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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    To tweet or not to tweet : the role of personality in the social networks of great tits : the role of personality in the social networks of great tits
    Snijders, L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Naguib, co-promotor(en): Kees van Oers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576940 - 237
    cum laude - parus major - personality - communication between animals - social structure - vocalization - bird song - social behaviour - animal behaviour - behavioural biology - parus major - persoonlijkheid - communicatie tussen dieren - sociale structuur - vocalisatie - vogelzang - sociaal gedrag - diergedrag - gedragsbiologie

    To tweet or not to tweet: The role of personality in the social networks of great tits
    By: Lysanne Snijders

    Project video:

    When mentioning social networks it is easy to think of online networks for people, such as Facebook and Twitter. But many animals also have social networks. In proximity networks they encounter each other physically and in communication networks they connect to each other by using signals. Their position in such social networks is important. It can influence the likelihood of finding new food, acquiring novel foraging techniques, rising in social status and acquiring a mate. However, having many contacts can also be risky as it increases the likelihood of encountering infectious diseases, social stress or ending up in a fight.
    As social network position can be so significant, it is essential that we know what determines it. A likely key factor is personality. Individuals consistently differ in how risk-prone (pro-active) and risk-averse (re-active) they tend to behave. As making face-to-face contact is not without risk, bolder individuals might have more social contacts.

    An ideal model to study this hypothesis is the great tit. A common garden bird. There are well established methods to quantify personality differences in great tits and with the newest tracking technologies we can now also monitor their face-tot-face contacts. What makes the great tit even more interesting is that they like to breed in nest boxes and so we can also study potential fitness effects of specific network positions. Additionally, great tits are songbirds, which makes them also ideal to answer a second question: Do individuals that are shy to approach others, use communication instead? Since communication is often a less risky connection strategy than face-to-face contact.

    In this PhD thesis I reveal how and when personality explains why some birds are better connected than others. In wild territorial populations pro-active males were better connected to other males and were most likely to approach a rival. In contrast, when removing the risk of fights during male-to-male spatial associations, via a video-playback experiment in captivity, the re-active males appeared to be most social. When confronted with the life-size video image of a novel conspecific, they spent the most time associating with it. When lowering the risks associated with spatial associations the social preferences of re-active individuals might thus increase. No relationship was found between social network position in the wild and reproductive success, an important fitness component.
    Wild male great tits that were less likely to approach a rival, sang more actively at dawn. Dawn song is the peak time for male great tit singing activity and operates as a large communication network. Since a prime function of singing at dawn is territory advertisement, these birds might thus try to prevent rival territory intrusions by singing more fiercely at dawn. No direct links were found between personality and an individual’s place in the communication network, however pro-active birds vocalized most actively during territory intrusions and increased their singing activity significantly during the fertile period of their mate.
    Communication networks and proximity networks can influence each other via song, by attracting or repulsing conspecifics to come close. For example, the vocal response of an intruded male to its rival significantly influenced whether female neighbours would come close to the intrusion site and if male neighbours would stay away.

    What determines the place in a social network? By knowing this we learn more about how groups function and how different social strategies in the same population can co-exist.

