Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mining water governance : everyday community-mine relationships in the Peruvian Andes
    Sosa Landeo, Milagros - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A. Boelens, co-promotor(en): M.Z. Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436762 - 200
    mining - water policy - governance - water rights - water management - rural communities - local population - water resources - andes - peru - mijnbouw - waterbeleid - governance - waterrechten - waterbeheer - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plaatselijke bevolking - watervoorraden - andes - peru

    This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand what happens with water in contexts of mineral extraction. It traces changes in how water is accessed, controlled and governed, and by whom. By making the complex character of water politics in mining contexts explicit, the thesis sheds light on how mining reconfigures water governance arrangements, while also contributing to wider debates about water governance in contexts characterized by huge power differences.

    The mountain vegetation of South Peru : syntaxonomy, ecology, phytogeography and conservation
    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Karle Sykora; Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Antoine Cleef. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576797 - 334
    vegetation - mountains - phytogeography - ecology - taxonomy - nature conservation - andes - peru - vegetatie - gebergten - plantengeografie - ecologie - taxonomie - natuurbescherming - andes - peru

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION

    This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collected vegetation data with other regional and interregional studies. This phytosociologic overview comprises the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa and besides the plant communities of Moquegua from the prepuna between 3470 and 3700 m, the puna between 3750 and 4500 m and the superpuna between 4450 and 4800 m. The Braun-Blanquet approach and multivariate ordination and classification methods have been applied to classify the different plant communities and to study the relation between plant communities and environmental variables, such as altitude, slope degree and exposition, rock and stone cover percentage, manure cover and grazing. Furthermore the results are presented of a phytogeographical analysis of the Andean puna flora (at vascular genus level) and its relation to other tropicalpine regions in South America. Finally, the descriptions of six recently published new species are included in this thesis. The results provide an important database for nature conservation issues, stressing the significance of protecting the fragile and diverse ecosystems of the Moqueguan Andes. The results of this vegetation survey can be used to prioritize the selection and assignment of nature reserves.

    Power Holders and Social Dynamics of Participatory Development and Reconstruction: Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Kyamusugulwa, P.M. ; Hilhorst, D. - \ 2015
    World Development 70 (2015). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 249 - 259.
    community-driven development - collective action - elite capture - governance - weber,max - state - peru
    One of the challenges of participatory development and reconstruction programs is how and where to engage with power holders. This paper analyses the dynamics of power relations within a community-driven reconstruction program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows that, in some circumstances, elite control can be a way of ensuring the provision of pubic goods and that conflict between elites can benefit project outcomes. The paper concludes that in this and similar contexts, development programs should consider bringing elites into the equation of governance and invest in understanding better the working and accountability of existing institutions for development.
    Legal pluralism, hydraulic property creation and sustainability: the materialized nature of water rights in user-managed systems
    Boelens, R.A. ; Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2014
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 11 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 55 - 62.
    irrigation systems - collective action - ecuadorian andes - governance - resources - community - valley - basin - peru - resistance
    Worldwide, most irrigation systems are managed by farmer collectives, in contexts of legal pluralism. National and supranational legislation and policy-making, however, focus on governance frameworks established by State and market actors. Consequently, development planning often ignores farmers’ rationality regarding sustainable water control. This paper's literature research examines how the notion of ‘hydraulic property creation’ in contexts of legal pluralism may support sustainable, self-governed irrigation systems. User-investment in hydraulic infrastructure generates collective water property relations. This socio-natural foundation of farmer-managed systems embeds (materializes) and entwines collective and individual water rights in hydraulic works, triggering collective action. Being fundamental to sustainable management, even well-intended policies and legislation ignoring this practice-based property notion may jeopardize well-functioning systems
    The institutional regulation of the sustainability of water resources within mining contexts: accountability and plurality
    Sosa Landeo, M. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2014
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 11 (2014)SI: Sustainability science. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 19 - 25.
    peru - livelihoods - cajamarca
    This article reviews recent literature on water and mining and uses illustrations from a large gold mine, Yanacocha, operating in Peru, to assess the effectiveness of institutional mechanisms for safeguarding the sustainability of water resources (and water-based ecosystems) in mining regions. The sustainability of water is mainly regulated through what we call ‘upward forms of accountability’: those that depend on the company's compliance with national and international regulations. This erodes and disqualifies existing ‘local’ rights and knowledges, weakening local communities’ formal powers and creating an accountability gap. We conclude that the preservation of water and ecosystems requires enabling institutions that endorse the experiences, rights and knowledge of communities affected by mining, combining existing upward forms of accountability with more downward ones, that build on affected communities’ voices.
    Dignity for the Voiceless; Willem Assies's Anthropological Work in Context
    Salman, T. ; Martí i Puig, S. ; Haar, G. van der - \ 2014
    New York/Oxford : Berghahn (Cedla Latin America studies vol. 103) - ISBN 9781782382928
    politieke bewegingen - sociale structuur - sociale antropologie - etnische groepen - etniciteit - politiek - overheidsbeleid - regering - beleid - andes - landbouw - inheemse volkeren - bolivia - peru - latijns-amerika - political movements - social structure - social anthropology - ethnic groups - ethnicity - politics - government policy - government - policy - andes - agriculture - indigenous people - bolivia - peru - latin america
    In 2010, Willem Assies, an astute and prolific Latin Americanist and political anthropologist, died unexpectedly, at the age of 55. This book brings together some of his writings. Assies would always gave central stage to the collective and multi-layered actor and not the system — but he would constantly do so within the context of restrictions, pressures, conditioning factors and contradictions, to provide the actor with a real setting of operation.
    Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses
    Castro Aponte, W.V. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461735805 - 296
    niet-gouvernementele organisaties - ondernemingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenwerking - peru - ontwikkelingslanden - zuid-amerika - non-governmental organizations - enterprises - sustainability - cooperation - peru - developing countries - south america

