Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Community ecology of Neotropical ticks, hosts, and associated pathogens
Esser, Helen J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; F.J.J.M. Bongers, co-promotor(en): P.A. Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436908 - 200
metastigmata - host specificity - host parasite relationships - biodiversity - species diversity - pathogens - size - community ecology - tickborne diseases - panama - tropics - hosts - metastigmata - gastheerspecificiteit - gastheer parasiet relaties - biodiversiteit - soortendiversiteit - pathogenen - grootte - gemeenschapsecologie - ziekten overgebracht door teken - panama - tropen - gastheren (dieren, mensen, planten)

The ongoing loss of global biodiversity is unprecedented in both magnitude and pace, raising urgent questions as to how this loss will affect ecosystem functioning and human well-being. Control of infectious diseases has been proposed as an important ecosystem service that is likely to be affected by biodiversity loss. A negative relationship between biodiversity and disease risk could offer a win-win situation for nature conservation and human health. However, the generality of this relationship remains the subject of contentious debate. The aim of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between ticks and their vertebrate hosts in a biodiversity hotspot, and how loss of biodiversity affects these interactions and ultimately, tick-borne disease risk. My study was unique in that I simultaneously considered and directly assessed broader communities of Neotropical wildlife, ticks, and tick-borne pathogens across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient.

Determining whether and how biodiversity loss affects tick-borne disease risk in tropical forests requires a thorough understanding of tick-host associations, which are a function of tick-host specificity as well as host biological and ecological traits. In chapter 2, I therefore quantified the degree to which adult ticks are host-specific in my study region: Panama. Using quantitative network analyses and phylogenetic tools with null model comparisons, I found that the adult life stages of most tick species were specific to a limited number of host species that were phylogenetically closely related. In Chapter 4 I showed that species assemblages of adult ticks became increasingly diverse on larger-bodied host species, indicating that adult ticks in Panama tend to select for large reproduction hosts.

In contrast to adult ticks, understanding the ecological interactions between immature ticks and their hosts in the tropics has long been hampered by a lack of morphological identification keys. Therefore, in Chapter 3, I describe the development of a DNA barcode reference library for the molecular identification of larvae and nymphs. This reference library was highly effective in species-level identification of immature ticks collected from birds (Chapter 3) and small mammals (Chapter 4 and 6). Several avian ecological traits were positively associated with tick parasitism, but the potential role of wild birds in tick-borne disease transmission seems to be limited in Panama. Immature ticks did not show any specificity to particular bird species or avian ecological traits (Chapter 3), and species assemblages of immatures ticks were equally diverse across a large number of host taxa (Chapter 4). This suggests that larvae and nymphs may feed more opportunistically than their adult counterparts.

High host specificity in adult ticks implies high susceptibility to tick-host coextinction, even if immature ticks feed opportunistically. In chapter 5, I tested this hypothesis by surveying tick and vertebrate host communities across a forest fragmentation gradient. Forest fragments consisted of previously connected islands and peninsulas in the Panama Canal and ranged 1000-fold in size. Abundance and species richness of ticks was positively related to that of wildlife, which in turn was related to the size of the forest fragment. Specialist tick species were only present in fragments where their specific reproduction hosts were captured by camera traps. Further, less diverse tick communities were dominated by a generalist tick species. These results indicate that loss of wildlife had cascading effects on tick communities through local host-parasite coextinction.

In Chapter 6, I studied how communities of wildlife, ticks, and tick-borne microbes changed along a more ‘typical’ disturbance gradient, in which forest fragments were embedded in an agricultural and sub-urban landscape, rather than surrounded by water. I found that wildlife community disassembly either diluted, amplified, or had no effect on infection prevalence in ticks, depending on the pathogen and degree of disturbance. However, hyperabundance of medium- to large-sized frugivores and herbivores (important reproduction hosts for adult ticks) in sites that lacked apex predators was related to exponential increases in tick density, negating any effect of reduced pathogen prevalence. Moreover, high tick species richness in these sites was related to high microbial and pathogen richness. High parasite diversity is thus a source of infectious diseases. When medium- to large-sized frugivores and herbivores also disappeared, densities of infected ticks declined, suggesting a non-linear relationship between biodiversity loss and tick-borne disease risk, in which initial loss of apex predators increases disease risk, but further loss of species decreases disease risk again.

