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Harvesting European knowledge on soil functions and land management using multi-criteria decision analysis
Bampa, Francesca ; O'Sullivan, Lilian ; Madena, Kirsten ; Sandén, Taru ; Spiegel, Heide ; Henriksen, Christian Bugge ; Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur ; Jones, Arwyn ; Staes, Jan ; Sturel, Sylvain ; Trajanov, Aneta ; Creamer, Rachel E. ; Debeljak, Marko - \ 2019
Soil Use and Management 35 (2019)1. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 6 - 20.
DEX model - farmers and multi-stakeholders - locally relevant advice - participatory research - soil quality
Soil and its ecosystem functions play a societal role in securing sustainable food production while safeguarding natural resources. A functional land management framework has been proposed to optimize the agro-environmental outputs from the land and specifically the supply and demand of soil functions such as (a) primary productivity, (b) carbon sequestration, (c) water purification and regulation, (d) biodiversity and (e) nutrient cycling, for which soil knowledge is essential. From the outset, the LANDMARK multi-actor research project integrates harvested knowledge from local, national and European stakeholders to develop such guidelines, creating a sense of ownership, trust and reciprocity of the outcomes. About 470 stakeholders from five European countries participated in 32 structured workshops covering multiple land uses in six climatic zones. The harmonized results include stakeholders’ priorities and concerns, perceptions on soil quality and functions, implementation of tools, management techniques, indicators and monitoring, activities and policies, knowledge gaps and ideas. Multi-criteria decision analysis was used for data analysis. Two qualitative models were developed using Decision EXpert methodology to evaluate “knowledge” and “needs”. Soil quality perceptions differed across workshops, depending on the stakeholder level and regionally established terminologies. Stakeholders had good inherent knowledge about soil functioning, but several gaps were identified. In terms of critical requirements, stakeholders defined high technical, activity and policy needs in (a) financial incentives, (b) credible information on improving more sustainable management practices, (c) locally relevant advice, (d) farmers’ discussion groups, (e) training programmes, (f) funding for applied research and monitoring, and (g) strengthening soil science in education.
A membership categorization analysis of roles, activities and relationships in inclusive research conducted by co-researchers with intellectual disabilities
Frankena, Tessa K. ; Naaldenberg, Jenneken ; Tobi, Hilde ; Cruijsen, Anneke van der; Jansen, Henk ; Schrojenstein Lantman - de Valk, Henny van; Leusink, Geraline ; Cardol, Mieke - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 32 (2019)3. - ISSN 1360-2322 - p. 719 - 729.
emancipatory research - Inclusive research - intellectual disabilities - membership categorization analysis - participation - participatory research - reflection
Background: Inclusive research is studied mainly in short-term collaborations between researchers with and without intellectual disabilities focusing on practicalities. Structural study of long-term collaborations can provide insight into different roles of inclusive researchers, thereby contributing to a collective approach. Method: Interviews with inclusive research team members (n = 3), colleagues (n = 8), and managers (n = 2) and three group discussions within the inclusive research team were held. Data were analysed following membership categorization analysis (MCA) adapted to the needs of the inclusive research team. Results: This MCA provides insight into the complexity of inclusive research, reflected in the multitude of identified roles and activities. Analysis indicates that researchers with and without intellectual disabilities complement each other. Conclusions: The activities identified in this study provide valuable information for discussing roles and responsibilities from the outset, so that dialogue starts at the core of inclusive research: the process between researchers with and without intellectual disabilities.
Quo Vadimus : Integrating fishers' knowledge research in science and management
Stephenson, Robert L. ; Paul, Stacy ; Pastoors, M.A. ; Kraan, M.L. ; Holm, Petter ; Wiber, M. ; Mackinson, S. ; Dankel, D.J. ; Brooks, K. ; Benson, Ashleen - \ 2016
ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)6. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1459 - 1465.
collaborative research - cooperative research - fishers' knowledge research - integrating fishers' knowledge - local knowledge - participatory research - stakeholder involvement
Fishers' knowledge research (FKR) aims to enhance the use of experiential knowledge of fish harvesters in fisheries research, assessment, and management. Fishery participants are able to provide unique knowledge, and that knowledge forms an important part of “best available information” for fisheries science and management. Fishers' knowledge includes, but is much greater than, basic biological fishery information. It includes ecological, economic, social, and institutional knowledge, as well as experience and critical analysis of experiential knowledge. We suggest that FKR, which may in the past have been defined quite narrowly, be defined more broadly to include both fishery observations and fishers “experiential knowledge” provided across a spectrum of arrangements of fisher participation. FKR is part of the new and different information required in evolving “ecosystem-based” and “integrated” management approaches. FKR is a necessary element in the integration of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations of future management. Fishers' knowledge may be added to traditional assessment with appropriate analysis and explicit recognition of the intended use of the information, but fishers' knowledge is best implemented in a participatory process designed to receive and use it. Co-generation of knowledge in appropriately designed processes facilitates development and use of fishers' knowledge and facilitates the participation of fishers in assessment and management, and is suggested as best practice in improved fisheries governance.
