Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems
    Winkel, Albert - \ 2016
    Wageningen University & Research. Promotor(en): Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): Nico Ogink; Andre Aarnink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463320849 - 279
    particulate matter - emission reduction - animal housing - application methods - spraying - filters - fijn stof - emissiereductie - huisvesting, dieren - toedieningswijzen - spuiten - filters

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives of this thesis were threefold.

    The first objective was to increase our understanding and knowledge of concentrations and emission rates of PM in commonly applied animal housing systems. This objective is worked out in chapter 2 which presents a national emission survey into the concentrations and emissions of PM, which covered 13 common housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy in the Netherlands and included 202 24-h measurements at 36 farms. The emission figures from this work are currently used in the Netherlands in environmental permit granting procedures (to model the local dispersion of PM10 in the vicinity of livestock farms), to estimate national emissions, to compute large-scale pollutant concentration maps, and to annually evaluate the state of affairs of the National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL).

    The second objective was to develop, test, and validate technologies to mitigate PM concentrations and emissions in poultry farms and ultimately contribute to cleaner outdoor air. This objective is worked out in chapters 3 through 7. Chapters 3 and 4 describe two experiments, one in broilers, one in layers, that investigated the effects of spraying rapeseed oil droplets onto the litter of poultry houses which prevents particles from the litter from becoming airborne. On the basis of chapters 3 and 4, chapter 5 describes a field evaluation of four systems that mitigate PM emissions by reducing indoor concentrations: a fixed oil spraying system, an autonomously driving oil spraying vehicle, a negative air ionization system, and a positive air ionization system. Chapter 6 describes a field evaluation of two ‘end of pipe’ systems to remove PM from the exhaust air of poultry farms, namely: a dry filter wall and an electrostatic precipitator. Chapter 7 describes an emission survey carried out at a total of 16 commercial poultry farms with an ‘end of pipe’ manure drying tunnel. This chapter aimed to elucidate the PM abatement potential and possible additional emissions of ammonia and odor of these tunnels. Furthermore, this chapter aimed to elucidate the perspective of two strategies to reduce any additional emissions from the manure drying tunnels. The results from chapters 5 through 7, carried out at commercial farms, have been used to adopt accurate PM removal figures in Dutch regulations on PM emissions from livestock houses.

    Finally, the third objective was to determine the applicability (in terms of acceptable accuracy and comparability) of alternative PM10 measurement methods – i.e., alternative to the ‘cyclone sampler’ developed prior to this thesis and used in chapters 2 through 7. Such alternative samplers could then be applied in future for determination of PM10 emission rates of animal houses. This objective has been worked out in chapter 8 as an equivalence study between the European reference sampler for PM10 (described in EN 12341) and five different candidate measurement methods (the cyclone sampler, a beta-ray attenuation sampler, a microbalance device, and two light-scattering devices) in four different environments (a fattening pig house, a laying hen house, a broiler house, and an office room). Results show that all samplers showed a systematic deviation from ‘true’ values, that between-device variation was relatively high, and that samplers started to dysfunction after about 432 to 500 h of operation. Therefore, appropriate measures (such as duplicate sampling, correction factors, and more frequent servicing) must be taken. The results can be used to harmonize PM10 measurement methods across institutes and to further increase the availability of samplers for the measurement of PM10 in animal production.