In this thesis, I have quantified host-feeding relationships of adult and immature Neotropical ticks, many of which (in the case of larvae and nymphs) were largely unknown. I have shown that adult ticks tend to be highly host-specific, particularly to larger-bodied vertebrates, whereas immature ticks appear to have broader host-use patterns. I found that ticks are susceptible to local host-tick coextirpation, and that the relationship between biodiversity loss and tick-borne disease risk is non-linear. My results emphasize the importance of directly assessing host community composition and suggest that the presence of specific (reproduction) hosts are a more important factor than species richness per se for tick population and tick-borne disease dynamics.

Onderzoek Waterkringloopsluiting Tulpenbroeierij : overzicht huidige en toekomstige technieken om waterkringloopsluiting mogelijk te maken
Os, E.A. van; Feenstra, L. ; Ruijven, J. van; Stijger, C.C.M.M. ; Koeman-Stein, N. ; Appelman, W. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1394) - 38
tulpen - forceren van planten - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - recirculatiesystemen - drainagewater - pathogenen - pathogeen eliminatie - gewasbescherming - voedingsstoffen - fenolen - tulips - forcing - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - waste water treatment - waste water - recirculating systems - drainage water - pathogens - pathogen elimination - plant protection - nutrients - phenols
Closing of the water cycle is required in the forcing of tulips. For growers it is important to know if and how they can eliminate pathogens at an adequate way and which equipment is most suitable to break down plant protection products from waste water. Now participating growers have various equipment for full or partly disinfection. It is recommended to start with good pre-filtration methods to eliminate pathogens which can be fully achieved with UV and ozone, while products such as hydrogen peroxide with additives or chlorite products can be used for an after-effect in the pipe work. Phenolic compounds, released by the roots, can be eliminated with oxidising methods. However efficacy has not been investigated. Purification of discharge water, before entering the waste ditch, will be obliged. New, certified, equipment will come on the market soon. Reuse of discharge water, after pre-fi ltration and disinfection, is also an option.
Verwerking van mestoverschot: overleven de ziekteverwekkers?
Hoeksma, P. ; Rutjes, S. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2016
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 49 (2016)5. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 34 - 35.
mestverwerking - mestoverschotten - dierlijke meststoffen - lozing - waterverontreiniging - pathogenen - manure treatment - manure surpluses - animal manures - disposal - water pollution - pathogens
Dierlijke mest bevat ziekteverwekkende bacteriën en virussen. Worden deze gedood bij de verschillende mestverwerkingsmethodes? Die vraag wordt belangrijker nu een deel van de mestoverschotten verwerkt moet worden, waarmee en mesttransport en mestverwerkingsactiviteiten toenemen. Wageningen UR en het RIVM deden een verkennend onderzoek.
Improvement of methods for the detection of Gram-negative foodborne pathogens
Margot, H.F.T. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; Han Joosten, co-promotor(en): R. Stephan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578708 - 158
gram negative bacteria - pathogens - foodborne pathogens - detection - real time pcr - salmonella - escherichia coli - mung beans - gramnegatieve bacteriën - pathogenen - voedselpathogenen - detectie - real time pcr - salmonella - escherichia coli - mungbonen

Foodborne diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In most cases, these diseases are caused by contaminated food products, but transmission can also subsequently occur via person to person contact. The ability to detect the pathogens is an important aspect in the verification of food safety. A major proportion of foodborne disease is caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In this thesis, the detection of Gram-negative foodborne pathogens is addressed by looking at the successive steps from enrichment to detection with Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and Cronobacter spp. as example pathogens. The detection of foodborne pathogens using microbiological culture media aiming at the resuscitation and growth of bacteria is still regarded as the gold standard and included in many reference methods. However, cultural methods are time and labour-intensive. Since an immediate response is required in case of contamination and during outbreaks there is a strong interest in methods that deliver information on the microbiological status of the product as quickly and reliable as possible. Rapid cultural methods and commercially available real-time PCR systems for the detection of Salmonella and STEC were compared with regards to their sensitivity and specificity. It was shown that most of the marketed systems are as reliable as the standard methods. However, false-positive results were obtained with real-time PCR systems for the detection of Salmonella. Rapid cultural methods that were based on procedures without the pre-enrichment step, reduced the time to detection but did show some ambiguous results with difficult matrices such as tea. Of the seven rapid tests for the detection of STEC, one did not detect relevant Stx subtypes.