    Analysing and promoting entrepreneurship in Iranian higher education : entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions and opportunity identification
    Karimi, S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738455 - 272
    ondernemerschap - onderwijs - hoger onderwijs - studenten - attitudes - psychologie - menselijk gedrag - besluitvorming - culturele waarden - geslacht (gender) - persoonlijkheid - individuele kenmerken - iran - entrepreneurship - education - higher education - students - attitudes - psychology - human behaviour - decision making - cultural values - gender - personality - individual characteristics - iran
    Given the positive influences of entrepreneurship in tems of increasing economic growth and creating jobs, considerable efforts have been made to promote entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries. Scholars and policymakers are also increasingly interested in the factors which influence the decision to become an entrepreneur and thus understanding why some people decide to start a business while others do not. The research reported in this dissertation therefore explored the factors which influence the entrepreneurial intentions of students in higher education in the developing country of Iran.
    Naar coaching op maat : project ‘Persoonlijkheidskenmerken en competentieontwikkeling van leerlingen’
    Biemans, H.J.A. ; Gulikers, J.T.M. ; Oonk, C. ; Wel, M. van der; Leereveld, G. ; Frijters, S. ; Born, T. van den - \ 2013
    In: Op weg naar leerwinst : WURKS- 1 onderzoeksprogramma 2011-2013 : competenties voor het groene kennissysteem – deel I / Biemans, H., Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum, Leerstoelgroep Educatie- en competentiestudies - ISBN 9789461737090 - p. 6 - 7.
    agrarisch onderwijs - vaardigheidsonderwijs - vaardigheden - persoonlijkheid - leerlingen - coachen - persoonlijke ontwikkeling - docenten - agricultural education - competency based education - skills - personality - pupils - coaching - personal development - teachers
    Welke relaties bestaan er tussen persoonlijkheidskenmerken van leerlingen en de mate van ontwikkeling van bepaalde competenties die relevant zijn voor hun opleiding? En hoe kunnen docenten hier bij de coaching van leerlingen rekening mee houden? Dit project wil een stap zetten naar coaching op maat.
    Diereigen : typologische indeling van landbouwhuisdieren voor de diagnostiek van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid, houderij en productie
    Verwer, C.M. - \ 2011
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 36 p.
    dierhouderij - biologische landbouw - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - persoonlijkheid - filosofie - geiten - veehouderij - dierlijke productie - animal husbandry - organic farming - animal health - animal welfare - personality - philosophy - goats - livestock farming - animal production
    Welzijn en gezondheid zijn belangrijke praktische begrippen waarvan het van groot belang is dat de veehouder zelf in staat is de mate van welzijn en gezondheid van zijn veestapel te beoordelen en waar nodig bij te sturen. Dit rapport beschrijft een concept voor een nieuwe werkwijze waarin wordt nagestreefd de bedrijfsvoering meer vanuit het dier zelf te benaderen en in te vullen. Kenmerken van het dier zoals constitutie en gedrag, maar ook fysiologische parameters en de geestelijke gesteldheid van het dier worden in dit concept meegenomen. Het project ‘weerstand geiten’ wordt als voorbeeld gebruikt om de toepassing van de nieuwe werkwijze te illustreren.
    Personality in a group living species : social information, collective movements and social decision-making
    Kurvers, R.H.J.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Ron Ydenberg, co-promotor(en): Sip van Wieren. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859840 - 132
    ganzen - branta - persoonlijkheid - besluitvorming - diergedrag - foerageren - geese - branta - personality - decision making - animal behaviour - foraging

    Animals need to make constant decisions throughout their lives and to make optimal decisions individuals rely on information. Information can be obtained in two distinct ways: personal or social information. The current paradigm in the information theory use in animal ecology assumes that the decision between using either personal or social information is entirely flexible and context dependent. However, the potential link between variation in personality and information use has received little attention. In this thesis I studied the effect of personality on the use of personal and social information in barnacle geese. I show that individual barnacle geese differ consistently in boldness and that boldness affects the type of information individuals use in various different contexts: In a maze solving task, a producer scrounger game and a public information experiment I found that bold individuals use less social information compared to shy individuals, providing strong evidence that the type of information individuals prefer to use depends on their boldness level. To study the ultimate causes of variation in boldness and the relationship between boldness and social information use I used an experimental and theoretical approach. In a producer scrounger experiment I tested whether the rare personality type outperformed the common personality type which could lead by means of negative frequency dependent selection to the maintenance of variation in boldness. Parallel to that I used a genetic algorithms approach to study the co-evolution of boldness and foraging tactic use in a producer scrounger game. The experimental results as well as the genetic algorithms provided no evidence for a role of negative frequency dependent selection for the maintenance of variation in boldness. Rather, our simulations suggest that differences in selection pressures in space or time (i.e., fluctuating environments) in a social foraging game may cause variation in boldness levels between populations. In our simulations bold individuals evolved to play both producer and scrounger, whereas shy individuals remained confined to scrounging, suggesting that shy individuals have difficulties when they have to collect personal information and that this might be the explanation for the increased tendency of shy individuals to use social information. I experimentally confirmed these model predictions in an experiment in which I forced individuals in either a producer or a scrounger role. Therefore, I argue that the value of social information is higher for shy individuals as compared to bold individuals since it is more costly for shy individuals to collect personal information. This thesis challenges the current paradigm that the decision between using either personal or social information is entirely context dependent. Rather, I provide evidence that personality affects the trade off between using personal and social information.