    Referentieraming van emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw tot 2030 : achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Energieverkenning 2015, met emissies van ammoniak, methaan, lachgas, stikstofoxide en fijnstof uit de landbouw tot 2030
    Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Vonk, J. ; Schijndel, M.W. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2746) - 75
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - stikstofoxide - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - nitric oxide - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw, 1990-2013 : berekeningen van ammoniak, stikstofoxide, lachgas,methaan en fijn stof met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 46) - 160
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaanproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - stikstof - intensieve veehouderij - fijn stof - begrazing - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane production - animal manures - nitrogen - intensive livestock farming - particulate matter - grazing
    Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxiden (NO), lachgas (N2O), methaan
    (CH4) en fijn stof (PM10 en PM2,5) in Nederland. De emissies voor de periode 1990-2013 zijn berekend met het National Emission
    Model for Agriculture (NEMA) met toepassing van nieuwe wetenschappelijke inzichten rond emissiefactoren voor ammoniak uit
    stallen en op basis van de nieuwe 2006 IPCC Guidelines. De rekenmethodiek gaat bij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie
    uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in de mest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en
    overige bronnen bedroeg in 2013 120 miljoen kg NH3, 1,5 miljoen kg minder dan in 2012, voornamelijk door meer emissiearme
    huisvesting bij varkens en pluimvee. De N2O-emissie bedroeg zowel in 2012 als in 2013 ruim 19 miljoen kg. De NO-emissie
    nam licht toe van 16,7 naar 16,9 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam toe van 487 tot 499 miljoen kg. De emissie van fijn stof
    nam licht toe van 6,4 miljoen kg PM10 in 2012 tot 6,5 miljoen kg in 2013 door een toename van het aantal leghennen. De
    emissie van PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest
    met bijna 70% gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstof-uitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoedieningstechnieken.
    Lachgas en stikstofoxiden daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder scherp (ca. 40%) vanwege hogere
    emissies door het ondergronds aanwenden van mest (N2O) en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naar vaste
    mest bij pluimvee (N2O en NO). Tussen 1990 en 2013 daalde de emissie van methaan met 17%, wat vrijwel geheel verklaard
    kan worden door een afname in de dieraantallen
    Emissiereductie door verneveling van probiotica over leefoppervlak : literatuurstudie en metingen bij vleesvarkens
    Ellen, H.H. ; Groenestein, K. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Pas, L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 809) - 39
    varkens - slachtdieren - afmesten - probiotica - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - varkenshouderij - pigs - meat animals - finishing - probiotics - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - pig farming
    In twee identieke afdelingen met vleesvarkens is het effect gemeten van het aanbrengen van probiotica (PIP) via het vernevelen er van in de afdeling. Uit de gemeten waarden blijkt er geen significant effect te zijn van het toepassen van probiotica op de emissies van ammoniak (NH3), geur en fijnstof (PM10) en de concentratie van ammoniak.
    Metingen aan een biofilter voor de behandeling van ventilatielucht van een vleesvarkensstal - locatie 2 = Measurements on a biofilter for treatment of exhaust air from a fattening pig house in the Netherlands
    Melse, R.W. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Hattum, T.G. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 896) - 35
    ventilatie - biologische filtratie - varkensstallen - slachtdieren - luchtfilters - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - ammoniak - stankemissie - fijn stof - broeikasgassen - ventilation - biological filtration - pig housing - meat animals - air filters - emission reduction - air quality - ammonia - odour emission - particulate matter - greenhouse gases
    In this study the emission reduction of ammonia (NH3), odour, fine dust (PM10, PM2.5), and greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) was determined for a biofilter (440 m2) treating exhaust air from a pig house (total ventilation capacity: 290.000 m3.uur-1). The average removal for ammonia, odour and fine dust (PM10) was 38%, 43%, and > 93%, respectively. For CO2, N2O, and CH4, no significant difference between inlet and outlet concentration was found for the biofilter.
    Metingen aan het windveld van een ventilator van een kippenstal
    Pronk, A.A. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Meurs, E.J.J. ; Geerts, R.H.E.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 612) - 28
    huisvesting van kippen - stallen - ventilatoren - meting - pluimveehouderij - emissie - luchtkwaliteit - fijn stof - ammoniakemissie - chicken housing - stalls - ventilators - measurement - poultry farming - emission - air quality - particulate matter - ammonia emission
    Dust, both coarse and fine (PM10), is emitted mainly through the exhaust fans of livestock housing and especially through the exhaust fans of poultry housing. There is little known about the dispersion of the emission plume of an exhaust fans of funnel ventilation systems at a short distance of the housing (30 to 40 m). It is known that a hedgerow has a profound effect on an emission plume as both wind speed and wind direction are affected. However, up till now it is not clear how an emission plume is changed.