In order to be detected, pathogens need to multiply to reach a minimum threshold level. However, because they are often sublethally injured due to hostile processing and storage conditions, they first need to be resuscitated. For most pathogens, (Salmonella, STEC and Cronobacter spp.) the first step in the detection is an enrichment including resuscitation in a non-selective medium such as BPW. Modifications to BPW were compared with respect to their ability to promote growth of unstressed and stressed Gram-negative pathogens. The aim was to develop a medium that could be used for the enrichment of pathogens in horizontal methods using only one enrichment step. The resuscitation of stressed Cronobacter cells was improved in BPW supplemented with an additional iron source and sodium pyruvate along with low levels of compounds for the inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria. However, it was observed that BPW containing these supplements allowed for less resuscitation of STEC when compared to regular BPW. Based on these results it was concluded that the application of a one-broth enrichment in food products with a high number of competing bacteria is not recommended due to the overgrowth of the target bacteria. Limitations of the current method for the detection of STEC from sprouted seeds were noticed. Therefore, the growth of stressed STEC cells from different serotypes was assessed in media used for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the growth of STEC was examined in the enrichment of sprouts using different media and incubation temperatures. It was shown that the high level of competitors was inhibiting the detection of the target pathogen and that the similarity of target and competing bacteria prevents the design of a selective enrichment procedure. In order to get a better insight in the enrichment ecology, the microbiome of mungo bean sprouts was analysed using Illumina HiSeq sequencing prior to and during the enrichment in BPW and EE-broth at different temperatures. The majority of the sprout flora was composed of bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria. Enrichment in BPW increased the proportion of Firmicutes whereas the incubation in EE-broth enriched Proteobacteria. The results point out that with the application of a selective medium like EE-broth, growth of the competitive microflora that complicates the detection of STEC is promoted. It was shown that EE-broth also resulted in good growth of STEC however, the problematic situation of low maximum population densities of the target strain in the matrix is still present. The probability of detection is not only influenced by the natural flora of a food product, but also by the physiological state of the pathogen. The influence of stress on the lag time of single cells and the resulting probability of detection were determined for Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula. Lag time was calculated from optical density measurement data and different scenarios were modelled. Lag time was longest after acid stress and lag time increase coincided with increased lag time variability. The probability of detection, however, depended both on the sampling plan and on the duration of the lag phase.

This thesis provides a critical evaluation of rapid methods and valuable new insights on enrichment procedures, the role of competitors in bacterial enrichment procedures and the limitations of selective agents. This information will be of great help to further improve microbiological methods and thereby contribute to more effective management of food safety.

