Disciplines in the field of communication for development and social change
Lie, R. ; Servaes, J. - \ 2015
Communication Theory 25 (2015)2. - ISSN 1050-3293 - p. 244 - 258.
natural-resource management - innovation networks - perspective - systems
This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication, agricultural extension and rural communication, and environmental communication as practice-based subdisciplines of Communication for Development and Social Change. By assessing the current development and communication approaches within the different subdisciplines, the article aims to better understand the current state-of-the-art of the field and identify future imperatives.
Organising a safe space for navigating social-ecological transformations to sustainability
Pereira, L. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Doshi, S. ; Frantzeskaki, N. - \ 2015
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12 (2015)6. - ISSN 1660-4601 - p. 6027 - 6044.
transitions - innovation - framework - systems - perspective - governance - complexity - knowledge - responses - pathways
The need for developing socially just living conditions for the world’s growing population whilst keeping human societies within a ‘safe operating space’ has become a modern imperative. This requires transformative changes in the dominant social norms, behaviours, governance and management regimes that guide human responses in areas such as urban ecology, public health, resource security (e.g., food, water, energy access), economic development and biodiversity conservation. However, such systemic transformations necessitate experimentation in public arenas of exchange and a deepening of processes that can widen multi-stakeholder learning. We argue that there is an emergent potential in bridging the sustainability transitions and resilience approaches to create new scientific capacity that can support large-scale social-ecological transformations (SETs) to sustainability globally, not just in the West. In this article, we elucidate a set of guiding principles for the design of a ‘safe space’ to encourage stronger interactions between these research areas and others that are relevant to the challenges faced. We envisage new opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that will develop an adaptive and evolving community of practice. In particular, we emphasise the great opportunity for engaging with the role of emerging economies in facilitating safe space experimentation.
ERP in agriculture: Lessons learned from the Dutch horticulture
Verdouw, C.N. ; Robbemond, R.M. ; Wolfert, J. - \ 2015
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 114 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 125 - 133.
critical success factors - enterprise systems - future internet - supply chains - management - impact - model - perspective - innovation - adoption
Farming nowadays is a complex managerial task that imposes stringent requirements on farm management information systems. In other sectors, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are widely implemented to meet such requirements. This paper assesses the applicability of ERP systems in the agri-food domain by investigating the experiences of agri-food companies that already have implemented an ERP system. More specifically, the research has analyzed the drivers and barriers for adoption of ERP in the Dutch horticultural sector. The results show that the alignment of ERP with the specific characteristics and requirements of a company is a crucial challenge in order to capitalize the benefits of ERP. The study also shows that it is possible to deal with this challenge. The majority of the respondents (62%) is positive about of the match of the specific ERP solution with the company’s business processes during implementation. Most of these respondents have implemented a system that includes a sector-specific layer around a standard ERP solution. Moreover, it is concluded that a proper management of the orientation, selection and implementation processes is of crucial importance for a successful adoption.
Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste
Ombis, L.O. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Habitat International 48 (2015). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 188 - 197.
multi-regime dynamics - management - expectations - perspective - sanitation - reconfiguration - metropolises - collection - sociology - prospects
This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of plastic waste prevention, reuse or recycling. An assessment is made as to whether the innovations lead to changes in the regimes of waste management and plastic production and eventually an integrated regime for plastic production and reuse. The study comprises of a review of policy documents and statistics, site visits and in-depth interviews with main actors involved in plastic waste related innovation. The comparative analysis of social network building, actor expectations and learning processes in the 7 innovation routes reveals that Kenya is still far from having a well-aligned plastic production-cum-waste regime that enables plastic waste prevention, recycling and handling practices. Innovations by yard shop owners and home grown industries contribute to an aligned plastic waste recycling regime, where PET exporters, bio-degradable plastic sellers and CBO collectors fail to do so. All innovation actors face a lack of governmental recognition and guidelines to close the loop of plastic production and waste handling.