    Comparison between light scattering and gravimetric samplers for PM10 mass concentration in poultry and pig houses
    Cambra-Lopez, M. ; Winkel, A. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2015
    Atmospheric Environment 111 (2015). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 20 - 27.
    particulate matter - aerosol monitors - indoor - dust - instruments - emissions - devices - pm2.5 - teom
    The objective of this study was to compare co-located real-time light scattering devices and equivalent gravimetric samplers in poultry and pig houses for PM10 mass concentration, and to develop animal-specific calibration factors for light scattering samplers. These results will contribute to evaluate the comparability of different sampling instruments for PM10 concentrations. Paired DustTrak light scattering device (DustTrak aerosol monitor, TSI, U.S.) and PM10 gravimetric cyclone sampler were used for measuring PM10 mass concentrations during 24 h periods (from noon to noon) inside animal houses. Sampling was conducted in 32 animal houses in the Netherlands, including broilers, broiler breeders, layers in floor and in aviary system, turkeys, piglets, growing-finishing pigs in traditional and low emission housing with dry and liquid feed, and sows in individual and group housing. A total of 119 pairs of 24 h measurements (55 for poultry and 64 for pigs) were recorded and analyzed using linear regression analysis. Deviations between samplers were calculated and discussed. In poultry, cyclone sampler and DustTrak data fitted well to a linear regression, with a regression coefficient equal to 0.41, an intercept of 0.16 mg m-3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 (excluding turkeys). Results in turkeys showed a regression coefficient equal to 1.1 (P = 0.49), an intercept of 0.06 mg m-3 (P <0.0001) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. In pigs, we found a regression coefficient equal to 0.61, an intercept of 0.05 mg m-3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.84. Measured PM10 concentrations using DustTraks were clearly underestimated (approx. by a factor 2) in both poultry and pig housing systems compared with cyclone pre-separators. Absolute, relative, and random deviations increased with concentration. DustTrak light scattering devices should be self-calibrated to investigate PM10 mass concentrations accurately in animal houses. We recommend linear regression equations as animal-specific calibration factors for DustTraks instead of manufacturer calibration factors, especially in heavily dusty environments such as animal houses
    Effecten reducerende technieken op emissies bij biologisch gehouden pluimvee : deskstudie
    Ellen, H.H. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 811)
    pluimveehouderij - biologische landbouw - emissiereductie - ammoniakemissie - fijn stof - stankemissie - methaan - mestverwerking - dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - poultry farming - organic farming - emission reduction - ammonia emission - particulate matter - odour emission - methane - manure treatment - animal welfare - poultry - animal production - animal housing - animal health
    De eisen die worden gesteld aan de biologische houderij van pluimvee hebben mogelijk een effect op de emissies van ammoniak (NH3), geur, fijnstof (PM10), methaan (CH4) en lachgas (N2O). Op basis van beschikbare kennis is een inschatting gemaakt van dit effect. Daarna is aangegeven of emissie reducerende systemen zoals toegepast in de reguliere houderij, een vergelijkbaar effect hebben in de biologische houderij. Bij de systemen is ook aangegeven of ze, eventueel met een kleine aanpassing in de beschrijving, toegepast kunnen worden bij biologisch gehouden pluimvee.
    Effect van snijmaissilage als strooiselmateriaal in vleeskuikenstallen op de emissies van ammoniak, geur en fijnstof
    Harn, J. van; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 845) - 49
    emissie - ammoniak - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - vleeskuikens - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveehouderij - maïskuilvoer - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - duurzame veehouderij - emission - ammonia - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - broilers - chicken housing - poultry farming - maize silage - emission reduction - air quality - sustainable animal husbandry
    This report describes the results of emission measurements of ammonia, odour, PM10, methane and nitrous oxide from broiler houses bedded with white wood shavings (=control), fresh silage maize or pre-dried silage maize.