Overleving van pathogenen bij mestverwerking
Hoeksma, P. ; Rutjes, S. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Blaak, H. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)3 maart. - 9
mestverwerking - pathogenen - omgekeerde osmose - mineralen - lozing - riolering - oppervlaktewater - waterzuivering - manure treatment - pathogens - reverse osmosis - minerals - disposal - sewerage - surface water - water treatment
In de producten van verschillende mestverwerkingsprocessen zijn de concentraties gemeten van een aantal pathogenen. De resultaten laten zien dat mechanische scheiding vrijwel geen effect heeft op het aantal pathogenen. Vergisting heeft weinig effect op virussen en grampositieve bacteriën, maar reduceert wel het aantal gramnegatieve bacteriën. Grampositieve bacteriën kunnen ook hittebehandeling tot 70°C overleven. Omgekeerde osmose, een membraantechniek die in een aantal mestverwerkingsinstallaties wordt toegepast, resulteert in een mineralenconcentraat dat als meststof wordt gebruikt en een effluent dat op het riool of oppervlaktewater wordt geloosd. Effluent na omgekeerde osmose is microbiologisch schoon, mits de integriteit van het RO-proces goed wordt bewaakt.
Resistentieveredeling - Stressfactoren en verschillende typen belagers : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning.
Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2016
Groen Kennisnet
resistance breeding - stress factors - plant breeding - selection methods - disease resistance - plant protection - teaching materials - detection - pathogens - resistentieveredeling - stressfactoren - plantenveredeling - selectiemethoden - ziekteresistentie - gewasbescherming - lesmaterialen - detectie - pathogenen
Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Resistentie Veredeling van het CIV T&U.
Zweven boven de afgrond : gieren in Afrika ernstig bedreigd
Nijland, Rik ; Buij, R. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 22 - 25.
accipitridae - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - afrika - ziekten - pathogenen - dierecologie - accipitridae - endangered species - extinction - africa - diseases - pathogens - animal ecology
Ze worden opgegeten, vergiftigd door boeren en stropers en verwerkt in traditionele medicijnen. Afrikaanse gieren zijn daardoor in vijftig jaar met 80 procent achteruitgegaan. Als de gieren het laten afweten, worden rottende karkassen mogelijk verspreidingshaarden van ziekten die gevaarlijk zijn voor mens en dier.
Jaarverslagen van de KNPV-werkgroepen over 2014: Werkgroep Bodempathogenen en bodemmicrobiologie
Os, G.J. van; Postma, J. - \ 2015
Gewasbescherming 46 (2015)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 46 - 46.
jaarverslagen - werkgroepen - gewasbescherming - bodempathogenen - bodemmicrobiologie - fusarium - oömyceten - onkruidkunde - nematoda - pathogenen - resistentie tegen insecticiden - resistentie tegen herbiciden - weerstand - bacteriologie - graansoorten - annual reports - working groups - plant protection - soilborne pathogens - soil microbiology - oomycetes - weed science - pathogens - insecticide resistance - herbicide resistance - resistance - bacteriology - cereals
Dit artikel omvat de jaarverslagen van de volgende KNPV-werkgroepen over 2014: Bodempathogenen en bodemmicrobiologie; Fusarium; Oömyceten; Nematoden; Onkruidbeheersing; Middelenresistentie; Fytobacteriologie; Gewasbescherming en Maatschappelijk Debat; Jongeren; Fytobacteriologie; Graanziekten.
Samenvatting KNPV-najaarssymposium Plantenziektekunde in de Topsector
Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Simons, T. ; Postma, J. ; Westerdijk, C.E. ; Kempenaar, C. ; Ebskamp, M. ; Bonants, P.J.M. ; Schoenmakers, M. ; Goud, J.C. - \ 2014
Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 186 - 191.
plantenziekten - conferenties - economische sectoren - pathogenen - bruto nationaal product - publiek-private samenwerking - precisielandbouw - bodembeheer - tuinbouw - plantenveredeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gewasbescherming - plant diseases - conferences - economic sectors - pathogens - gross national product - public-private cooperation - precision agriculture - soil management - horticulture - plant breeding - sustainability - plant protection
De topsectoren zijn van groot belang omdat hierbij actief wordt ingezet op de negen sectoren die voor Nederland BV erg belangrijk zijn. Het midden- en kleinbedrijf (MKB) neemt hierin een sleutelpositie in en kan binnen de topsectoren een rol vervullen die cruciaal is voor onze economie. De sector van de Tuinbouw en Uitgangsmaterialen bedraagt wel 10% van het bruto nationaal product (BNP). Ook andere Topsectoren, met name Agri&Food, zijn belangrijk voor specifiek de plantenziektekunde en voor de plantaardige productie als geheel. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op het KNPV najaarssymposium ‘Plantenziektekunde in de Topsector op 19 november 2014.
GM1-derived carbohydrates for pathogen and antibody detection : synthesis and biological evaluation
Garcia Hartjes, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Zuilhof, co-promotor(en): Tom Wennekes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571273 - 240
koolhydraten - moleculaire detectie - antilichamen - pathogenen - remmers - biotesten - carbohydrates - molecular detection - antibodies - pathogens - inhibitors - bioassays
Jaarverslagen van de KNPV-werkgroepen over 2013 : werkgroep Bodempathogenen en bodemmicrobiologie
Os, G.J. van; Postma, J. - \ 2014
Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 59 - 62.
jaarverslagen - werkgroepen - bodempathogenen - bodemmicrobiologie - fusarium - oömyceten - onkruidkunde - botrytis - nematoda - pathogenen - gewasbescherming - annual reports - working groups - soilborne pathogens - soil microbiology - oomycetes - weed science - pathogens - plant protection
Dit artikel omvat de jaarverslagen van de volgende KNPV-werkgroepen over 2013: Bodempathogenen en bodemmicrobiologie; Fusarium; Oömyceten; Onkruidkunde; Botrytis; Nematoden; Fytobacteriologie; Gewasbescherming en Maatschappelijk Debat; Jongeren.
Effect of species richness on disease risk: dilution effect and underlying mechanisms
Huang, Z. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Frank van Langevelde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570894 - 73
dierziekten - bovidae - rundvee - risico - soortenrijkdom - ziektedistributie - pathogenen - ziekteoverdracht - modellen - afrika - animal diseases - bovidae - cattle - risk - species richness - disease distribution - pathogens - disease transmission - models - africa