Implications of Climate Change for Rural Tourism in the Nordic Region
Nicholls, S. ; Amelung, B. - \ 2015
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 15 (2015)1-2. - ISSN 1502-2250 - p. 48 - 72.
vulnerability - weather - index - variability - perspective - businesses - resources
In many rural regions, including those of the Nordic region, a former dependence on primary activities such as fishing, forestry, mining and/or agriculture has been superseded in recent decades by increasing involvement in the tourism sector. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential implications of climate change for non-winter rural tourism in the Nordic region. Using the Tourism Climatic Index as an analytical tool, the paper highlights the range of potential conditions for outdoor tourism activity for three future time periods (the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s) under two scenarios of climate change (B1A and A1F). Findings suggest the possibility of substantially longer periods of desirable climatic conditions in future decades, particularly in the southern and eastern portions of the region. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the adaptive capacity of various tourism actors (tourists, providers and government) and in light of the particular vulnerabilities and assets of rural communities. The need for an integrated and multilevel approach that recognises the importance of the efficient coordination and integration of resources, products and services across multiple actor boundaries and levels is stressed.
A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species
Onoda, Y. ; Schieving, F. ; Anten, N.P.R. - \ 2015
Journal of Experimental Botany 66 (2015)9. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 2487 - 2499.
herbaceous plants - tissue stresses - mechanical-properties - maize leaf - biomechanics - organs - growth - perspective - irradiance - sunflower
Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses.
Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions
Lidskog, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2015
Current Sociology 63 (2015)3. - ISSN 0011-3921 - p. 339 - 368.
ecological modernization - social-theory - reflections - society - science - perspective - paradigm - divide - rift
A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change.
When Interaction Flows: An Exploration of Collective Creative Processes on a Collaborative Governance Board
Oortmerssen, L.A. van; Woerkum, C.M.J. van; Aarts, N. - \ 2015
Group & Organization Management 40 (2015)4. - ISSN 1059-6011 - p. 500 - 528.
decision-making - team creativity - model - perspective - controversy - innovation - consensus - trust - field
There is a growing awareness of the significance of collective creativity in dealing with the complex problems typical of today’s rapidly changing society. Whereas studies on collective creativity provide insight into what happens during creative episodes in terms of a changing meaning of the interaction content, they do not explain what happens in the conversational interaction process. To shed light on this, we introduce and define the concept of interaction flow. Interaction flow was observed during creative episodes in the board meetings of Platform Inspire, an innovation-oriented collaborative governance board in Western Europe. The concept of interaction flow makes collective creative episodes more observable and offers points of attention for facilitating these episodes. Keywords creativity, communication, collaboration, group or team dynamics
RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part I). A diagnostic tool for integrated analysis of complex problems and innovation capacity
Schut, M. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Rodenburg, J. ; Kayeke, J. ; Hinnou, L.C. ; Raboanarielina, C.M. ; Adegbola, P.Y. ; Ast, A. van; Bastiaans, L. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 132 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 1 - 11.
sub-saharan africa - fed lowland rice - framework - policy - perspective - benin - participation - information - reflection - management
This paper introduces Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS). RAAIS is a diagnostic tool that can guide the analysis of complex agricultural problems and innovation capacity of the agricultural system in which the complex agricultural problem is embedded. RAAIS focuses on the integrated analysis of different dimensions of problems (e.g. biophysical, technological, socio-cultural, economic, institutional and political), interactions across different levels (e.g. national, regional, local), and the constraints and interests of different stakeholder groups (farmers, government, researchers, etc.). Innovation capacity in the agricultural system is studied by analysing (1) constraints within the institutional, sectoral and technological subsystems of the agricultural system, and (2) the existence and performance of the agricultural innovation support system. RAAIS combines multiple qualitative and quantitative methods, and insider (stakeholders) and outsider (researchers) analyses which allow for critical triangulation and validation of the gathered data. Such an analysis can provide specific entry points for innovations to address the complex agricultural problem under study, and generic entry points for innovation related to strengthening the innovation capacity of agricultural system and the functioning of the agricultural innovation support system. The application of RAAIS to analyse parasitic weed problems in the rice sector, conducted in Tanzania and Benin, demonstrates the potential of the diagnostic tool and provides recommendations for its further development and use.