    Weiden of opstallen: een keuze op basis van persoonlijke waarden
    Well, E. van; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2008
    V-focus 5 (2008)april (2). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 16 - 17.
    melkveehouderij - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - melkkoeien - weiden - begrazing - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - waarden - persoonlijkheid - bedrijfssystemen - beweidingssystemen - keuzegedrag - dairy farming - farm development - dairy cows - pastures - grazing - farm management - values - personality - farming systems - grazing systems - choice behaviour
    In het project Koe & Wij heeft CLM individuele gesprekken gevoerd met 25 melkveehouders om een beeld te krijgen van de rol die persoonlijke waarden spelen in de bedrijfsvoering en meer specifiek waar het gaat om weidegang. Er blijken 4 typen melkveehouders uit het onderzoek naar persoonlijke waarden naar voren te komen
    Ivoren toren op het vlakke land
    Rekittke, J. - \ 2007
    Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 17 (2007)1. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 34 - 35.
    academische maatstaven - studieresultaat - universitaire onderwijsprogramma's - universiteiten - persoonlijke ontwikkeling - persoonlijkheid - oriëntatie - karakteristieken - lokalisatie - landschapsarchitectuur - fysiografische elementen - reorganisatie - academic standards - academic achievement - college programs - universities - personal development - personality - orientation - characteristics - localization - landscape architecture - physiographic features - reorganization
    Twee columns in het thema: ‘Bakens van/en herkenning’ Krostof van Assche over het nut van de variatie in bakens en ‘Ivoren toren op het vlakke land’ van Jörg Rekittke over academische waarden en opbouwen van een moderne universiteit
    Jumpex, van talent tot topper
    Visser, E.K. ; Rijksen, C. - \ 2004
    onbekend : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (PV) (Praktijkboek / Animal Sciences Group 41) - 56
    paarden - jachtspringen - jonge dieren - selectie - africhten van dieren - persoonlijkheid - spieren - kinematica - prestatieniveau - sporten met dieren - horses - show jumping - young animals - selection - training of animals - personality - muscles - kinematics - performance - animal sports
    In de warmbloed paardenfokkerij vindt in toenemende mate selectie plaats in twee hoofd fokrichtingen: één gericht op het fokken van een goed dressuurpaard en één gericht op het fokken van een paard met uitstekende springkwaliteiten. De opfok van de jonge paarden vraagt veel tijd en geld. Het resultaat van deze investering blijft echter lang onzeker. Pas als de paarden gaan presteren blijkt of de verwachtingswaarde wordt waargemaakt. In het JUMPEX project hebben we gekeken naar mogelijkheden om al tijdens de opfokperiode een betere inschatting te kunnen maken van de latere prestaties van springpaarden. Het project is uitgevoerd door de divisies Praktijkonderzoek en Dier & Omgeving van de Animal Sciences Group en de Hoofdafdeling Gezondheidszorg Paard van de Faculteit der Diergeneeskunde. Het project is gefinancierd door het Productschap Vee en Vlees (op advies van de Sectorraad Paarden) en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Voedselkwaliteit. In dit handboek staan de resultaten van het onderzoek. Heeft training op jonge leeftijd zin en of kan al op jonge leeftijd op kenmerken geselecteerd worden? Op basis van resultaten van het JUMPEX onderzoek geeft het handboek praktische adviezen over trainings- en selectiemogelijkheden van springpaarden. Goede instrumenten voor de sector om de kwaliteit van het Nederlandse springpaard verder te verbeteren.
    Personalities in pigs: Individual characteristics and coping with environmental challenges
    Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): V.M. Wiegant, co-promotor(en): W.G.P. Schouten; Johan Schrama. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085040620 - 176
    varkens - persoonlijkheid - karakterisering - individuele kenmerken - stress - stressreactie - varkensstallen - adaptatie - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - milieu - verrijking - immuniteitsreactie - dierfysiologie - pigs - personality - characterization - individual characteristics - stress - stress response - pig housing - adaptation - animal behaviour - animal welfare - environment - enrichment - immune response - animal physiology
    There are indications that pigs may have difficulty in adapting to the constraints of intensive housing conditions. Pigs show a wide variation in adaptive responses when exposed to the same stressful situation. Aim of this thesis was to investigate whether the behavioural coping responses of young piglets reflect and predict more general profiles of reactivity to challenges, often referred to as coping styles, under different rearing and housing conditions. For this purpose, pigs were characterized early in life as `high-resisting` (HR) or `low-resisting` (LR) on the basis of their resistance response in a so-called Backtest, in which they were manually restrained in supine position. The major part of the thesis focused on the interaction between these individual coping characteristics of pigs and their housing environment, which was either barren or enriched with straw bedding. The experiments described in this thesis show that HR pigs are more aggressive than LR pigs and less flexible in adapting their behaviour to environmental changes. As the two types of pig differed in response to the dopamine-agonist apomorphine, some initial evidence is provided for a neurochemical background of these behavioural differences. In addition, individual coping or personality characteristics of pigs were reflected in immune reactivity and in their home pen behaviour in barren and enriched environments. HR and LR pigs adapted differently to barren housing conditions. Moreover, individual characteristics modulated the effects of rearing and housing conditions on the behavioural response to novelty, immune reactivity, prevalence of gastric lesions and behavioural development. Remarkably, for almost all of the variables that were affected by housing environment, the impact was much larger for LR than for HR pigs. Thus, individual characteristics of pigs affect their performance in different environments and should be taken into account when studying the impact of housing on their behaviour and welfare. The knowledge of individual coping or personality characteristics could be extended and used for finding the optimal match between pigs and their social and physical environment in pig husbandry.
    Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus
    Karman, A.G. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): V.M. Wiegant, co-promotor(en): E.M. van der Beek. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089304 - 157
    varkens - stress - stressreactie - neurofysiologie - endocrinologie - adaptatie - neuropeptiden - vasopressine - corticoliberine - hypothalamus - persoonlijkheid - individuele kenmerken - diergedrag - neurobiologie - pigs - stress - stress response - neurophysiology - endocrinology - adaptation - neuropeptides - vasopressin - corticoliberin - hypothalamus - personality - individual characteristics - animal behaviour - neurobiology
    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in theparaventricularnucleus (PVN) plays an important role in stress responses.Stress is known to induce expression of VP in PVN-CRH neurons, with the degree of VP expression relating to duration and intensity of the stress.Moreover, there is evidence that the activity of these systems is altered in stress-induced sensitization. This suggests that the functional state of CRH and VP systems, likely also in the pig PVN, could be used as a neurobiological index of stress vulnerability.