    Evaluation of a dry filter and an electrostatic precipitator for exhaust air cleaning at commercial non-cage laying hen houses
    Winkel, A. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
    Biosystems Engineering 129 (2015). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 212 - 225.
    particulate matter - poultry houses - emissions - buildings - impaction - pm10
    The removal performance of two exhaust air cleaning systems for abatement of particulate matter (PM) emission in poultry houses were investigated: a commercially available dry filter (DF) and a full-scale prototype electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Each system was connected to two commercial, non-cage laying hen houses: one with aviary housing, the other with floor housing. At each house, six to nine 24-h measurements were carried out, spread over the year and the laying cycle. Upstream and downstream of the systems, we measured PM10, PM2.5, and carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Additional measurements of particle size distribution only were carried out at the DF of another poultry house. The latter showed that removal of PM by the DF increased with increasing particle diameter. Mean removal efficiency of the DF for PM10 was 40.1%, whereas PM2.5 was not significantly removed. The ESP reduced concentrations of PM10 by an average of 57.0% and concentrations of PM2.5 by an average of 45.3%. For neither of the two systems an effect of upstream PM concentration on removal performance was found. Results of this study are compared with the available literature and possibilities to improve removal performance are discussed. The mean (SD between houses) untreated emissions rate from the non-cage layer houses was 7.81 (4.12) mg PM10 h-1 bird-1 and 0.44 (0.28) mg PM2.5 h-1 bird-1. In conclusion, the evaluated systems show potential to reduce PM emissions from poultry houses.
    Goed stalklimaat en zeer lage emissies
    Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Verhoijsen, R. ; Bokma, S. - \ 2014
    V-focus 11 (2014)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 41.
    varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - stalklimaat - ventilatie - recirculatiesystemen - ammoniakemissie - fijn stof - emissiereductie - pig farming - pig housing - stall climate - ventilation - recirculating systems - ammonia emission - particulate matter - emission reduction
    Recirculatie van lucht in een vleesvarkensstal is technisch mogelijk. Door een belangrijk deel van de lucht te recirculeren en een deel te verversen, wordt een zeer stabiel stalklimaat verkregen en worden de emissies van ammoniak en fijnstof (en geur) tot vrijwel nul gereduceerd. De extra kosten moeten terug verdiend worden met betere productieresultaten.
    Effect of ecosystem services provided by urban greenb infrastructure on indoor environment: a literature review
    Wang, Y. ; Bakker, F. ; Groot, R.S. de; Woertche, H. - \ 2014
    Building and Environment 77 (2014). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 88 - 100.
    volatile organic-compounds - air-quality - contingent valuation - carbon sequestration - thermal performance - heat-island - residential buildings - outdoor relationships - particulate matter - biogenic emissions
    The influence of urban green infrastructure on the indoor environment and the effects on human comfort and economic consequences are still unclear. This paper gives a systematic overview of the relationship, in terms of so-called ‘ecosystem services’, between urban green infrastructure and the indoor environment through a literature review in different disciplines. Urban green infrastructure (mainly trees, green walls and roofs) was found to contribute, both positively and negatively, to the indoor environment via the influence on the climate, energy use, air quality, sonic environment and aesthetic quality. Four main factors that influence these effects were identified, being vegetation characteristics, building characteristics (including layout and geometry), and geographical conditions. Although the reviewed papers have investigated the different ecosystem services on a wide range of space and time scales, the performance of urban green on the meso- and macro climate has received less attention than on the micro scale. Also direct effects of urban green infrastructure on indoor air quality and sonic environment were rarely studied. Another finding is that, whereas the modelling approach on climate regulation has been widely adopted by researchers throughout the world, empirical studies have mainly been performed in the USA. We also analysed the data found on economic implications. The economic effects of adjoining vegetation and green roofs on climate regulation provided energy savings of up to almost $250/tree/year, while the air quality regulation was valued between $0.12 and $0.6/m2 tree cover/year. Maximum monetary values attributed to noise regulation and aesthetic appreciation of urban green were $20 – $25/person/year, respectively. Of course these values are extremely time- and context-dependent but do give an indication of the potential economic effects of investing in urban green infrastructure. Based on this review, we conclude that new methods, measurement instruments and field experiments are needed to improve empirically supported correlations and develop concrete recommendations for urban planning and design.