Efficacy of repeated exposure and flavour-flavour learning as mechanisms to increase preschooler's vegetable intake and acceptance
Wild, V.W.T. de; Graaf, C. de; Jager, G. - \ 2015
Pediatric Obesity 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 2047-6310 - p. 205 - 212.
childrens food preferences - mere exposure - fruit - consumption - childhood - variety - life - perspective - infants - obesity
Background - Dutch children's diets, like the diets of many children in Europe and the US are not balanced, do not contain enough vegetables and have been associated with a high prevalence of childhood obesity. Promoting children's vegetable intake is challenging. Objective - We investigated the relative effectiveness of repeated exposure and flavour–flavour learning in increasing vegetable intake and acceptance in preschoolers. Methods - During an intervention period of 7 weeks, 39 toddlers (aged 1.5 to 4¿years) consumed red beet and parsnip crisps at day-care centres in Wageningen, the Netherlands. Half of the group received red beet crisps with a dip of tomato ketchup (Conditioned [C]) and parsnip with a neutral white sauce (Unconditioned, [UC]), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (red beet [UC], parsnip [C]). Preference and ad libitum consumption of vegetable crisps were measured once before and three times after the intervention over the course of a 6-month follow-up period to assess longer-term effects. Results - Intake increased significantly after the intervention for both vegetables (on average with 8¿g; an increase of approximately 300%), and this effect was persistent even 6 months afterwards. The increase was irrespective of crisps being offered with C or UC dip sauce. Conclusions These results suggest a robust and persistent effect of repeated exposure but no effect of flavour–flavour learning. Offering pure vegetable tastes repeatedly is sufficient to increase intake.
Re-engineering closing watersheds: The negotiated expansion of a dam-based irrigation system in Bolivia
Rocha Lopez, R.F. ; Vincent, L.F. ; Rap, E.R. - \ 2015
International Journal of Water Resources Development 31 (2015)1. - ISSN 0790-0627 - p. 50 - 63.
river-basin closure - perspective
The expansion of the Totora Khocha dam-based irrigation system in the Pucara watershed is a case of planned re-engineering of a closing watershed. This article shows how, when irrigation systems expand in space and across boundaries to capture new water, they also involve new claims by existing and emergent users. This results in complex processes of design, contestation and negotiated redesign, where irrigation projects are being produced by the negotiated construction of water networks. Therefore, the design process in a closing watershed is better approached as a dynamic and negotiated process of engineering than as a prescriptive mode of network building.
Decentralisation of long-term care in the Netherlands: the case of day care at green care farms for people with dementia
Nowak, S.J.M. ; Molema, C.M. ; Baan, C.A. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Hop, P. ; Bruin, R. de - \ 2015
Ageing and Society 35 (2015)4. - ISSN 0144-686X - p. 704 - 724.
western-european countries - social support - perspective
Responsibility for health and social care services is being delegated from central to local authorities in an increasing number of countries. In the Netherlands, the planned transfer of responsibility for day care for people with dementia from the central government to municipalities is a case in point. The impacts of this decentralisation process for innovative care concepts such as day care at green care farms are largely unknown. We therefore interviewed representatives of municipalities and green care farms to explore what consequences they expected of decentralisation for their organisations and people with dementia. Our study shows that communication and collaboration between municipalities and green care farms is relatively limited. Consequently, municipalities are insufficiently aware of how green care farms can help them to perform their new tasks and green care farmers know little about what municipalities expect from them in the new situation. We therefore recommend that municipalities and green care farms keep each other informed about their responsibilities, duties and activities to ensure a tailored package of future municipal services for people with dementia.
Governance capabilities for dealing wisely with wicked problems
Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Dewulf, A. ; Breeman, G.E. ; Stiller, S.J. - \ 2015
Administration and Society 47 (2015)6. - ISSN 0095-3997 - p. 680 - 710.
social-ecological systems - common agricultural policy - adaptive governance - framing theory - management - attention - netherlands - transitions - perspective - integration
This article explores an integrative approach for dealing with wicked problems. Wicked problems not only require alternative action strategies but also alternative ways of observing and enabling. Four governance capabilities are essential: (a) reflexivity, or the capability to deal with multiple frames; (b) resilience, or the capability to adjust actions to uncertain changes; (c) responsiveness, or the capability to respond to changing agendas and expectations; (d) revitalization, or the capability to unblock stagnations. These capabilities form the basis for achieving small wins in wicked problems. We illustrate our argument with examples from sustainable food production of the Common Agricultural Policy.
