Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood
Alves, Ricardo N. ; Maulvault, Ana L. ; Barbosa, Vera L. ; Cunha, Sara ; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F. ; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana ; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar ; Eljarrat, Ethel ; Barceló, Damià ; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita ; Tediosi, Alice ; Marques, António - \ 2017
Food and Chemical Toxicology 104 (2017)June 2017. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 69 - 78.
Seafood - perfluorinated compounds - brominated flame retardants - Pharmaceuticals - personal care products - bioaccessibility - Steaming
A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for a-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.
Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions
Gils, J.A.G. ; Coppens, L.J.C. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Raterman, B.W. ; Wezel, A.P. van - \ 2015
Water Research 81 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 356 - 365.
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - oppervlaktewater - inventarisaties - nederland - waste water treatment - water treatment - drugs - surface water - inventories - netherlands - personal care products - endocrine disrupting compounds - organic persistent pollutants - health-risk assessment - municipal waste-water - aquatic environment - drinking-water - climate-change - transformation products - continental-scale
For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.
Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency
Laak, T.L. ter; Kooij, P.J.F. ; Tolkamp, H. ; Hofman, J. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014)22. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 12843 - 12855.
waste-water treatment - personal care products - treatment plants - environmental concentrations - transformation products - aquatic environment - risk-assessment - drinking-water - removal - fate
In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. In total, 23 pharmaceuticals and 13 transformation products were observed in samples of river water collected from these rivers. Observed summed concentrations of pharmaceuticals and transformation products in river water ranged from 3.5 to 37.8 µg/L. Metformin and its transformation product guanylurea contributed with 53 to 80 % to this concentration, illustrating its importance on a mass basis. Data on the flow rate of different rivers and demographics of the catchments enabled us to calculate daily per capita loads of pharmaceuticals and transformation products. These loads were linked to sales data of pharmaceuticals in the catchment. Simple mass balance modelling accounting for human excretion and removal by sewage treatment plants revealed that sales could predict actual loads within a factor of 3 for most pharmaceuticals. Rivers that originated from Belgian and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments revealed significantly higher per capita loads of pharmaceuticals (16.0¿±¿2.3 and 15.7¿±¿2.1 mg/inhabitant/day, respectively) than the Dutch catchment (8.7¿±¿1.8 mg/inhabitant/day). Furthermore, the guanylurea/metformin ratio was significantly lower in waters originating from Belgium (and France) than in those from the Netherlands, illustrating that sewage treatment in the Belgian catchment is less efficient in transforming metformin into guanylurea. In summary, the current study shows that consumption-based modelling is suitable to predict environmental loads and concentrations. Furthermore, different consumption patterns and wastewater treatment efficiency are clearly reflected in the occurrence and loads of pharmaceuticals in regional rivers.
Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater
Langenhoff, A.A.M. ; Inderfurth, N.S. ; Veuskens, T. ; Schraa, G. ; Blokland, M. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2013
BioMed Research International 2013 (2013). - ISSN 2314-6133 - 9
biodegradatie - geneesmiddelen - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - bioremediëring - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - verwijdering - oppervlaktewater - geneesmiddelenresiduen - biodegradation - drugs - waste water - waste water treatment - bioremediation - waste water treatment plants - removal - surface water - drug residues - personal care products - activated carbon - batch experiments - aquatic environment - metabolites - systems - sludge - acid - transformation
Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its performance to reduce the concentration of the pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen was completely removed, whereas diclofenac yielded a residual concentration, showing the necessity of posttreatment to remove diclofenac, for example, activated carbon. Successively, detailed laboratory experiments with activated sludge from the same wastewater treatment plant showed bioremediation potential in the treatment plant. The biological degradation pathway was studied and showed a mineralisation of ibuprofen and degradation of diclofenac. The present microbes were further studied in laboratory experiments, and DGGE analyses showed the enrichment and isolation of highly purified cultures that degraded either ibuprofen or diclofenac. This research illuminates the importance of the involved bacteria for the effectiveness of the removal of pharmaceuticals in a wastewater treatment plant. A complete removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater will stimulate water reuse, addressing the worldwide increasing demand for clean and safe fresh water.
Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen romoval by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water
Graaff, M.S. de; Vieno, N.M. ; Kujawa, K. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Water Research 45 (2011)1. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 375 - 383.
sewage-treatment plants - personal care products - waste-water - activated-sludge - aquatic environment - musk fragrances - surface waters - estrogens - antibiotics - behavior
Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (mu g/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 mu g/L for carbamazepine to >1000 mu g/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.