    Emissies uit mestdroogsystemen op leghennenbedrijven bij dagontmesting en versneld drogen = Emissions from manure drying systems on layer farms using 24-h manure removal and rapid drying
    Winkel, A. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Schilder, H. ; Hattum, T.G. van; Ellen, H.H. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 731) - 43
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - pluimveehokken - mestverwerking - drogen - fijn stof - luchtverontreiniging - poultry farming - hens - ammonia emission - emission reduction - poultry housing - manure treatment - drying - particulate matter - air pollution
    In dit onderzoek is de hypothese getoetst dat met het dagelijks afdraaien van alle stalmest naar een mestdroogsysteem (dagontmesting), gevolgd door snelle indroging, de extra ammoniakemissie uit deze droogsystemen aanzienlijk kan worden beperkt. Deze hypothese is bevestigd door het onderzoek. Daarnaast is gebleken dat de aangepaste manier van drogen nog steeds een aanzienlijke fijnstofreductie bewerkstelligt.
    Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij: validatie van een oliefilmsysteem op een leghennenbedrijf = Measures to reduce fine dust emission from poultry houses: validation of an oil spraying system on a layer farm
    Winkel, A. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 801) - 24
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - pluimveehokken - stallen - luchtreinigers - fijn stof - emissiereductie - spuiten - film - plantaardige oliën - monitoring - luchtverontreiniging - poultry farming - hens - poultry housing - stalls - air cleaners - particulate matter - emission reduction - spraying - film - plant oils - monitoring - air pollution
    In this study, the emission reduction of an oil spraying system was determined through validation measurements in a layer house with aviary housing.
    Windtunnelonderzoek naar de doorstroming van groenelementen rondom een veehouderijbedrijf : effecten van groenelementen op de luchtkwaliteit rond stalgebouwen door doorstroming van geventileerde stallucht
    Pronk, A.A. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Meer, S. van der; Erbrink, H. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Rapport / Plant Research International 581) - 62
    windtunnels - veehouderijbedrijven - veehouderij - luchtkwaliteit - ventilatie - huisvesting, dieren - stallen - fijn stof - groene infrastructuur - ventilatoren - wind tunnels - livestock enterprises - livestock farming - air quality - ventilation - animal housing - stalls - particulate matter - green infrastructure - ventilators
    According to theoretical considerations, green buffers of trees placed around emission sources, the so-called ‘vegetative environmental buffers’ improve air quality by reducing the concentrations of fine dust from animal housing. The reduction occurs because particles deposit onto the vegetative environmental buffers. However, deposition can only occur when emissions enter the vegetative environmental buffers. The configuration of the vegetative environmental buffer, such as height, shape and distance to the source, affects the fraction of emitted pollution from the animal housing ventilators that actually is blown into the vegetative environmental buffer and thus is susceptible to deposition. To evaluate the efficiency of vegetative environmental buffers on the concentration of fine particles in the emitted pollution from animal housing by ventilators, this fraction needs to be estimated. The aim of this study is therefore: to determine the fraction of ventilated air from animal housing that is blown into a vegetative environmental buffer which totally surrounds the animal housing, at different wind directions and wind speeds.
