Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power
    Zeitoun, M. ; Mirumachi, N. ; Warner, J.F. - \ 2011
    International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 11 (2011)2. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 159 - 178.
    hydro-hegemony - river-basin - cooperation - management - conflict - project - regime - peace
    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of compliance related to distributive (conflictual) or integrative (consensual) ends (after Scott (1994)). The focus is on inter-state water conflicts in hegemonic political contexts, where, it is found, the ‘first among equals’ has a greater ability to exploit ‘soft’ power and to determine the outcome. ‘Soft’ power is also seen to influence the choices states make or avoid in their transboundary water interaction, which explains in part how treaties intending to manage conflict may in fact delay or perpetuate it. For example, ‘soft’ power can be used by the basin hegemon to frame inequitable forms of cooperation in a cooperative light, such that unfair and ultimately unsustainable transboundary arrangements are replicated by the international donor community. Non-hegemonic riparian states also employ their capacity of ‘soft’ power, though may find themselves with little choice other than to comply with the arrangement established by the basin hegemon. The findings stress the importance of analysts questioning claims of interaction promoted as ‘cooperative’, and of examining the ‘soft’ power plays that underlie all transboundary water arrangements. Exemplification is provided through transboundary river basins and aquifers around the globe
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2009
    Surrey : Ashgate (Non-state actors in international law, politics and governance series ) - ISBN 9780754677437 - 223
    samenleving - politiek - oorlog - instellingen voor ontwikkelingshulp - gevalsanalyse - vrede - peace building - internationale betrekkingen - internationale conflicten - society - politics - war - development agencies - case studies - peace - peacebuilding - international relations - international conflicts
    Since the early 1990s, international development organizations and donor agencies increasingly recognize the contributions local civil society can make to peace. Despite their popularity, questions still remain on the actual nature, practices, and roles of local civil society organizations in sustaining peace. So, how do international organizations support local peace building? Do they really understand conflict? "Partners in Peace" challenges the global perception and assumptions of the role played by civil society peace building operations and offers a radically new perspective on how international organizations can support this effort. Framing the debate using case studies in Africa and Central America, Mathijs van Leeuwen examines different meanings of peace building, the practices and politics of interpreting conflict, and how planned interventions work out. In developing this argument, van Leeuwen explores: policies and practices of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Cordaid, Norwegian Church Aid, Norwegian People's Aid; internal dynamics of Sudanese Women's Voice for Peace organization; land disputes and strengthening traditional conflict resolution in Burundi; and, peasant movements and the Catholic Church in Guatemala. Comparing this original view with contemporary perceptions of non-state actors, "Partners in Peace" includes many recommendations for NGOs involved in peace building and constructs a new understanding on how these practises relate to politics and practices on the ground.
    The Struggle after Combat. The role of NGOs in DDR processes: Afganistan Case Study
    Frerks, G.E. ; Gompelman, G. ; Laar, S. van de; Klem, B. - \ 2008
    The Hague : Cordaid - 51
    oorlog - veteranen - reconstructie - ontwapening - vrede - war - veterans - reconstruction - disarmament - peace
    It has come to be well-recognised that effective DDR (Disarmant, Demobilisation and Reinregration of ex-combatants) is crucial for building durable peace and preventing a relapse into conflict. It has also become clear that DDR is difficult and that it is intertwined with other war to peace transitions, such as establishing security and legitimate governance, rehabilitation, the return of refugees, economic recovery, and transitional justice. So the main research question that this study wants to answer is: what is the role of NGOs – and Cordaid’s partners in particular – in DDR processes in relation to military and other actors involved with such processes?
