Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience
Zinia, N.J. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2015
Environment, Development and Sustainability 17 (2015)3. - ISSN 1387-585X - p. 531 - 546.
nutrient export - rivers - perspectives - management - phosphorus - nitrogen
The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze trends over the period 1970–2050. The scenarios are based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and indicate the number of people living in urban areas may increase from 22 % in 1970 to about 50 % in 2050. We show that this may considerably increase nutrient levels in rivers from sewage and other sources. For 2050, we calculate that harmful algal blooms may be a potential problem in coastal waters of about 95 % of the total drainage basin of the Bay of Bengal. In addition, we analyze Bangladeshi citizens’ expectations of future trends and how citizens with different worldviews would experience environmental changes (i.e., their lived experience). The citizens indicate that trends as envisaged in our scenarios may be a negative experience. However, some people may experience the trends as positive, because they expected worse.
Institutions and access to woodfuel commerce in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Schure, J.M. ; Ingram, V. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Levang, P. ; Mvula-Mampasi, E. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 50 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 53 - 61.
sub-saharan africa - developing-countries - poverty alleviation - rural livelihoods - value chains - charcoal - forests - policy - conservation - perspectives
A new generation of woodfuel studies focuses on the political dynamics behind access to the woodfuel trade, providing better insights into patterns of inclusion and exclusion and options for resource management. Institutional mechanisms that govern access are difficult to untangle in the context of informal trade. This paper analyzes institutions and how they regulate access to commercialize woodfuel in two areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A review of empirical data (surveys and interviews) and secondary data on wood energy value chains in the DRC is used to examine the ways that woodfuel institutions affect access to resources and to markets. The main findings are that existing formal mechanisms regulating access to the woodfuel trade are hardly enforced. Informal, socially embedded institutions generally govern access, and the trade is open to less privileged and rural actors. People who benefit from these informal arrangements have many vested interests, and current production patterns are unsustainable and not sufficiently mitigated by these institutions. New strategies are required that promote the positive aspects of informality, while supporting initiatives that contribute to long-term resource sustainability and meet the high levels of urban demand, given the lack of alternative energy sources.
En route: Transport and embodiment in international medical travel journeys between Indonesia and Malaysia
Ormond, M.E. - \ 2015
Mobilities 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1745-0101 - p. 285 - 303.
passenger mobilities - tourism - health - patient - perspectives - facilitators - perceptions - people - growth - spaces
International medical travel is increasingly big business. Using Indonesian patient-consumers’transport experiences in the pursuit of private medical care in Malaysia, this paper explores howtransport operators and infrastructure are responding and adjusting to the embodied specificities of the growing market’s access and travel needs. In offering faster and more frequent linkages, theyhave both expanded the physical and geo-political scope and increased the immediacy of careprovision. This underscores the value of examining how the mobile spaces of transport common tointernational medical travel actively intersect with, blur and re-articulate diverse understandings of ill-health and impairment, care and subjectivity.
Natura 2000 and climate change—Polarisation, uncertainty, and pragmatism in discourses on forest conservation and management in Europe
Koning, J. de; Winkel, G. ; Sotirov, M. ; Blondet, M. ; Borras, L. ; Ferranti, F. ; Geitzenauer, M. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 129 - 138.
change impacts - policy - biodiversity - network - implementation - perspectives - experiences - countries - areas - trees
European forests are a resource that is targeted by several EU environmental and land use policies as forests can be of critical importance to mitigate climate change. At the same time, they are central to the EU's biodiversity policy, and particular the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Yet, the interlinkage between climate change and biodiversity policy is complex and discursively contested. In this paper, we assess how the debate on climate change adaptation affects forest conservation and management under Natura 2000. Drawing on the concept of argumentative discourse analysis, we present evidence from 213 qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders and practitioners that were conducted at both the European policy level and the local country level in 6 EU member states. Our results demonstrate that the nexus between climate change adaptation and forest conservation policy is conceptualised differently by different stakeholders and practioners at different levels. Three major discourses can be made out (pragmatic discourse, dynamics discourse, threat discourse), which are characterised by a set of partially overlapping story lines. These discourses are employed by four discourse coalitions (environmental, forest users’, expert, and grass root coalition). As a general rule, debates at the European level are more polarised and politicised, while the local debates on climate change and Natura 2000 remain rather vague and are less polarised. This seems to indicate that the link between climate change adaptation and forest conservation is mostly an issue for an abstract high-level policy debate. At this level, climate change is used to influence well-known policies, and to legitimise distinct interests that were already present before the climate change debate has emerged.