    Meteorology during the DOMINO campaign and its connection with trace gases and aerols
    Adame, J.A. ; Martinez, M. ; Sorribas, M. ; Hidalgo, P.J. ; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. - \ 2014
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14 (2014). - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 2325 - 2342.
    oh reactivity measurements - particulate matter - spain - air - variability - emissions - origin - ozone - pm10 - site
    The DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen Oxides) campaign was carried out from 21 November to 8 December 2008 at the El Arenosillo station (SW of Spain) in a coastal-rural environment. The main weather conditions are analysed using local meteorological variables, meteorological soundings and synoptic maps, as well as back trajectories of the air masses using the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) model and a high spatial resolution of meteorological fields. Measurements of the main meteorological parameters were collected both from the surface and from a tall tower. A detailed land use analysis was performed on a 80 km scale showing the main types of vegetation and land use. Also the main anthropogenic atmospheric emission sources – both industrial-urban from Huelva and from the urban Seville area – are shown. A study to identify air mass origins and their variation with height was carried out. In this intensive campaign, air masses coming from different areas with different emission sources were observed: from the NW, with a highly industrial-urban character; continental flows from northerly directions; from the NE, with a pathway starting over the Seville metropolitan area and then continuing over the Doñana National Park; and maritime air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. To study the chemistry in the four atmospheric scenarios identified, gas -phase measurements of primary and secondary species such as ozone, NO, NO2 and SO2, biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) like benzene and isoprene, as well as total particle concentration and chemical composition of the aerosols are compared and discussed. The highest levels for total particle concentration, NO, NO2, SO2, benzene, PM10, PM2.5 and chemical elements such as As or Cu were found under flows associated with industrial-urban emissions from the Huelva–Portugal sector which are transported to the site before significant removal by chemical or deposition mechanism can occur. The air masses from the north were affected mainly by crustal elements and biogenic sources, the latter being exemplified by the biogenic species such as isoprene, particularly in the first part of the campaign. The urban air from the Seville area, before arriving at El Arenosillo, traversed the Doñana National Park and therefore was affected by industrial-urban and biogenic emissions. This aged air parcel can transport low levels of NOx, total particle concentration and SO2 as well as ozone and isoprene. Marine air masses from the Atlantic Ocean influence El Arenosillo frequently. Under these conditions, the lowest levels of almost all the species – with the exception of ozone levels associated to long-range transport – were measured
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2012 : berekeningen van ammoniak, stikstofoxide, lachgas, methaan en fijn stof met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Haan, B.J. de; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 3) - 79
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaanproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - emissie - stikstof - intensieve veehouderij - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - modellen - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane production - animal manures - emission - nitrogen - intensive livestock farming - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands - models
    Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O), methaan (CH4) en fijn stof in Nederland. De emissies voor de periode 1990-2012 zijn berekend met NEMA. In 2013 is NEMA uitgebreid met modules voor N2O, NO, CH4 en fijn stof. De rekenmethodiek gaat bij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in de mest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest bedroeg in 2012 ruim 108 miljoen kg NH3, 5 miljoen kg minder dan in 2011, voornamelijk door een lagere stikstofuitscheiding in dierlijke mest en een toename van de mestexport. In lijn hiermee nam de N2O-emissie af van 22,4 tot 21,7 miljoen kg. De NO-emissie nam af van 19,9 naar 19,1 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest met bijna 70% gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstofuitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme toedieningstechnieken. Lachgas en stikstofoxiden daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder scherp (ca. 40%) vanwege hogere emissies door ondergronds aanwenden van mest (N2O) en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naar droge mest bij pluimvee (N2O en NO). De totale emissie van methaan veranderde tussen 2011 en 2012 nauwelijks, en komt uit op 437,3 miljoen kg. Tussen 1990 en 2012 daalde de emissie met 14%, wat vrijwel geheel verklaard kan worden door een afname in de dieraantallen. Fijn stof ten slotte, daalde van 6,6 naar 6,4 miljoen kg PM10 als gevolg van het toenemende aandeel stallen met luchtwasser. Hiervan is 0,6 miljoen kg PM2,5.