Summary

any pathogens infect multiple host species which can differ in their reservoir competence. Consequently the species richness and composition of the host community can considerably influence the dynamics of disease transmission.

Recently, an increasing number of studies reported the existence of a dilution effect whereby high host species richness reduces the disease risk. However, the generality of the dilution effect and its mechanisms are still highly debated.

In this thesis, I tested the existence of a dilution effect in bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and investigated the underlying mechanisms of the dilution effect.

I detected a possible dilution effect in BTB, where higher mammal species richness reduced the probability of occurrence of BTB at a regional level in Africa, after correcting for cattle density (Chapter 2).

This dilution effect might be caused by encounter reduction, i.e. the presence of non-competent mammal species might act as barriers to herd movement of cattle and reduce encounter rates among herds, which leads to a decreased probability of BTB outbreaks.

Then I extended the study of the BTB dilution effect to the analysis of BTB persistence and recurrence (Chapter 3).

The results showed that mammal species richness was also negatively correlated with the BTB persistence and recurrence.

Besides, I demonstrated that the presence of African buffalo, as a maintenance host for

Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of BTB), had a positive identity effect and increased the risk of BTB persistence and recurrence, whereas greater kudu distribution was not correlated with BTB persistence or recurrence.

In addition, BTB persistence and recurrence were correlated with different sets of risk factors.

In Chapter 4, I showed that interspecific variation in species’ reservoir competence could be partly explained by life-history traits in three vector borne diseases, namely Lyme disease, West Nile Encephalitis (WNE) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE). Species with larger body mass (for hosts of Lyme disease and WNE) or smaller clutch size (for hosts of EEE) had a lower reservoir competence. Given that both larger body mass and smaller clutch size are linked to higher extinction risk of local populations, the results indicate that species with a higher reservoir competence are more likely to remain in the community when biodiversity declines, and thereby potentially increase the risk of transmitting these pathogens.

This might be a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect.

Combing the results about the relationships between species’ reservoir competence and life-history traits, I constructed a compartmental model to investigate the effect of connectivity on the risk of directly transmitted diseases in metapopulations (Chapter 5).

I showed that different indicators of disease risk (infection prevalence and number of infected individuals) reacted differently to increasing connectivity.

Higher connectivity can not only decrease disease risk due to the dilution effect by increasing species richness, but can also increase disease risk through increasing contact rates among patches (facilitation effect).

The net impact of connectivity depends on the relative importance of the dilution versus facilitation effect.

These results may reconcile the current debate on the dilution effect, and contributes to a better understanding of the impacts of fragmentation on disease risks and the generality of the dilution effect.

M Finally, I combined these findings and reviewed the evidence and critiques on the dilution effect (Chapter 6).

Latest studies (also the BTB study in this thesis) tried to test species identity effects, caused by particular species in communities, and found that the identity effect and dilution effect can operate simultaneously in the host community.

I suggest that the identity effect could act as an additional mechanism explaining the effect of species richness on disease risk.

A weak correlation between host reservoir competence and local extinction risk can create inconsistent effects of host species richness on disease risk.

Moreover, different indicators of disease risk may react differently to the changes in species richness.

This could also be one of the reasons for the controversial results from previous studies that used different indicators (e.g., prevalence or number of infection) of disease risk.

In conclusion, this thesis presents both evidence and critique for the existence of the dilution effect.