Trichoderma longibrachiatum acetyl xylan esterase 1 enhances hemicellulolytic preparations to degrade corn silage polysaccharides
Neumüller, K.G. ; Streekstra, H. ; Gruppen, H. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2014
Bioresource Technology 163 (2014). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 64 - 73.
lignocellulosic biomass - enzyme - reesei - bioconversion - fermentation - perspectives - resistant - mode
Supplementation of a Trichoderma longibrachiatum preparation to an industrial Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii enzyme mixture demonstrated synergy for the saccharification of corn silage water-unextractable solids (WUS). Sub-fractions of the crude T. longibrachiatum preparation obtained after chromatography were analyzed regarding their hydrolytic activity. An acetyl xylan esterase 1 [Axe1, carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 5]-enriched sub-fraction closely mimicked the hydrolytic gain as obtained by supplementation of the complete, crude enzyme mixture (increase of 50%, 62% and 29% for Xyl, Ara and Glc, respectively). The acetic acid released from model polysaccharides (WUS) and oligosaccharides [neutral (AcXOS) and acidic (AcUXOS) xylo-oligosaccharides] by Axe1 was two and up to six times higher compared to the acetic acid released by acetyl xylan esterase A (AxeA, CE 1). Characterization of Axe1 treated AcXOS and AcUXOS revealed deacetylation of oligosaccharides that were not deacetylated by AxeA or the A. niger/T. emersonii preparation.
Innovation capabilities in food and beverages and technology-based innovation projects
Tepic, M. ; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Kemp, R.G.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
British Food Journal 116 (2014)2. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 228 - 250.
product development - success factors - dynamic environments - chinese firms - performance - industry - uncertainty - system - perspectives - acceptance
Purpose - The aim of this paper is to establish the differences between the food and beverages (F&B) and technology-based industries with regards to the relation between previously identified success factors and innovation project performance. Design/methodology/approach - These differences are established on the basis of logistic regression analysis, using 38 innovation projects (18 F&B and 20 technology-based). Findings - Newness of the innovation project to the company, communication capabilities and market potential have a more negative impact on innovation project performance in the F&B than the tech-based industry. Especially functional upstream capabilities increase the likelihood of success in F&B, when compared to tech-based innovation projects. Practical implications - While functional upstream capabilities are important for success of F&B innovation projects, there is still room for improvement in order to deal effectively with newness of the innovation project to the company. Internalization of resources from the network and a balanced radical/incremental innovation project portfolio contribute to additional enhancement of functional capabilities of the F&B companies, improving their capacity to deal with newness. Through a larger focus on co-innovation with retail, F&B companies can improve their intra- and inter-firm communication capabilities to attain more consumer-oriented integration of R&D and marketing activities, improving the market potential of their innovations. Originality/value - This paper demonstrates that the previously identified critical success factors for innovation projects differ in impact and importance for F&B innovation project performance when compared to innovation projects in the technology-based industry.
Environmental sustainability and legal plurality in irrigation: the Balinese subak
Roth, D. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 11 (2014)Sp. issue. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 9.
indonesia - law - perspectives - communities - management - reform - adat
This paper reviews the literature on subak irrigators’ institutions on the Indonesian island of Bali, with special reference to legal plurality and environmental sustainability. The subak is well known in irrigation studies as a strong and effective institution. Therefore it is relevant to investigate it under conditions of change. The growth of tourism and other developments have put Balinese irrigated agriculture under severe environmental pressures. In this paper I argue that, in response to these pressures, new forms of governing irrigated landscapes, notions of social-environmental harmony and sustainability, and ways of shaping farmer behaviour are emerging. These changes entail new forms of legal plurality, both localizing and globalizing, and new framings of ‘tradition’ and ‘local knowledge’ in relation to social-environmental problems. Finally, they involve contestations between normative and legal repertoires and discourses that transcend ‘water governance’ and cannot be reduced to ‘systemic’ typologies of legal plurality.