    Comparing the environmental impact of a nitrifiying biotrickling filter with or without denitrification for ammonia abatement at animal houses
    Vries, J.W. de; Melse, R.W. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 717) - 14
    intensieve veehouderij - varkenshouderij - rundveehouderij - luchtreinigers - nitrificatie - denitrificatie - vergelijkend onderzoek - filters - ammoniakemissie - fijn stof - broeikasgassen - intensive livestock farming - pig farming - cattle husbandry - air cleaners - nitrification - denitrification - comparative research - filters - ammonia emission - particulate matter - greenhouse gases
    The aim was to assess the environmental impact of a biotrickling filter with nitrification only and with subsequent denitrification. Life cycle assessment was applied to assess greenhouse gases, nitrate, ammonia and fossil fuel depletion. The biotrickling filter with nitrification and denitrification had higher greenhouse gas emission, whereas nitrification only had higher nitrate leaching and ammonia emission from field application of discharge water
    Groen en luchtkwaliteit 2 (werking, soortkeuze en toepassing)
    Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2013
    plantations - public green areas - street trees - trees - particulate matter - air quality
    Beknopte milieueffectrapportage op planniveau : in het kader van het Vijfde Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn
    Schoumans, O.F. ; Schröder, J.J. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Renaud, L.V. ; Lusink, M. ; Kruseman, G. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2461) - 44
    landbouw - emissiereductie - fijn stof - nitraten - waterkwaliteit - luchtkwaliteit - monitoring - agriculture - emission reduction - particulate matter - nitrates - water quality - air quality - monitoring
    Om de doelstellingen van de Nitraatrichtlijn en de kaderrichtlijn Water te realiseren, voert de rijksoverheid actief beleid om de nutriëntenbelasting vanuit de landbouw naar het grondwater en oppervlaktewater terug te dringen. Ter voorbereiding van de invoering van het Vijfde Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn (2014-2017) is een beknopte milieueffectrapportage (MER) op planniveau uitgevoerd. De MER richt zich vooral op het bodem- en watercompartiment, en meer precies op de verbetering van de nitraatconcentratie in het grondwater en de vermindering van de nutriëntenbelasting van het oppervlaktewater die behaald kan worden met het voorgenomen beleid. Hierbij is er speciale aandacht voor het Zuidelijke zand- en lössgebied omdat de overschrijdingen van de streefwaarde voor de nitraatconcentratie in het grondwater in deze regio het grootst zijn. Er wordt in deze planMER studie ook aandacht besteed aan andere milieueffecten. Ingeschat is wat de gevolgen zijn voor de emissies naar de lucht (NH3, NOx, N2O, CH4, CO2 en fijnstof), het mesttransport, gebruik aan grondstoffen en de gevolgen van de emissies voor het klimaat, de natuur en leefomgeving. De berekeningen geven aan dat met het voorgenomen beleid de nitraatconcentratie in het Zuidelijke zandgebied tot gemiddeld 50 mg L-1 kan dalen. Landelijk gemiddeld verandert de N- en P-belasting van het oppervlaktewater nagenoeg niet. Voor het Zuidelijk zand- en lössgebied wordt de sterkste daling van de nutriëntenbelasting van het oppervlaktewater verwacht. Naar verwachting kan met maatwerk van aanvullende maatregelen een verdere reductie van de belasting van grondwater en oppervlaktewater worden bereikt. De emissies naar de lucht van ammoniak (NH3), lachgas (N2O) en koolstofdioxide (CO2), methaan (CH4), overige gasvormige stikstofverbindingen en fijn stof zullen beperkt wijzigen, met als gevolg dat de veranderingen in de effecten voor het klimaat, de natuur en de leefomgeving minimaal zullen zijn.
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