Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The Trichogramma brassicae genome, supporting data
    Pannebakker, Bart ; Ferguson, Kimberley - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    genome - biocontrol - biological control - insect - parasitoid - Trichogramma - Trichogramma brassicae - genome assembly
    In presenting the Trichogramma brassicae genome, supporting information is made available. Following the main supplemetary material document, the contents in this database entry are as follows: S1.2. Contaminated Wolbachia scaffolds from assembly v3.0 (Backbone_1176.fa and Backbone_1392.fa) S1.3. DAVID input gene list S1.5. Full Trichogramma brassicae protein set from annotation.
    The Bracon brevicornis genome, supporting data
    Pannebakker, Bart ; Ferguson, Kimberley - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    genome - biocontrol - biological control - insect - parasitoid - Trichogramma - Trichogramma brassicae - genome assembly
    In presenting the Bracon brevicornis genome, supporting information is made available. The material available in this database entry are as follows: 1. Contamination scaffolds from decontamination process (note, identified as being neither the carrier DNA of tomato, nor belonging to the group Arthropoda in a BlobTools analysis. For more details, refer to source manuscript. 2. Two sets of pseudohaplotype FASTA files, generated from decontaminated B. brevicornis reads and output from Supernova assembler.
    Genetic variation of biological control relevant traits in natural enemies: a systematic review, supporting data
    Pannebakker, Bart ; Ferguson, Kimberley - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    genome - biocontrol - biological control - parasitoid - predator - heritability - genetic variation
    This is supplementary material for a systematic review tentatively titled, "Genetic variation of biological control relevant traits in natural enemies: a systematic review" (2019). Three tables are available, and are referenced in the following manner in text: Table S1: Positive control group for search results, based on papers that fit the ideal search returns for the search term. Table S2: Combined search return hits, in unedited format received from CAB Abstracts. Table S3: Articles narrowed down to BCA, with duplicates and unavailable papers removed, prior to assessment for estimation method and traits.
    Data from: No gains for bigger brains: functional and neuroanatomical consequences of relative brain size in a parasitic wasp
    Woude, E. van der; Groothuis, J. ; Smid, H.M. - \ 2019
    artificial selection - trade-offs - constraints - insects - host-parasite interaction - bidirectional artificial selection - brain-size - appetitive olfactory conditioning - brain scaling - parasitic wasp - parasitoid - longevity - Nasonia vitripennis
    Heritable genetic variation in relative brain size can underlie the relationship between brain performance and the relative size of the brain. We used bidirectional artificial selection to study the consequences of genetic variation in relative brain size on brain morphology, cognition and longevity in Nasonia vitripennis parasitoid wasps. Our results show a robust change in relative brain size after 26 generations of selection and 6 generations of relaxation. Total average neuropil volume of the brain was 16% larger in wasps selected for relatively large brains than in wasps selected for relatively small brains, whereas the body length of the large-brained wasps was smaller. Furthermore, the relative volume of the antennal lobes was larger in wasps with relatively large brains. Relative brain size did not influence olfactory memory retention, whereas wasps that were selected for larger relative brain size had a shorter longevity, which was even further reduced after a learning experience. These effects of genetic variation on neuropil composition and memory retention are different from previously described effects of phenotypic plasticity in absolute brain size. In conclusion, having relatively large brains may be costly for N. vitripennis, whereas no cognitive benefits were recorded.
    Data from: Parasitic wasp-associated symbiont affects plant-mediated species interactions between herbivores
    Cusumano, Antonino ; Zhu, F. ; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie ; Verbaarschot, P.G.H. ; Bloem, J. ; Vogel, Heiko ; Dicke, M. ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2018
    tritrophic interactions - plant-insect interactions - polydnaviruses - parasitoid - herbivore colonization - CgBV
    Microbial mutualistic symbiosis is increasingly recognised as a hidden driving force in the ecology of plant–insect interactions. Although plant‐associated and herbivore‐associated symbionts clearly affect interactions between plants and herbivores, the effects of symbionts associated with higher trophic levels has been largely overlooked. At the third‐trophic level, parasitic wasps are a common group of insects that can inject symbiotic viruses (polydnaviruses) and venom into their herbivorous hosts to support parasitoid offspring development. Here, we show that such third‐trophic level symbionts act in combination with venom to affect plant‐mediated interactions by reducing colonisation of subsequent herbivore species. This ecological effect correlated with changes induced by polydnaviruses and venom in caterpillar salivary glands and in plant defence responses to herbivory. Because thousands of parasitoid species are associated with mutualistic symbiotic viruses in an intimate, specific relationship, our findings may represent a novel and widespread ecological phenomenon in plant–insect interactions
    Parasitic wasp-associated symbiont affects plant-mediated species interactions between herbivores
    Cusumano, Antonino ; Zhu, Feng ; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie ; Verbaarschot, Patrick ; Bloem, Janneke ; Vogel, Heiko ; Dicke, Marcel ; Poelman, Erik H. - \ 2018
    Ecology Letters 21 (2018)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 957 - 967.
    Herbivore colonisation - parasitoid - plant–insect interactions - polydnaviruses - tritrophic interactions