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049562 - 252
    oorlog - conflict - sociale onrust - preventie - internationale samenwerking - ontwikkelingsbeleid - hedendaagse samenleving - sudan - rwanda - burundi - democratische republiek kongo - guatemala - peace building - vrede - maatschappelijk middenveld - internationale conflicten - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - conflictmanagement - war - conflict - social unrest - prevention - international cooperation - development policy - contemporary society - sudan - rwanda - burundi - congo democratic republic - guatemala - peacebuilding - peace - civil society - international conflicts - political conflicts - social conflict - conflict management
    This study looks into images, and assumptions, of civil-society peacebuilding and its support by international development organizations, and how this relates to politics and practices of peacebuilding on the ground. It is built principally on a series of case studies of peacebuilding interventions and organizations working in southern Sudan, Burundi and the African Great Lakes Region, and Guatemala. This study underscores the importance of implicit assumptions in contemporary peacebuilding work. International support to civil-society peacebuilding is often guided by simplified notions on conflict and the potential roles of civil society in bringing about peace. To arrive at better peacebuilding practices, it is necessary to know more about what civil society is, how it works, and how the assumptions motivating its support work out in practice. This requires exploring the everyday peacebuilding practices of civil-society organizations. In particular, attention needs be given to the organizing practices of peacebuilding organizations, how they operate and develop, to the different meanings attributed to peacebuilding by the diverse parties involved, and to how understanding peacebuilding is part of organizational politics.
    In fieldwork and analysis, I applied an actor-oriented approach. Such an approach helps to clarify how policies and interventions of organizations result from the everyday practices of organizations and the people and authorities of the communities where they implement their programs. A core notion in this study is discourse, referring to collective practices of ordering or ‘framing’ in the minds of actors, who make sense of their experiences through coherent schemes. Discourses are often seen as implying power: as dominant traditions of looking at the world which eliminate alternative visions, or as affecting social relations through diverse ways. Organizations may use discourses strategically, for example, to legitimize interventions. Discourse can be highly political, promoting particular agendas for development.
    While acknowledging the power of discourse, this study focuses on discourse as a cognitive process. To be able to operate and to respond to the complexity of conflict and peacebuilding, development organizations simplify reality. But simplifying reality always implies that parts of reality are lost or remain underexposed. In the case studies, I reflect on the consequences of simplification, and explore how development organizations can better take account of the necessary simplifications they make. In practice, it is often difficult to separate the cognitive exercise of ordering from the politics of ordering - the two often interact or go closely together. Simplification always implies political choices by prioritizing certain problems and interpreting particular interventions as the most appropriate. The study argues that to understand ordering requires giving equal attention to the several attributes of discourse. This research approach is elaborated upon in chapter 1.
    Chapter 1 also reflects on my experiences with an interactive research approach. Through such an interactive approach, I aimed to develop a sense of ownership over questions and recommendations by the civil-society organizations involved in the research and so enhance their peacebuilding work. In my experience, an interactive approach enhances the depth of ethnography and analysis of findings. Carrying out research with (instead of only on) organizations facilitates relations of trust and witnessing organizing practices from within organizations, and enables discussing findings with research partners. It stands out in this study that rather than a research methodology, the interactive character of research should be seen as an intention. The extent to which research becomes interactive cannot be planned, nor assured by the adoption of particular interactive methodologies. Rather, the interactive character of research develops with the advancement of collaboration. Crucial to this process is mutual commitment, which depends on the flexibility of the research and research partners, the expected benefits for the participants, the extent to which expectations are satisfied along the way, and the enthusiasm of individual participants. The interactive character of research is also affected by organizational changes and changing interests. Practically, this means that a researcher needs to ensure that space for participation and non-participation is maintained throughout the process.
    The subsequent two chapters analyse international discourses and policies of peacebuilding, and look at a general level at how organizations make sense of conflict. Chapter 2 analyzes how over the 1990s, peacebuilding discourses developed that attributed a major role to civil society in realizing peace. Though seeming consensus on peacebuilding evaporated with the anti-terrorist policies after 9/11, and peacebuilding roles taken on by international NGOs and local civil-society organizations were reclaimed by donor governments and multi-lateral agencies, many international and local organizations continued to be involved in peacebuilding. Nonetheless, consensus on what peacebuilding should look like remains absent. Development actors differ considerably in prioritizing particular domains, and do not agree on the sequencing and interdependence of particular interventions. Moreover, practices of civil-society peacebuilding implicitly build on strong assumptions about the roles civil society, the state and international actors should play in peacebuilding and governance.