Since factors may simultaneously influence community compostion and the characteristics of pathogen transmission (e.g., susceptibility, survival of pathogen etc.), future studies should also consider these factors, rather than only species richness, to better understand the effect of species richness on disease risk.

Interreg Safeguard - Food safety mapping of mussels and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Dutch Wadden Sea
Glorius, S.T. ; Poelman, M. ; Zweeden, C. van; Gool, A.C.M. van - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C0104/14) - 71
waddenzee - oesters - crassostrea gigas - besmetting - pathogenen - verontreiniging - voedselveiligheid - mossels - voedselbesmetting - wadden sea - oysters - contamination - pathogens - pollution - food safety - mussels - food contamination
The areal coverage and biomass of the invasive Pacific oyster has increased in both the Dutch and German part of the Wadden Sea area since its introduction in the late seventies. In the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea oyster beds have increased in areal coverage in the period 2003 –2008. The Pacific oyster has relevance for commercial exploitation since 2009. This arises special interest for food safety aspects. A joint monitor program named ‘Interreg Safeguard’ has been set up with German partners to firstly identify oyster bed location and subsequently obtain insight in the temporal and areal variation in both the level of chemical contamination as well as contamination with pathogens. Measured levels were compared with legislation standards currently in force and it was also researched what the relation of pollution levels found in oysters were with those found in mussels collected in the near vicinity. This report describes the results of the work carried within the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea and include; results of the mapping effort of oyster beds, concentrations of chemical and microbiological parameters in oyster and mussel tissue and the comparison of the contaminant levels found in oyster with those found in mussels.
Relatie tussen emissiereducties van bio-aerosolen en gezondheidsrisico's in de omgeving van veehouderijbedrijven: voorstudie.
Hagenaars, T.J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute (CVI report 15/CVI0094) - 30
emissiereductie - aërosolen - broeikasgassen - veehouderijbedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - gezondheidsgevaren - volksgezondheid - pathogenen - intensieve veehouderij - emission reduction - aerosols - greenhouse gases - livestock enterprises - sustainable animal husbandry - health hazards - public health - pathogens - intensive livestock farming
This report describes what is presently known about possible health risks, to both humans and livestock, in the neighborhood of livestock farms, due to emission of bio-aerosols from these farms. Subsequently it answers the question to which extent such risks (if present) could be reduced by reducing the emission.
Global collection of mushroom pathogens
Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendrickx, P.M. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Korsten, L. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Plant Breeding - 40
eetbare paddestoelen - ziekten - diagnostische technieken - resistentie van variëteiten - alternatieve methoden - pathogenen - bedrijfshygiëne - monitoring - maatregelen - edible fungi - diseases - diagnostic techniques - varietal resistance - alternative methods - pathogens - industrial hygiene - measures
In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of pathogens (diagnostics), alternative crop protection agents and disease resistant mushroom varieties have to play an important role. The number of researchers in several mushroom producing countries is decreasing already for a number of years. For an effective use of research funds, international collaboration on topics of mutual interest is important. At the workshop of the Global Mushroom Disease Diagnostic Initiative, held in 2008 just before the ISMS conference in Cape Town, it was decided to try and build a collection of reference pathogen strains for the white button mushroom diseases present world wide. This collection will play a vital role in the development of diagnostic methods for mushroom diseases. This project was funded in part by the ISMS and in part by the Dutch Horticultural Board.
Vergelijkende genoomanalyse geeft inzicht in de evolutie en biologie van pathogene oömyceten
Seidl, M.F. ; Govers, F. - \ 2013
Gewasbescherming 44 (2013)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 109 - 112.