Taking account of governance: The challenge for land-use planning models
McNeill, D. ; Bursztyn, M. ; Novira, N. ; Purushothamand, S. ; Verburg, R.W. ; Rodrigues-Filho, S. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 37 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 6 - 13.
sustainability - perspective
It is widely recognised that weak governance is a major constraint in planning for sustainable development, especially in the South. Sophisticated models that have been developed for assessing the likely effect of selected policies on land-use, and on sustainable development more generally, increasingly acknowledge this; but they do not include methods for taking this into account, in quantitative terms – which is what is necessary if such models are to be applied in practice. This paper begins by identifying the limitations of standard models in this respect, and then suggests a possible way to respond to the problem. We propose the use of what we call ‘policy-specific governance indicators’, that is, indicators not of general government performance across the board, but rather of the actual performance of particular policies – or, if necessary, suitable proxies derived from similar policies. By reference to a case study from Brazil concerning controls on deforestation, we show how this can be done in practice, and built in to the planning model. And by reference to studies from Indonesia and India we explore how one might address still more challenging cases that may arise.
Learning Apart Together: Towards an Integrated Competence Framework for Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Higher Education
Lans, T. ; Blok, V. ; Wesselink, R. - \ 2014
Journal of Cleaner Production 62 (2014). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 37 - 47.
opportunity-identification - venture performance - firm performance - management - perspective - growth - exploitation - capabilities - recognition - orientation
Sustainable entrepreneurs, i.e. those who proactively facilitate latent demands for sustainable development, are now in higher demand than ever before. Higher (business) education can play an important role in laying the foundation for these sustainable entrepreneurs. Traditionally, however, educational scholars focus either on the issue of education for sustainability or on entrepreneurship education. There is little work which explores and/or crosses the boundaries between these two disciplines, let alone work in which an effort is made to integrate these perspectives. In this article, a competence approach was taken as a first step to link the worlds of education for entrepreneurship and for sustainability because we postulate that both, apparently different, worlds can reinforce each other. Based on a literature review, focus group discussions with teachers in higher education (n = 8) and a structured questionnaire among students (n = 211), a set of clear, distinct competencies was developed, providing stepping stones for monitoring students' sustainable entrepreneurship development in school-based environments.
Key Success Factors of Innovation Projects of Vegetable Breeding Companies in China
Liu Zhen, Zhen ; Kemp, R.G.M. ; Jongsma, M.A. ; Huang, Caicheng ; Dons, J.J.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 17 (2014)4. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 177 - 204.
research-and-development - product development teams - seed industry - technological innovation - performance - communication - management - firms - perspective - determinants
The vegetable breeding industry is generally recognized as an innovation-driven industry. However, innovation is costly, time-consuming and uncertain. This study aims to identify the key success factors of innovation project performance of vegetable breeding companies (VBCs) in China. Based on empirical data that was collected from 53 innovation projects in 38 VBCs, it was found that integrative capabilities play an important role in the novelty and newness of the innovation to enhance product potential (superiority) and also in improving functional capabilities and in gaining market potential. Furthermore, market competition is a positive factor for inspiring innovation in the breeding industry.
Epilogue: global food security, rhetoric, and the sustainable intensification debate
Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 8 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 71 - 79.
green-revolution - agricultural intensification - ecological intensification - 9 billion - systems - agroecology - challenges - opportunities - perspective - agronomy
The need to feed nine billion people in 2050 has given rise to widespread debate in science and policy circles. The debate is largely framed in neo-Malthusian terms, and elements of global food security (resilience of the food system, food quantity and quality, right to and access to food) demand equal attention. High-intensive agriculture, which enabled population growth and food for a large proportion of the global population, is often regarded as incompatible with current environmental (and social) sustainability. Because of the often problematic nature of high-intensive industrialized agriculture, sustainable agricultural intensification has been called an oxymoron. Pathways to sustainably intensify agriculture vary from business-as-usual to claims that a radical rethinking of our agricultural production is imperative. Three terms have been coined to differentiate such pathways. Whereas conventional intensification, that is business-as-usual, is uncontroversial (but often considered unlikely to be able to achieve environmental sustainability), the phrases sustainable intensification and ecological intensification both have a complex history. Although one could think that they have similar meanings, the phrases represent very different perspectives in discourses in science and policy circles. The terms Utopians and Arcadians are introduced for adherents of those perspectives. We observe that they both devote insufficient attention to inevitable trade-offs. Agricultural intensification in developing countries was greatly accelerated by the Green Revolution, which largely bypassed sub-Saharan Africa. Discontent with that outcome has led to a plethora of new terms to indicate more successful next steps for sub-Saharan agriculture. Industrialized agriculture as currently practised in developed countries will not provide a universal solution. This epilogue of the special issue and the literature herein show that intense debates on sustainable agricultural intensification are needed. Such debates on intensification demand reflection on the role of scientists with regard to their uses of current and the generation of novel knowledge.
Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development
Jacobsen, L.F. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Søndergaard, H.A. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Dekker, M. ; Lähteenmäki, L. - \ 2014
Trends in Food Science and Technology 37 (2014)2. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 106 - 114.
r-and-d - knowledge management - innovation - performance - integration - perspective - industry - projects - flows - teams
In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market and technology experts within the NPD process from a food industry point of view. The review provides practical implications for improving internal communication in food companies and identifies knowledge gaps. By focussing on optimising organisational structure, team composition, management support, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process.
A sense of change: media designers and artists communicating about complexity in social-ecological systems
Vervoort, J.M. ; Keuskamp, D. ; Kok, K. ; Lammeren, R.J.A. van; Stolk, T. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Rekveld, J. ; Schelfhout, R. ; Teklenburg, B. ; Cavalheiro Borges, A. ; Jánoškóva, S. ; Wits, W. ; Assmann, N. ; Abdi Dezfouli, E. ; Cunningham, K. ; Nordeman, B. ; Rowlands, H. - \ 2014
Ecology and Society 19 (2014)3. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 19 p.
virtual-reality - visualization - perspective - simulation - thinking - science
To take on the current and future challenges of global environmental change, fostering a widespread societal understanding of and engagement with the complex dynamics that characterize interacting human and natural systems is essential. Current science communication methods struggle with a number of specific challenges associated with communicating about complex systems. In this study we report on two collaborative processes, a short workshop and longer course, that aimed to harness the insights of interactive media designers and artists to overcome these challenges. The two processes resulted in 86 new interactive media concepts which were selected by the participants and organizers using set criteria and then evaluated using the same criteria by a panel of communication and media design experts and a panel of complex systems scientists using the same criteria. The top eight concepts are discussed in this paper. These concepts fell into the categories of serious games, group interaction concepts, and social media storytelling. The serious games focused directly on complex systems characteristics and were evaluated to be intuitive and engaging designs that combined transparency and complexity well. The group interaction concepts focused mostly on feedbacks and nonlinearity but were fully developed and tested in the workshops, and evaluated as engaging, accessible, and easy to implement in workshops and educational settings. The social media storytelling concepts involved less direct interactions with system dynamics but were seen as highly accessible to large scale audiences. The results of this study show the potential of interdisciplinary collaboration between complex systems scientists, designers, and artists. The results and process discussed in this paper show the value of more structural engagement of interactive media designers and artist communities in the development of communication tools about human and natural systems change.
Bioeconomy – an emerging meta-discourse affecting forest discourses?
Pülzl, H. ; Kleinschmit, D. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2014
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 29 (2014)4. - ISSN 0282-7581 - p. 386 - 393.
sustainable development - governance - modernization - neoliberalism - opportunities - perspective - movement - policy - trees
The term bioeconomy and closely related notions like bio-based economy or knowledge-based bioeconomy (KBBE) are increasingly used by scientists and politicians in the last years. It does therefore have the potential of becoming an influential global discourse. Its role is however so far unclear. The general assumption that guides this paper is that discourses, resulting ideas and arguments are generally said to have performative power. They shape actors' views, influence their behaviour, impact on their beliefs and interests and can cause institutional change in a given society. Thus, the aim of this paper is twofold: first, it aims to analyse whether the ideas used in a bioeconomy discourse differs from those in other global meta-discourses of the last decades affecting forest discourses, such as the ecological modernization discourse or the sustainable development discourse. Second, this paper aims to analyse whether and how the bioeconomy discourse has started (or not) to reshape or overshadow the “classical” forest discourses, such as sustainable forest management, forest biodiversity or forest and climate change.