dominating land cover. After this calibration, the paper describes systematic comparisons of the model outputs with numerous data collected during the CERES campaign, in April 2007. For instance, the originality of this paper is the spatial integration of the comparisons. In fact, the aircraft observations of CO2 concentration and fluxes and energy fluxes are used for the model validation from the local to the regional scale. As a conclusion, the CO2 budgeting approach from the mesoscale model shows that the winter croplands are assimilating more CO2 than the pine forest, at this stage of the year and this case study.
    Interactions between dry-air entrainment, surface evaporation and convective boundary-layer development
    Heerwaarden, C.C. van; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Moene, A.F. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2009
    Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 135 (2009)642. - ISSN 0035-9009 - p. 1277 - 1291.
    equilibrium evaporation - land-surface - soil-moisture - feedbacks - dynamics - models - parameterization - sensitivity - simulations - heat
    The influence of dry-air entrainment on surface heat fluxes and the convective boundary-layer (CBL) properties is studied for vegetated land surfaces, using a mixed-layer CBL model coupled to the Penman¿Monteith equation under a wide range of conditions. In order to address the complex behaviour of the system, the feedback mechanisms involved were put into a mathematical framework. Simple expressions for the evaporative fraction and the Priestley¿Taylor parameter were derived, based on the concept of equilibrium evaporation. Dry-air entrainment enhances the surface evaporation under all conditions, but the sensitivity of the evaporation rate to the moisture content of the free troposphere falls as temperature rises. Due to the evaporation enhancement, shallower CBLs develop beneath dry atmospheres. In all cases, dry-air entrainment reduces the relative humidity at the land surface and at the top of the CBL. However, because of dry-air entrainment-induced land¿atmosphere feedback mechanisms, relative humidity at the top of the CBL responds nonlinearly to temperature rise; it decreases as temperature rises beneath a moist free troposphere, whereas it increases beneath a dry free troposphere. Finally, it was found that in certain conditions the evolution of the surface fluxes, relative humidity and CBL height can be as sensitive to the free tropospheric moisture conditions as to the land-surface properties. Therefore, studies of the land surface and of convective clouds have to take into account the influence of dry-air entrainment through land¿atmosphere feedback mechanisms
    On inferring isoprene emission surface flux from atmospheric boundary layer concentration measurements
    Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Dries, K. van den; Pino, D. - \ 2009
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9 (2009). - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 3629 - 3640.
    model - hydrocarbons - entrainment - inversion - forest - parameterization - dynamics - cumulus - amazon - site
    We examine the dependence of the inferred isoprene surface emission flux from atmospheric concentration on the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer (CBL). A series of systematic numerical experiments carried out using the mixed-layer technique enabled us to study the sensitivity of isoprene fluxes to the entrainment process, the partition of surface fluxes, the horizontal advection of warm/cold air masses and subsidence. Our findings demonstrate the key role played by the evolution of boundary layer height in modulating the retrieved isoprene flux. More specifically, inaccurate values of the potential temperature lapse rate lead to changes in the dilution capacity of the CBL and as a result the isoprene flux may be overestimated or underestimated by as much as 20%. The inferred emission flux estimated in the early morning hours is highly dependent on the accurate estimation of the discontinuity of the thermodynamic values between the residual layer and the rapidly forming CBL. Uncertainties associated with the partition of the sensible and latent heat flux also yield large deviations in the calculation of the isoprene surface flux. Similar results are obtained if we neglect the influence of warm or cold advection in the development of the CBL.We show that all the above-mentioned processes are non-linear, for which reason the dynamic and chemical evolutions of the CBL must be solved simultaneously. Based on the discussion of our results, we suggest the measurements needed to correctly apply the mixed-layer technique in order to minimize the uncertainties associated with the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer.
    Sensitivity analysis of leaf wetness duration within a potato canopy
    Jacobs, A.F.G. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2009
    Meteorological Applications 16 (2009)4. - ISSN 1350-4827 - p. 523 - 532.
    estimating dew duration - meteorological models - parameterization - field
    A description and analysis is given of a wetness duration experiment, carried out in a potato field in the centre of the Netherlands in September 2005. The observations are used to design and evaluate a within-canopy dew model which provides the leaf wetness distribution within the canopy caused by dew processes and by precipitation. This withincanopy dew model consists of three layers (bottom, centre, top) each with equal contribution to the leaf area index. The model results compared favourably with experimental evidence. The sensitivity of the dew and precipitation interception on the amount of free water and the duration of the leaf wetness was analysed by varying the leaf area index and some important weather variables. The findings suggest that the leaf area index affects the amount of free water, but is barely sensitive to leaf wetness duration. Wind speed has hardly any effect on the amount of free water collection as well as on leaf wetness duration. The net radiation, however, appears to be sensitive to the amount of collected free water as well as the leaf wetness duration
    Exploring the possible role of small scale terrain drag on stable boundary layers over land
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Nappo, C.J. ; Wiel, B.J.H. van de; Mahrt, L. - \ 2008
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 47 (2008). - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 2518 - 2530.
    atmospheric gravity-waves - complex terrain - critical-level - surface-layer - general-circulation - contrasting nights - turbulent-flow - form drag - model - parameterization
    This paper addresses the possible role of unresolved terrain drag, relative to the turbulent drag on the development of the stable atmospheric boundary layer over land. Adding a first-order estimate for terrain drag to the turbulent drag appears to provide drag that is similar to the enhanced turbulent drag obtained with the so-called long-tail mixing functions. These functions are currently used in many operational models for weather and climate, although they lack a clear physical basis. Consequently, a simple and practical quasi-empirical parameterization of terrain drag divergence for use in large-scale models is proposed and is tested in a column mode. As an outcome, the cross-isobaric mass flow (a measure for cyclone filling) with the new scheme, using realistic turbulent drag, appears to be equal to what is found with the unphysical long-tail scheme. At the same time, the new scheme produces a much more realistic less-deep boundary layer than is obtained by using the long-tail mixing function.
    Evaluation of limited-area models for the representation of the diurnal cycle and contrasting nights in CASES-99
    Steeneveld, G.J. ; Mauritsen, T. ; Bruijn, E.I.F. de; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Svensson, G. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2008
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 47 (2008). - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 869 - 887.
    atmospheric boundary-layer - low-level jet - surface-energy balance - mesoscale model - climate model - turbulent fluxes - national center - land-surface - sensitivity - parameterization
    This study evaluates the ability of three limited-area models [the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University¿National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5), the Coupled Ocean¿Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the High-Resolution Limited-Area Model (HIRLAM)] to predict the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during the Cooperative Atmosphere¿Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) experimental campaign. Special attention is paid to the stable ABL. Limited-area model results for different ABL parameterizations and different radiation transfer parameterizations are compared with the in situ observations. Model forecasts were found to be sensitive to the choice of the ABL parameterization both during the day and at night. At night, forecasts are particularly sensitive to the radiation scheme. All three models underestimate the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTR) and the near-surface wind speed. Furthermore, they overestimate the stable boundary layer height for windy conditions and underestimate the stratification of nighttime surface inversions. Favorable parameterizations for the stable boundary layer enable rapid surface cooling, and they have limited turbulent mixing. It was also found that a relatively large model domain is required to model the Great Plains low-level jet. A new scheme is implemented for the stable boundary layer in the Medium-Range Forecast Model (MRF). This scheme introduces a vegetation layer, a new formulation for the soil heat flux, and turbulent mixing based on the local scaling hypothesis. The new scheme improves the representation of surface temperature (especially for weak winds) and the stable boundary layer structure.
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