    Chapter 3 analyses how those policy trends and emerging discourses regarding peacebuilding and civil society are reflected in the work of particular international development organizations. The chapter demonstrates that peacebuilding is not just an opportunistically applied policy label but has acquired different meanings in practice. Definitions of peacebuilding in policy strategies reflect the different backgrounds of organizations. At the same time, local conditions set limits and pose specific opportunities for peacebuilding. The chapter illustrates that rather than that international development organizations change their practices when new discourses come into fashion and replace previous ones, practices of organizations follow slower. Newer and older discourses continue to be relevant in the practices of organizations. This provides room for manoeuvre to organizations who find in this multiple grounds to legitimize a large range of intervention strategies. Policies are an ongoing process, and are shaped along the way by diverse participants, a theme that is elaborated upon also in the next chapters.
    The remainder of the study discusses case studies of the everyday practices of civil-society peacebuilding in a variety of countries. Chapter 4 analyses the organizing practices of a local women’s peace organization in southern Sudan. The case underscores how the practice of policy making and implementation is more related to the internal dynamics of an organization than to the planned objectives of the intervention. The chapter highlights that to better understand civil-society peacebuilding we need qualitative approaches that give central attention to dynamics of peace organizations. These include the history of an organization and the context in which it develops, the way conflict is experienced in the every day life of local people, the way how actors in and around organizations give meaning to the organization and its practices, and the politics of organizations. The chapter outlines such an approach, presenting five properties of local peace organizations that need be taken into account when supporting local peacebuilding.
    The next two case studies look in particular at how the framing of conflict situations works through in interventions. Chapter 5 analyses how conflict and peacebuilding in the Great Lakes Region are increasingly framed in regional terms. In practice, however, local and international organizations have difficulty in analysing the regional character of conflict and arriving at collaborative regional strategies. Moreover, local civil-society organizations are deeply embedded in the politics of regional conflict. Consequently, the shift to regional peacebuilding approaches remains more theoretical than practical. A regional framing of conflict helps to understand conflict, but fails to inform intervention practice.
    Chapter 6 discusses the consequences of understanding land disputes in Burundi as short term problem, resulting from the massive return of refugees and displaced to their home communities. This particular framing of land disputes urged international and local organizations to initiate programmes for strengthening the capacities of local conflict resolving institutions. The case material shows that though the return of refugees was a factor in disputes about land, there is a lot of continuity between conflict-related and regular land disputes in Burundi. Many land disputes require first and foremost solutions at the political level, rather than at the local level. Moreover, the question was whether the strengthening of local dispute resolving mechanisms would enhance their legitimacy and accessibility, and could guarantee the protection of vulnerable people. While a framing of local land disputes in terms of an emergency helped to define interventions, this framing neglected the long-term, structural character of many land disputes.
    Chapter 7 tackles the question of what the official ending of violence implies for the roles, policies and practices of civil-society organizations. It discusses how Guatemalan civil-society organizations deal with agrarian conflict, ten years after the 1996 peace agreements. The case study shows how international organizations tend to assume that the peace agreements implied a switch to a peaceful situation, in which state institutions function, and civil society can effectively participate in the democratic process. This imagining makes them to assume that civil society now has to switch from protest to proposal, and to neglect the slow process of societal transformation in a post-conflict setting. The chapter argues that the pace and extent of societal transformation has a strong influence on how organizations can develop. It also illustrates that framing conflict and intervention is a continuous process, in which organizational politics play an important role. Finally, the chapter raises some questions on the overall roles of the international community in realizing peace. It argues that the increasing global influence on national governance processes effectively diminishes the power of local citizens to demand accountability from their governments for the processes of change initiated.
    Chapter 8, the conclusion of the study, argues the importance of looking at the everyday practices of peacebuilding. It points out how international discourses on civil-society peacebuilding have resonated in the policies of international development organizations. Over the last fifteen years many organizations have come to reflect on how their programmes contribute to peaceful societies. What emerged was not a circumscribed and shared peacebuilding agenda, but a shared preoccupation with the impacts of diverse interventions on peace and conflict. The precise reasons why organizations apply the term, what peacebuilding does and how it works cannot be read from mandates and policy documents. It requires one to look at the everyday politics and practices of organizations. The meaning of peacebuilding results from everyday negotiations of staff-members and stakeholders at different levels in the aid-chain, each with their own interests and perspectives. To understand peacebuilding, one needs to understand the history of organizations and individual staff members, and the multiple identities and realities organizations represent to the people participating in them, and explore the roles of both organizational politics and conflict politics in defining interventions.