    Microbial mutualistic symbiosis is increasingly recognised as a hidden driving force in the ecology of plant–insect interactions. Although plant-associated and herbivore-associated symbionts clearly affect interactions between plants and herbivores, the effects of symbionts associated with higher trophic levels has been largely overlooked. At the third-trophic level, parasitic wasps are a common group of insects that can inject symbiotic viruses (polydnaviruses) and venom into their herbivorous hosts to support parasitoid offspring development. Here, we show that such third-trophic level symbionts act in combination with venom to affect plant-mediated interactions by reducing colonisation of subsequent herbivore species. This ecological effect correlated with changes induced by polydnaviruses and venom in caterpillar salivary glands and in plant defence responses to herbivory. Because thousands of parasitoid species are associated with mutualistic symbiotic viruses in an intimate, specific relationship, our findings may represent a novel and widespread ecological phenomenon in plant–insect interactions.

    New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse
    Humala, Andrei E. ; Kruidhof, Marjolein ; Woelke, Joop - \ 2017
    Journal of Natural History 51 (2017)1-2. - ISSN 0022-2933 - p. 83 - 95.
    Biological control - Lyprauta - orchid root damage - parasitoid - Proceroplatus

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The biology of this new species and the possibility to use it in biological pest control are briefly discussed. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7E405813-67C6-44CD-B068-97B79523592E

    Defensive insect symbiont leads to cascading extinctions and community collapse
    Sanders, Dirk ; Kehoe, Rachel ; Veen, F.J.F. van; McLean, Ailsa ; Godfray, H.C.J. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Gols, Rieta ; Frago, Enric - \ 2016
    Ecology Letters 19 (2016)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 789 - 799.
    Acyrthosiphon pisum - Aphid - Aphidius ervi - cascading extinction - defensive symbiosis - endosymbiont - experimental community ecology - Hamiltonella defensa - indirect effect - parasitoid - 016-3948

    Animals often engage in mutualistic associations with microorganisms that protect them from predation, parasitism or pathogen infection. Studies of these interactions in insects have mostly focussed on the direct effects of symbiont infection on natural enemies without studying community-wide effects. Here, we explore the effect of a defensive symbiont on population dynamics and species extinctions in an experimental community composed of three aphid species and their associated specialist parasitoids. We found that introducing a bacterial symbiont with a protective (but not a non-protective) phenotype into one aphid species led to it being able to escape from its natural enemy and increase in density. This changed the relative density of the three aphid species which resulted in the extinction of the two other parasitoid species. Our results show that defensive symbionts can cause extinction cascades in experimental communities and so may play a significant role in the stability of consumer-herbivore communities in the field.

    Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis
    Gols, R. ; Wagenaar, R. ; Poelman, E.H. ; Kruidhof, M. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Harvey, J.A. - \ 2015
    herbivory - plant defence - insect-plant interactions - multitrophic interactions - natural enemies - parasitoid - plant fitness
    1. Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been rarely tested. 2. We investigated whether there are fitness consequences for the charlock mustard Sinapis arvensis, a short-lived outcrossing annual weedy plant, when exposed to groups of large cabbage white (Pieris brassicae) caterpillars parasitized by either one of two wasp species, Hyposoter ebeninus and Cotesia glomerata, that allow the host to grow during parasitism. Hyposoter ebeninus is solitary and greatly reduces host growth compared with healthy caterpillars, whereas C. glomerata is gregarious and allows the host to grow approximately as large as unparasitized caterpillars. Both healthy and parasitized P. brassicae caterpillars initially feed on the foliage, but later stages preferentially consume the flowers. 3. In a garden experiment, plants damaged by parasitized caterpillars produced more seeds than conspecific plants damaged by unparasitized caterpillars. Reproductive potential (germination success multiplied by total seed number) was similar for plants that were not exposed to herbivory and those that were damaged by parasitized caterpillars and lower for plants that were damaged by healthy unparasitized caterpillars. However, these quantitative seed traits negatively correlated with the qualitative seed traits, individual seed size and germination success, suggesting a trade-off between these two types of traits. 4. We show that parasitism of insect herbivores that feed on reproductive plant tissues may have positive fitness consequences for S. arvensis. The extent to which plant fitness may benefit depends on parasitoid lifestyle (solitary or gregarious), which is correlated with the amount of damage inflicted on these tissues by the parasitized host.
    The ecology of Centistes delusorius, a parasitoid of adult apple blossom weevil
    Zijp, J.P. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2002
    Agricultural and Forest Entomology 4 (2002)4. - ISSN 1461-9555 - p. 275 - 282.
    parasitoid - apple blossom weevil
    Impact of the parasitoid Lathrolestes ensator (Hym, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae) as antagonist of apple sawfly Hoplocampa testudinea (Hym, Tenthredinidae)
    Zijp, J.P. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2002
    Journal of Applied Entomology 126 (2002). - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 366 - 377.
    parasitoid - antagonist - apple sawfly - antagonist
    Lathrolestes ensator (Brauns) was the only parasitoid species reared from larvae of apple sawfly Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) collected in Dutch orchards. The life history parameters of apple sawfly and its parasitoid L. ensator were investigated in field and semi-field experiments. Usually, the adult parasitoids emerge in synchrony with the preferred host stage, the second instar sawfly larvae. Parasitoid females carried 120-175 eggs, but never laid more than half this number. The mortality of sawfly eggs and larvae varied from 75 and 99&Eth;The eggs and mining larvae are most vulnerable, as the older larvae survive for 90 n average. Three factors at least determine how many of the descending larvae become adult sawfly or parasitoid next spring. The failure of descending larvae to construct a cocoon varied from 7 to 31 nd was highest in clay soil. Probably a similar mechanical hindrance prohibited more emerging adults, of both sawfly and L. ensator, from attaining the surface in heavier soils next spring. Relatively more sawfly prepupae than parasitoids died in the cocoon stage, from fungus disease or other causes, but more parasitoids than hosts stayed in prolonged diapause. Mainly due to this last factor, the overall result was a decrease of the parasitoid : host ratio during the first season underground. A life table based on survival rates during various life stages yields a net reproductive rate of up to 2.4 daughters per female sawfly. It indicates that 60 f the sawfly larvae need to be parasitized to stop population growth, or correspondingly less when more than 75 f the host eggs and young larvae are killed by predators or other causes.
    Apple sawfly Hoplocampa testudinea and its parasitoid Lathrolestes ensator in Dutch apple orchards (Hym.,Tenthredinidae and Ichneumonidae Ctenopelmatinae)
    Zijp, J.P. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2002
    Journal of Applied Entomology 126 (2002). - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 265 - 274.
    apple sawfly - parasitoid
    Changes in population densities of the apple sawfly Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) and its parasitoid Lathrolestes ensator (Brauns) were monitored in 15 apple orchards for a period of up to 4 years. The parasitoid species was found in all orchards except one, and was more numerous in plantings on sandier soils. Post-bloom insecticide applications against other pests, and carbaryl for fruit thinning, often decimated both host and parasitoid in integrated pest management orchards. In organic orchards, where synthetic pesticides are banned, and Quassia is the only remedy against sawfly, the pest is more problematic. The low levels of parasitism in all organic orchards, except one, were possibly due to the application of wettable sulphur during the parasitoid flight period. The sawfly usually recovers more quickly than its parasitoid when chemical control is discontinued, because propagation of L. ensator is limited in various ways. The parasitoid is time limited, because suitable second instar host larvae are rarely available for more than a week on a single apple variety. Moreover, parasitism levels stay moderate because the parasitoid females do not avoid superparasitism. Finally, relatively more sawflies than parasitoids emerge after 10 months underground, because the incidence of prolonged diapause is more elevated in L. ensator than in the sawfly. It is suggested that both the high incidence of prolonged diapause and the inability to avoid superparasitism are useful in reducing the risk of local extinction. Elevated sawfly attack in a single early apple variety would reduce exploitation of suitable host larvae in other nearby varieties, in as far as the parasitoid is not able to distinguish fruitlets with accessible second instar host larvae from those with inaccessible older larvae. Although the former are available for a limited time, the latter may keep the parasitoids from moving to the less abundant second instar larvae in late(r) varieties. Reduction of elevated host density in such an early variety by a properly timed application of a short-lived pesticide, such as Quassia, increases parasitism levels proportionally, and is expected to promote parasitoid movement to host larvae in other varieties nearby
    Survival mode between yearly reproduction periods, and reproductive biology of Scambus pomorum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae Pimplinae), a parasitoid of the apple blossom weeevil Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    Zijp, J.P. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2002
    Entomologia Generalis 26 (2002)1. - ISSN 0171-8177 - p. 29 - 46.
    Scambus pomorum - parasitoid - Anthonomus pomorum - Scambus pomorum - Anthonomus pomorum
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