    The aim of the thesis was to asses in pigs the effects ofindividual coping strategy (high and low resisting, HR and LR respectively), and rearing and housing conditions on the susceptibility of pigs to stress sensitization.Changes in CRH and VP expression in the PVN were studied in female and also male pigs with different coping strategies subjected to different housing conditions using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques.

    We found a clear sex difference in both CRH and VP peptide content in the PVN, i.e. male pigs showed higher VP and CRH peptide content compared to female pigs. This confirms and extends previous reports of the existence of a sexually dimorphic regulation of the HPA axis.The results of this studysuggests that the housing conditions tested, although they clearly affected some behavioral and endocrine parameters, were not contrasting enough with respects to stress load to result in changes in the activity of the HPA axis at the hypothalamic level. Individual housing (IND), however, did affect the HPA axis, with a clear, coping strategy dependent difference on VP peptide and CRH mRNA, but not on CRH peptide levels. The PVN inIND HR pigs contained higher VP peptide levels compared to group housed (GRO) HR and IND LR gilts. Moreover, we found that the absolute number, but not the percentage of cells showing co-localization of VP and CRH peptide was increased in IND HR gilts compared to GRO HR gilts.We suggest that the higherlevels of VP peptide in the medial region of the PVN in IND HR pigs playsa role inpotentiatingthe actions of CRH to stimulate ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary.Furthermore, IND LR gilts showed increased levels of CRH mRNA compared to GRO LR and IND HR gilts, which suggests that LR pigs react to chronic housing stress with an up-regulation of CRH transcription.