How to dance? The tango of stakeholder involvement in marine governance research
Kraan, M.L. ; Hendriksen, A. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Leeuwen, J. van; Jouanneau, C. - \ 2014
Marine Policy 50 (2014). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 347 - 352.
ecosystem-based approach - participation - perspectives - management
The added value of involving stakeholders in research, especially related to marine governance, seems to be understood today by many researchers and policy makers. This is clearly reflected by the many (EU) research calls explicitly asking for stakeholder involvement. The way in which to involve stakeholders in a meaningful way is however not all that clearly defined. In the EU funded project Options for Delivering Ecosystem-Based Marine Management (ODEMM) an explicit question was the development of options for alternative governance settings, including stakeholder involvement, to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the EU. In order to arrive at these possible alternative governance set-ups the ODEMM project developed a layered methodology, including structured and unstructured interviews, a survey and roundtable discussions to develop diverse governance options for future ecosystem based models at the regional seas. This paper describes the methodologies used, compares them with best practice from literature, and finally classifies the approach as a joint knowledge production, a tango, in which scientists take the lead but need the stakeholders to come to a dance.
Evaluating the role of ecosystem serivces in participatory land use planning: proposing a balanced score card
Fürst, C. ; Opdam, P. ; Inostroza, L. ; Luque, S. - \ 2014
Landscape Ecology 29 (2014)8. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1435 - 1446.
landscape metrics - resource-management - sustainability - perspectives - indicators - provision - ecology
The application of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in land use planning has great potential to enhance the awareness of planning actors on their interactions. At the same time it can contribute to improve the linkage between the role of land use patterns and the understanding of land system functioning and its contribution to human well-being. The concept should be developed in a way that can be applicable in socio-ecological systems where nature and society are capable of enhancing their roles mutually. The objective of this paper is to suggest a standardized scheme and generalizable criteria to assess how successful the application of the ES concept contributed to facilitate participatory planning. We consider three potential advantages and three critical aspects for how to improve the applicability and relevance of the ES concept in planning. Hereon based, we present a balanced score card tool for which we broke down to advantages and risks into concrete questions. We illustrate the application of this approach with two case studies, representatives of two major governance schemes in relation to land use planning. We demonstrate that the balanced score card approach helps to reveal potential imbalances regarding the consideration of different ES groups. It supports testing the potential of the ES concept to enhance or not interactions of local and regional actors. We conclude that the framework should be reconsidered after a set of case studies to be developed into a monitoring tool for supporting planning practices.
Stagnating Jatropha Biofuel Development in Southwest China: An Institutional Approach
Li, Jia ; Bluemling, B. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Herzfeld, Th. - \ 2014
Sustainability 6 (2014)6. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 3192 - 3212.
future orientation - forestry - sustainability - perspectives - plantations - uncertainty - investment - management - prospects - biodiesel
Biodiesel from jatropha has been considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels for some time. Consequently, China started promoting jatropha as one of the options to meet its ever-increasing energy consumption, and the Chinese biodiesel industry also gained interest. However, the excitement of the biofuel industry in jatropha faded after it did not bring about the expected results. This article investigates the stagnation in jatropha development and production for biodiesel in China, using two detailed case studies of jatropha biofuel production in southeast China. It is found that the underdeveloped biodiesel policy and regulation, such as a rather late formulation of standards for biodiesel (especially the B5) and the absence of mandatory targets, is an important reason for hampering jatropha development. Besides that, lack of financial support undermined sustained jatropha planting at the farm level and lack of sustained commitment from state-owned enterprises or private companies over a long time span further contributed to jatropha project’s failure. Better implementation of the rule of law, mandatory blending requirements, hazard insurance, as well as continuous financial support, might improve the continuation of jatropha plantation schemes.
Understanding consumer evaluations of personalised nutrition services in terms of the privacy calculus: a qualitative study
Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Ronteltap, A. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Macready, A. ; Fallaize, R. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
Public Health Genomics 17 (2014)3. - ISSN 1662-4246 - p. 127 - 140.