Consensus statement understanding health and malnutrition through a systems approach: the ENOUGH program for early life.
Kaput, J. ; Ommen, B. van; Kremer, B. ; Priami, C. ; Pontes Monteiro, J. ; Morine, M. ; Pepping, F. ; Diaz, Z. ; Fenech, M. ; He, Y. ; Albers, R. ; Drevon, C.A. ; Evelo, C.T. ; Hancock, R.E.W. ; Ijsselmuiden, C. ; Lumey, L.H. ; Minihane, A.M. ; Muller, M.R. ; Murgia, C. ; Radonjic, M. ; Sobral, B.W.S. ; West Jr., K.P. - \ 2014
Genes & Nutrition 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1555-8932 - 9 p.
birth-weight infants - developing-countries - global health - environmental enteropathy - participatory research - grand challenges - innate immunity - trace-elements - biology - nutrition
Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum’s one gene—one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of health and disease processes requiring measurements of physiological processes, as well as environmental and social factors, which may alter the expression of genetic information. Analysis of physiological processes with omics technologies to assess systems’ responses has only become available over the past decade and remains costly. Studies of environmental and social conditions known to alter health are often not connected to biomedical research. While these facts are widely accepted, developing and conducting comprehensive research programs for health are often beyond financial and human resources of single research groups. We propose a new research program on essential nutrients for optimal underpinning of growth and health (ENOUGH) that will use systems approaches with more comprehensive measurements and biostatistical analysis of the many biological and environmental factors that influence undernutrition. Creating a knowledge base for nutrition and health is a necessary first step toward developing solutions targeted to different populations in diverse social and physical environments for the two billion undernourished people in developed and developing economies.
Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Maori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help
Esdonk, T. ; Glover, M. ; Kira, A. ; Wagemakers, A. - \ 2014
Maternal and Child Health 18 (2014)10. - ISSN 1573-6628 - p. 2316 - 2322.
community-health workers - cigarette-smoking - participatory research - smokers - nutrition - knowledge - disease
Maori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Maori community health workers (‘‘Aunties’’) to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Maori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the ‘kumara-vine’ (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a ‘‘Maori way’’ which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties’ believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties’ knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach.
Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?
Sterk, B. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Leeuwis, C. ; Wijnands, F.G. - \ 2007
European Journal of Agronomy 26 (2007)4. - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 401 - 409.
participatory research - implementation - agroecology - netherlands - protection - knowledge - support
Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level. The prototyping methodology was developed for the design of more sustainable farm systems, either on experimental or commercial farms. The main features of prototyping are: (1) quantification of goals; (2) emphasis on multiple societal goals; (3) designing as an organizing principle; (4) iteration of system analysis, design and on-farm testing. Hypothetically, farm system modelling could enrich the prototyping methodology and vice versa. Taking a goal-oriented stance, a modelling exercise could reveal design options otherwise overlooked and extrapolation of prototyping results to other conditions and scenarios. The on-farm prototyping work could serve as a source of inspiration and information for farm system modelers. However, little cross-pollination between the modelling and prototyping efforts has occurred, even though the methodologies have been applied in parallel and in one country. Existing reports on prototyping projects merely present their methodological set-up and results, but lack description of the implementation of the methodology. We deemed insight into the implementation of prototyping essential to understand the discrepancy between theory and practice and to investigate the potential for cross-pollination between modelling and prototyping in the future. Three promising leads were identified to assess this potential, i.e. (1) exploring goals of farm systems; (2) exploring options for a change and improvement of farm systems; (3) communication and extrapolation of project output. Analysis of more than two decades of Dutch prototyping research both on experimental and commercial farms indicated that prototyping on commercial farms is a highly localized process. Moreover, although the methodology manual suggests differently, goal formulation was not a distinctive phase of prototyping on commercial farms, so cross-pollination with farm system modelling could not occur (lead 1). As the timely operationalization and the localization of a farm system model demand considerable effort, contributions of farm model explorations to the localized change process on commercial farms (lead 2) seem impractical and unlikely. For communication and extrapolation of prototyping output (lead 3), issue-specific (i.e. focus on a component of the system) models are increasingly used. For this purpose, we hypothesize that there may also be a role for farm system models.