    The conclusion also poses pertinent questions on the assumptions underlying contemporary peacebuilding work, in particular on the roles of civil society and governance. The particular roles civil-society organizations may play in peacebuilding and their most effective contributions to governance strongly depend on local conditions, and on how those influence organizations. International development organizations tend to have particular images of what civil society should do and look like and are eager to support only those organizations fitting their image. International support to local civil society needs to take more account of prevailing forms of governance and the history and development of civil society in a particular context.
    Finally, the conclusion lines out different processes through which organizations arrive at particular framings of the reality in which they operate. Such framings simplify reality in ways that create possibilities for intervention or restrict them. Framing involves cognitive processes of ordering and creating routine, as much as organizational politics. Organizations tend to separate emergency from normality, to focus on techniques of intervention, and to interpret contexts and peacebuilding interventions according to their own frames of reference and particular expertise. At the same time, organizational politics –intentionally or unintentionally– play a strong role in ordering. Organizations promote particular representations of reality that are in line with their possibilities for intervention, and that legitimize them to intervene, and that present their interventions in a-political terms.
    The chapter underscores the high expectations international organizations often have of their intervention. The study points to the need to observe modesty and connect to local agendas. Rather than to work on grand schemes of peacebuilding and taking the lead in societal transformation, they need to be partners in peace.


    Evaluatie Stabiliteitsfonds 2004 en 2005
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam/Wageningen : BartKlemResearch / Wageningen Universiteit - 92
    ontwikkelingshulp - stabiliteit - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - herstel - preventie - conflict - oorlog - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - beoordeling - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland - vrede - reconstructie - development aid - stability - development - development policy - rehabilitation - prevention - conflict - war - non-governmental organizations - development programmes - assessment - developing countries - netherlands - peace - reconstruction
    Working on Peace-Building and Conflict Prevention
    Schennink, B. ; Haar, G. van der - \ 2006
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Dutch University Press - ISBN 9789036100519 - 217
    conflict - oorlog - politiek - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - vluchtelingen - nederland - wereld - vrede - conflict - war - politics - non-governmental organizations - refugees - netherlands - world - peace
    The use of peace conditionalities in conflict and post-conflict settings: a conceptual framework and a checklist
    Frerks, G.E. - \ 2006
    The Hague : Clingendael Institute - 48
    conflict - ontwikkelingshulp - beleid - vrede - peace building - humanitaire hulp - conflict - development aid - policy - peace - peacebuilding - humanitarian aid
    Conditioning peace among protagonists : a study into the use of peace conditionalities in the Sri Lankan peace process
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2006
    The Hague : Clingendael Institute - 89
    conflict - rampen - ontwikkelingshulp - overheidsbeleid - ontwikkelingsbeleid - sri lanka - afghanistan - vrede - politieke conflicten - conflict - disasters - development aid - government policy - development policy - sri lanka - afghanistan - peace - political conflicts
    Principles and pragmatism, Civil-military action in Afghanistan and Liberia
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. ; Laar, S. van de; Klingeren, M. van - \ 2006
    Utrecht/Amsterdam : Universiteit Utrecht/Bart Klem Research - ISBN 9789073726581 - 119
    oorlog - conflict - ontwikkelingshulp - technische hulpverlening - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - afghanistan - liberia - vrede - humanitaire hulp - militaire activiteiten - militaire hulp - war - conflict - development aid - technical aid - non-governmental organizations - afghanistan - liberia - peace - humanitarian aid - military activities - military aid
    This study looks into civil-military relations in conflict and post-conflict countries. In recent years, the issue has invoked a heated debate, which has occasionally lacked nuance and clarity. Some guidelines have emerged, but they are hardly sufficient for adequate positioning. This study focuses on Afghanistan and Liberia and is intended to assist policymakers and practitioners in developing adequate strategies by answering the following questions: What does cooperation between peacekeeping forces and aid agencies entail in practice? What are the strengths and weaknesses of peacekeeping forces in providing civilian aid? What are the risks and opportunities involved for NGOs when cooperating with peacekeeping forces? What opinion do civil society organisations in the countries concerned have about cooperation with peacekeeping forces? The study starts out by highlighting the changing nature of contemporary conflict and the concomitant changes in the humanitarian, military and development domains. It goes on to order and define key concepts used in current debates on the topic. The subsequent description of civil-military relations in the current peace missions in Afghanistan and Liberia is based on extensive field work and forms the main empirical body of the report.