electronic commerce - nutrigenomics - information - nutrigenetics - model - trust - risk - perspectives - internet - antecedents
Background: Personalised nutrition (PN) may provide major health benefits to consumers. A potential barrier to the uptake of PN is consumers' reluctance to disclose sensitive information upon which PN is based. This study adopts the privacy calculus to explore how PN service attributes contribute to consumers' privacy risk and personalisation benefit perceptions. Methods: Sixteen focus groups (n = 124) were held in 8 EU countries and discussed 9 PN services that differed in terms of personal information, communication channel, service provider, advice justification, scope, frequency, and customer lock-in. Transcripts were content analysed. Results: The personal information that underpinned PN contributed to both privacy risk perception and personalisation benefit perception. Disclosing information face-to-face mitigated the perception of privacy risk and amplified the perception of personalisation benefit. PN provided by a qualified expert and justified by scientific evidence increased participants' value perception. Enhancing convenience, offering regular face-to face support, and employing customer lock-in strategies were perceived as beneficial. Conclusion: This study suggests that to encourage consumer adoption, PN has to account for face-to-face communication, expert advice providers, support, a lifestyle-change focus, and customised offers. The results provide an initial insight into service attributes that influence consumer adoption of PN.
Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management
Wal, M.M. van der; Kraker, J. de; Offermans, A. ; Kroeze, C. ; Kirschner, P. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
Environmental Policy and Governance 24 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 1 - 15.
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - sociaal leren - participatief management - klimaatverandering - governance - natural resources - resource management - social learning - participative management - climatic change - governance - cultural theory - stakeholder participation - climate-change - sustainability - perspectives - framework - dilemmas
The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and practical methods to measure it. In this article, we present a simple and flexible method to measure social learning, whether it has occurred and to what extent, among stakeholders in natural resource management. The method yields measurements of social learning that are visual, quantitative and qualitative. First, we elaborate our definition of social learning as a convergence of perspectives and outline how stakeholder perspectives in natural resource management can be described with Cultural Theory. Next, we provide a generic description of the method, followed by two examples illustrating its application to the domains of water and land management. Finally, we discuss relative strengths and weaknesses of the method and how it could be applied to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to social learning.
Bounded Biofuels? Sustainability of Global Biogas Developments
Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2014
Sociologia Ruralis 54 (2014)1. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 1 - 20.
renewable energy - ecological modernization - trade - flows - perspectives - governance - prospects - china - urban
Compared to liquid biofuels biogas has hardly drawn any attention from social sciences researchers lately. Although the share of biogas and liquid biofuels in the energy portfolio of many countries are comparable, biogas systems are strongly place-based and are non-controversial in terms of sustainability. But is that a fundamental distinction between the two biofuel systems; or is it just a matter of time before biogas becomes globally integrated and subject to sustainability controversies? In using a sociology of networks and flows frame, the current state of and developments in biogas systems around the world are analysed. It is concluded that biogas systems are most likely to further globally integrate, but that it remains to be seen whether that will result in similar sustainability controversies as with respect to liquid biofuels. One determining factor is whether governance arrangements manage to condition the sustainability of globalising biogas developments.
Women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care in Nepal
Thapa, D.K. ; Niehof, Anke - \ 2013
Social Science and Medicine 93 (2013). - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 1 - 10.
reproductive health - decision-making - antenatal care - fertility - men - services - fathers - india - perspectives - household
Both increasing women’s autonomy and increasing husbands’ involvement in maternal health care are promising strategies to enhance maternal health care utilization. However, these two may be at odds with each other insofar as autonomouswomenmay not seek their husband’s involvement, and involved husbands may limit women’s autonomy. This study assessed the relationship between women’s autonomy and husbands’ involvement in maternal health care. Field work for this study was carried out during SeptembereNovember 2011 in the Kailali district of Nepal. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to investigate the extent of husbands’ involvement in maternal health care. A survey was carried out among 341 randomly selectedwomenwho delivered a live baby within one year prior to the survey. The results showthat husbandswere involved in giving advice, supporting to reduce the householdwork burden, and makingfinancial and transportation arrangements for the delivery. After adjustment for other covariates, economic autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy, while domestic decision-making autonomy was associated with both lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy and the husband’s presence at antenatal care (ANC) visits. Movement autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of the husband’s presence at ANC visits. Intra-spousal communication was associated with higher likelihood of discussing health with the husband during pregnancy, birth preparedness, and the husbands’ presence at the health facility delivery. The magnitude and direction of association varied per autonomy dimension. These findings suggest that programs to improve the women’s autonomy and at the sametimeincrease the husband’s involvement should be carefully planned. Despite the traditional cultural beliefs that go against the involvement of husbands, Nepalese husbands are increasingly entering into the area of maternal health which was traditionally considered ‘women’s business’.
Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-derived foods: estimated effects on land use, iron and SFA intakes in young Dutch adult females
Temme, E.H.M. ; Voet, H. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M. ; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. ; Donkersgoed, G. van; Nonhebel, S. - \ 2013
Public Health Nutrition 16 (2013)10. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1900 - 1907.
consumption patterns - life-style - climate-change - consumers - health - diet - requirements - perspectives - vegetarians - energy
Objective: Reduction in the current high levels of meat and dairy consumption may contribute to environmental as well as human health. Since meat is a major source of Fe, effects on Fe intake need to be evaluated, especially in groups vulnerable to negative Fe status. In the present study we evaluated the effects of replacing meat and dairy foods with plant-based products on environmental sustainability (land requirement) and health (SFA and Fe intakes) in women. Design: Data on land requirements were derived from existing calculation methods. Food composition data were derived from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2006. Data were linked to the food consumption of young Dutch women. Land requirements and nutrient intakes were evaluated at baseline and in two scenarios in which 30% (Scenario_30 %) or 100% (Scenario_100 %) of the dairy and meat consumption was randomly replaced by the same amount of plant-based dairy- and meat-replacing foods. Setting: The Netherlands. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety-eight young Dutch females. Results: Replacement of meat and dairy by plant-based foods benefited the environment by decreasing land use. The intake of SFA decreased considerably compared with the baseline situation. On average, total Fe intake increased by 2?5 mg/d, although most of the Fe intake was from a less bioavailable source. Conclusions: Replacement of meat and dairy foods by plant-based foods reduced land use for consumption and SFA intake of young Dutch females and did no compromise total Fe intake.
Identifying key performance indicators in food technology contract R&D
Flipse, S.M. ; Sanden, M.C.A. van der; Velden, T. van der; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Osseweijer, P. - \ 2013
Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0923-4748 - p. 72 - 94.
biotechnology firms - innovation - industry - perspectives - experience - success - future - model - news
Innovating companies increasingly rely on outsourcing to Contract Research Organisations (CROs) for their Research and Development (R&D), which are largely understudied. This paper presents the outcome of a case study in the field of food technology contract research, identifying context specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for a CRO. KPIs were identified with a modified version of the Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool, with which 72 finished successful and less successful projects were analysed. We developed a benchmarking tool to evaluate starting or running innovation project quality, which allows for direct, in situ project improvements by project leaders at CROs.
Emotional conflicts in rational forestry: Towards a research agenda for understanding emotions in environmental conflicts
Buijs, A.E. ; Lawrence, A. - \ 2013
Forest Policy and Economics 33 (2013). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 104 - 111.
old-growth forests - decision-making - biodiversity conservation - social-movements - participation - management - deliberation - perspectives - policy - power
When looking at social conflicts around forests, both foresters and researchers tend to frame conflicts as rational differences related to diverging knowledge, values, and interests. In past centuries, and in areas where the forests are of immediate livelihood importance, this has been a powerful approach to explaining disputes. However for many stakeholders, including local communities, environmental campaigners and foresters themselves, feelings and emotions are also relevant components of a conflict. In this paper we argue that an overall tendency to ‘rationalise’ nature and forests has pushed emotion out of sight, and delegitimised it. Using examples from our own research in The Netherlands and the UK, we argue that feelings need to be visible and legitimate, in order to address the underlying causes of conflict. We begin the paper by examining how conflicts have been framed as rational, by researchers, managers and politicians. We seek explanations for both the ‘hidden’ nature of emotions and their labelling as ‘irrational’ in the rationalisation of forest science and management as a result of wider modernisation processes. We propose bringing emotions back in, to show how conflict is not merely based in diverging views, but is in fact a dimension of engagement. We suggest four aspects of forest conflicts in which emotions should be incorporated in research, all connected to literature from outside forestry: emotional sources of diverging views on forest management, emotional influences on the processing of information, the motivating power of emotions for social movements and the role of emotions in the escalation of protests.
Goat-based aid programme in Central Java: An effective intervention for the poor and vulnerable?