    The experiments described in this thesis provide evidence that pigs characterized with different coping strategies at early age, differ as adults in the way they adapt to individual housing at the level of the PVN. The differences found in CRH and VP levels in the PVN support the differences in basal behavioral and physiological variables between these animals that became evident under chronic stress. Moreover, the changes in activity of CRH and VP observed are reminiscent to those observed in human psychopathology (e.g. depression), suggesting that these changes may be interpreted as (pre) pathological signs in the pig. This suggests that individual housing is not an optimal housing condition for both HR and LR pigs. Based on these results, we conclude that housing condition likely increases the susceptibility to stress in both HR and LR gilts. Selection of pigs for coping strategy to maintain common practice of individual housing of breeding pigs will therefore not benefit the welfare of the animals. To improve pig welfare and minimize the risk of stress-related diseases, the focus should be on optimizing the pigs' housing conditions.

    ␖Horsonality : a study on the personality of the horse
    Visser, E.K. - \ 2002
    Utrecht University. - Wageningen : Ponsen en Looijen - ISBN 9789064641787 - 151
    paarden - persoonlijkheid - kenmerken - temperament - leervermogen - hartfrequentie - jachtspringen - diergedrag - horses - personality - traits - temperament - learning ability - heart rate - show jumping - animal behaviour
    Onderzoek naar de persoonlijkheidsstructuur van paarden. Er waren twee doelen: 1: kijken of persoonlijkheidseigeschappen van jonge paarden gekwantificeerd en 2: of deze persoonlijkheidseigenschappen de springeigenschappen van een paard op 3-jarige leeftijd kunnen voorspellen
    Het gedrag van verblijfsrecreanten op en om het verblijfsterrein.
    Bakker, J.G. - \ 1988
    Recreatie 26 (1988)6. - ISSN 0165-8581 - p. 7 - 11.
    vrijetijdsactiviteiten - milieueffect - recreatie - vrijetijdsgedrag - sociale structuur - individuen - persoonlijkheid - openluchtrecreatie - accommodatie - recreatiegebieden - kampeerplaatsen - natuur - noord-brabant - leisure activities - environmental impact - recreation - leisure behaviour - social structure - individuals - personality - outdoor recreation - accommodation - amenity and recreation areas - camp sites - nature - noord-brabant
    Eating behaviour, personality traits and body mass
    Strien, T. van - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares; J.G.A.J. Hautvast. - Wageningen : Van Strien - 167
    karakteristieken - consumptiepatronen - voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - obesitas - overgewicht - persoonlijkheid - characteristics - consumption patterns - food hygiene - nutritional state - obesity - overweight - personality

    In this study, three theories on the development and maintenance of human obesity are investigated. These theories are the psychosomatic theory, the externality theory and the theory of restrained eating.

    The psychosomatic theory focuses on emotional factors, and attributes overeating to confusion between internal arousal states accompanying emotional states and physiological states of hunger and satiety. Individuals having the tendency to eat in response to emotional states are considered to be unadjusted and to suffer from unstable emotionality.

    Externality theory focuses on external food cues, and attributes overeating to a hyper-responsiveness to food-related cues in the environment together with unresponsiveness to internal cues of hunger or satiety. This tendency is considered to be a manifestation of the general trait of externality.

    The theory of restrained eating focuses on side effects of dieting, that is, the possible breakdown of restrictive control so that suppressed eating behaviour is disinhibited and excessive food intake occurs.

    Psychosomatic theory emphasizes internal instigation of eating and externality theory focuses on external instigation of eating. Both theories contend that dieting results from overeating and weight gain, whereas according to the theory of restrained eating, dieting may lead to overeating and weight gain. As these theories differ in assumptions why individuals overeat, it is difficult to determine how overeating or overweight can be adequately treated. Thus, the principal aim of this study was to test a number of hypotheses evoking from these theories. This was done by reviewing the literature on these theories (Part I of this dissertation) and subsequently by carrying out a series of psychometric studies on the relationships between the three types of eating behaviour central to these theories (emotional, external and restrained eating behaviour) and variables, such as personality traits and body mass (Part II of this dissertation).

    Specialisatie en algemene vorming
    Hofstee, E.W. - \ 1955
    Den Haag : [s.n.] - 36
    hoger onderwijs - mentale vaardigheid - nederland - persoonlijkheid - higher education - mental ability - netherlands - personality
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