    Muddling the peace process, post-tsunami rehabilitation in war-torn Sri Lanka
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2005
    The Hague : Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael (CRU policy brief 2, Janury 2005) - 4
    natuurrampen - rampen - beleid - sri lanka - politieke conflicten - vrede - natural disasters - disasters - policy - sri lanka - political conflicts - peace
    Gender, conflict and development
    Bouta, T. ; Frerks, G.E. ; Bannon, I. - \ 2005
    Washington, D.C. : World Bank - ISBN 9780821359686 - 192
    rampen - conflict - oorlog - vrouwen - arbeid (werk) - ontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - vrede - disasters - conflict - war - women - labour - development - gender - peace
    Dealing with diversity, Sri Lankan discourses on peace and conflict
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2004
    The Hague : Clingendael Institute of International Relations - ISBN 9789050310918 - 328
    oorlog - conflict - etniciteit - etnische groepen - politiek - cultuur - ontwikkeling - sri lanka - vrede - geslacht (gender) - islam - war - conflict - ethnicity - ethnic groups - politics - culture - development - sri lanka - peace - gender - islam
    Dealing with Diversity: Sri Lankan Discourses on Peace and Conflict Georg Frerks and Bart Klem [eds] What is the conflict in Sri Lanka? An ethnic problem? A historical threat to Buddhism? A liberation struggle? Or the unfortunate outcome of political mismanagement? Dealing with Diversity bundles contributions from a great variety of Sri Lankan authors. The accounts often contradict each other, but this book does not aim to identify the `right¿ perspective or the `truth¿. Georg Frerks and Bart Klem argue that these multiple discourses are simply a fact and they need to be understood.
    Conflict en ontwikkeling: een dubbelzinnige relatie
    Frerks, G.E. - \ 2002
    LOVA : tijdschrift voor feministische antropologie 23 (2002)1. - ISSN 1388-4840
    ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingsstudies - conflict - agressie - veiligheid - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - vrede - development aid - development studies - aggression - safety - developing countries - development cooperation - peace
    Ontwikkelingssamenwerking kan ook tot conflicten leiden. Joke Schrijvers, hoogleraar ontwikkelingsstudies, heeft de systematische reflectie over het verband tussen geweld en ontwikkeling tot een centraal punt in haar wetenschappelijk werk gemaakt
    Democracy under fire
    Vriens, G. ; Zeeuw, J. de - \ 1999
    Wageningen : Wageningen Disaster Studies - ISBN 9789076657035 - 42
    conflict - wereld - democratie - politiek - politieke systemen - militaire activiteiten - nationale politiek - internationale conflicten - vrede - conflict - world - democracy - politics - political systems - military activities - national politics - international conflicts - peace
    Fighting for the Rain Forest: war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone.
    Richards, P. - \ 1996
    London [etc.] : James Currey [etc.] - ISBN 9780852553985 - 198
    jeugd - oorlog - bosbedrijfsvoering - regenbossen - milieueffect - geschiedenis - sociale structuur - sierra leone - west-afrika - vrede - youth - war - forest management - rain forests - environmental impact - history - social structure - west africa - peace
    A study of the methods of warfare, the youths involved and the aspirations for schools and jobs that motivates them to fight. The author argues that the war can only be understood in the context of old traditions of social and technical management of the forest.
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