genomica - oömyceten - pathogenen - biologie - evolutie - moleculaire genetica - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - bio-informatica - plantenziekten - phytophthora infestans - genomics - oomycetes - pathogens - biology - evolution - molecular genetics - plant pathogenic fungi - bioinformatics - plant diseases
Hoewel oömyceten nog maar kortgeleden het genomica-tijdperk zijn binnengetreden hebben de nieuwe ‘-omics’-technieken al geleid tot een overvloed aan kwantitatieve data. Vergelijkende en geïntegreerde genomica is cruciaal om deze schatkist met data te ontsluiten. In het proefschrift ‘Exploring Evolution and Biology of Oomycetes: Integrative and Comparative Genomics’ zijn met succes de eerste stappen gezet om deze data te gebruiken om zodoende de evolutie en biologie van oömyceten verder te ontrafelen en dit heeft reeds geleid tot waardevole nieuwe inzichten.
Waterharmonica's in nederland - 1996 - 2011: van effluent tot bruikbaar oppervlaktewater
Boomen, R. van den; Kampf, R. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2012
Amersfoort : Stowa (Rapport / STOWA 2012-12) - ISBN 9789057735592 - 84
helofytenfilters - afvalwaterbehandeling - biologische behandeling - pathogenen - artificial wetlands - waste water treatment - biological treatment - pathogens
Natuurlijke zuiveringssystemen - Waterharmonica's - worden in Nederland al jaren ge­bruikt om de kwaliteit van afvalwater te verbeteren voordat het wordt geloosd op het oppervlaktewater of wordt hergebruikt. Een eerste opzet voor een Waterharmonica als schakel tus­sen waterketen en watersysteem werd door STOWA beloond bij het 25­ jarig bestaan, in 1996. Sindsdien zijn er op diverse plaatsen in Nederland Waterharmonica’s aangelegd; eerst op kleine schaal, later ook op grote schaal. Ook heeft er in deze periode het nodige onderzoek plaatsgevonden. Dit rapport geeft een samenvattend beeld van toepassingen en onderzoek.
WIPE: De invloed van moerassystemen op de milieukwaliteit van rwzi effluent en aanbevelingen tot optimalisering
Foekema, E.M. ; Sneekes, A.C. ; Koelemij, E.I. ; Tjon Atsoi, M.M.G. ; Hoornsman, G. ; Bakker, A.G. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C005/12) - 324
waterzuivering - moerassen - helofytenfilters - zuiveringsinstallaties - afvalwaterbehandeling - pathogenen - pathogeen eliminatie - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - water treatment - marshes - artificial wetlands - purification plants - waste water treatment - pathogens - pathogen elimination - surface water quality
In het project WIPE (Waterharmonica Improving Purification Effectiveness) is onderzocht wat het effect van een zuiveringsmoeras (waterharmonica) op de kwaliteit van RWZI-effluent is, met als uiteindelijk doel aanbevelingen te formuleren hoe de inrichting van zuiveringsmoerassen geoptimaliseerd kan worden. De focus van het onderzoek lag op risico’s van stoffen en pathogenen, die in RWZI-effluent aanwezig kunnen zijn en die bij een reguliere RWZI direct in oppervlaktewater geloosd worden.
Ziekten van vissen, schaal- en schelpdieren, van belang voor de Nederlandse aquacultuur
Haenen, O.L.M. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Beurden, S.J. van; Werkman, P. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Centraal Veterinair Instituut van Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461901019 - 163
visteelt - aquacultuur - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - visziekten - diergezondheid - pathogenen - zoönosen - diagnostiek - diergeneeskunde - nederland - fish culture - aquaculture - shellfish culture - fish diseases - animal health - pathogens - zoonoses - diagnostics - veterinary science - netherlands
In de Nederlandse aquacultuur wordt een groot aantal vis- en schelpdiersoorten gekweekt en geteeld, daarnaast is er een zeer beperkte houderij van schaaldieren. Net als in andere dierlijke productiesectoren komen in de aquacultuursector verschillende ziekten voor die een belemmering kunnen vormen voor de productie. Dit boek geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste vis-, schaaldier- en schelpdierziekten in Nederland.
Snellere test voor ziekteverwekkers
Amerongen, A. van - \ 2011
Kennis Online 2011 (2011)14 juni. - p. 19 - 19.
pathogenen - testen - technieken - versneld testen - analytische methoden - nanotechnologie - detectie - pathogens - testing - techniques - accelerated testing - analytical methods - nanotechnology - detection
Onderzoek naar snelle en betrouwbare testmethoden is zwaar, tijdrovend en absoluut niet hip, maar wel belangrijk. Artsen in Afrikaanse plattelandsziekenhuizen en Nederlandse inspecteurs die waken over de volksgezondheid zullen blij zijn met de vorderingen die Aart van Amerongen en zijn medewerkers bij van Food and Biobased Research (FBR) hebben geboekt.
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