Budisatria, I.G.S. ; Udo, H.M.J. - \ 2013
Small Ruminant Research 109 (2013). - ISSN 0921-4488 - p. 76 - 83.
future - perspectives - systems - poverty - sector - asia
This study evaluated a goat-based aid programme developed to facilitate the recovery of vulnerable people in an earthquake affected area in Central Java, Indonesia. Farmers, organised in farmers’ groups, received a package of one male and four female goats. In total, 72 farmers from 6 farmers’ groups participated in this study. Farmers’ groups could be categorised as ‘successful’ or ‘failed’, based on the ability of members of farmers’ groups to repay their credit and to continue their goat keeping, and the continuation of the farmers’ group. Individual interviews and focus group discussions were used to explore factors affecting success and failure of the programme. Goat performances were determined by monitoring (re) production of 246 does over a period of 1.5 years. All farmers agreed that the goat-based aid programme was useful and, for the majority, it improved their economic situation. Being well prepared, experience in keeping animals, and the management practised were main internal factors for success of the programme. External factors were government support, land availability, and management of the farmers group. Animal factors were adaptability of the goats, low mortality rates and numbers of animals distributed to one farmer. All doe production performances parameters were significantly different between does kept by successful farmers group members and does kept by members of failed farmers groups. Successful farmers group members had 2.5 times higher value added from goats in the period that the credit was not yet settled and 1.4 times higher value added when the credit was settled than failed farmers group members. The goats based aid programme made a valuable contribution to the livelihoods of the majority of farmers in the disaster attacked area, in terms of economic results and social status. The initial assessment of the beneficiaries by the local government should have considered prior experience with livestock. The goats distributed were thoroughly screened by the donor. Nevertheless, the local government could have increased the commitment of the beneficiaries by giving them the opportunity to select the goats themselves, and by sanctioning farmers who failed to repay their goat credit.
How to turn the tide: Developing legitimate marine governance arrangements at the level of the regional seas
Tatenhove, J. van - \ 2013
Ocean & Coastal Management 71 (2013). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 296 - 304.
fisheries management - ocean governance - european-union - institutionalism - framework - governability - perspectives - ecosystems - coastal - systems
Competing spatial claims and conflicts between maritime economic activities and biodiversity in Europe's seas continue to challenge governments and non-governmental actors. Responses to these problems have resulted in a fragmented patchwork of EU policies, private initiatives, and regulations on different levels. It is clear that the different sets of problems in each sea and the existing institutional arrangements (often created in an ad hoc fashion) require different responses and that a regional approach to marine governance is more flexible than a pan-European one. This paper explores whether and how it is possible to develop integrated maritime governance arrangements for Europe's regional seas. It explores the sui generis institutional setting of the EU – a fragmented system in constant flux – and the roles of the Regional Sea Commissions, Member States and other stakeholders. This, together with Wallace's concept of the swinging pendulum of governance, provides us with the basis to identify the conditions for more effective and legitimate EU marine governance arrangements and examine whether it is possible to turn the tide of marine governance to the level of the regional sea? Using concepts from institutional theory, such as institutional ambiguity, institutional layering and conversion and institutional capacity building, this paper develops six building blocks that could help to turn the tide, help to develop legitimate regional-level marine governance arrangements and strengthen the capacity of marine institutions and governance.
Crossing borders : review of concepts and approaches in research on greenspace, immigration and society in northwest European countries
Kloek, M.E. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Boersema, J.J. ; Schouten, M.G.C. - \ 2013
Landscape Research 38 (2013)1. - ISSN 0142-6397 - p. 117 - 140.
outdoor recreation - urban parks - english countryside - mexican-americans - rural landscapes - england - race - acculturation - perspectives - perceptions
Relations between greenspace, immigration and society are emerging issues in policy and science. However, up to now research has been fragmented and no overview of approaches exists. This review describes concepts and approaches in Northwest European research on immigrants’ recreational use and perceptions of nature, rural landscapes and urban parks and on societal aspects of migration and greenspace. We show that national research traditions vary considerably, reflecting national ‘contexts of reception’ and conceptualisations of immigrants. Links between outdoor recreation and perceptions of greenspace have not been properly researched and explanatory factors are only superficially touched upon. Borders seem difficult to cross: learning processes and cooperation of scholars across approaches and countries are scarce. Furthermore, current research often lacks an explicit theoretical framework. We argue that the concept of identity-in-context can form a good starting point to build an internationally relevant theoretical framework on the greenspace–immigration–society interface