    The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of SMEs, organized in associations, clusters, and cooperatives or as single companies, are dedicated to productive actives; the others are engaged in commercial and services activities. However, next to their positive economic role, SMEs are also responsible for significant disturbances of nature, environmental degradation and threats to human health. Environmental pollution related to the increase of productive activities has become evident in Peru and the entire region of Latin America.

    The thesis aims to provide a better understanding of the changing roles of NGOs in promoting sustainability of SMEs in Peru, using the perspectives of networks and discourses. It focuses on three domains, which together are characteristic for promoting of SME sustainability in Peru: organic production (the first case study), business social responsibility (the second cases study) and sustainable production (the third case study). Three research questions have been outlined for this research: First, what are the networks of NGOs promoting sustainability of SMEs involved in the domains of organic production, business social responsibility and sustainable production in Peru, and what are the main changes in time in these networks? Second, what are the main discourses fostering sustainability that prevail and are articulated in these networks of NGOs and what are the main changes in time in these discourses? And finally, how to understand and assess the actual, new and potential roles of NGOs in promoting sustainability of SMEs in terms of network society theory and ecological modernization theory?

    In this study the universe of NGOs is narrowed to NGOs operating in Peru that provide support (a) to medium and small scale producers and producer associations to bring organic products to local and global markets, (b) to urban and rural small scale enterprises to adopt cleaner production and appropriate technologies, and/or (c) to SMEs to upgrade social and environmental standards within value chains involving large companies. Some SMEs are concentrated in the main cities of Peru such as Trujillo, Arequipa and Lima, while other SMEs, such as organic food producers, are spread all over the country. In any case, SMEs under this research have collaboration ties with the NGOs to be studied. The research questions were investigated by means of more than 28 interviews with representatives of local NGOs, international NGOs, local SMEs and the national government, carried out in the period of 2006 to 2010. Additionally, documents and internet sources were consulted.

    The networks involved in promoting the sustainability of SMEs are: the agro-ecological network, the organic market network and the ecological farming network in the first case study; the social justice network and the business network in the second case study; and the eco-efficiency network, the appropriate technology network, the cleaner technology network, the technological innovation network and the urban cleaner production network in the third case study.

    The main actors identified in the networks of the organic production domain are: the Ecological Agriculture Network of Peru (RAE Peru), Grupo Ecologica Peru and the National Ecological Producers Association (ANPE). RAE Peru consists of 16 individual NGOs operating throughout Peru and has led several initiatives (i.e. Biocanastas, Bioferias, Biostores) to develop the organic market in Peru. Grupo Ecologica Peru consists of 5 NGOs and 24 producers, including associations and individual producers, and it commercializes organic products at local competitive markets (i.e. the Bioferia Miraflores farmers’ market) and provides the supply of organic food to supermarkets. ANPE Peru consists of 22 organic small scale producer associations (including small food processers and family small-scale enterprises). ANPE’s constituencies produce and commercialize organic food in 13 farmers’ markets throughout the country.

    The main actors identified in the business social responsibility networks are: the Labor Advisory Council of Peru (CEDAL), the Center of Studies for Development and Participation (CEDEP) and Peru 2021. CEDAL and CEDEP promote business social responsibility for urban and rural small enterprises in Peru in order to meet national regulation and international standards on labor rights and good environmental practices. CEDAL has been collaborating with 60 small enterprises of garment and handy craft makers, organized in clusters, who commercialize their products directly to consumers or business intermediaries oriented at domestic and foreign markets. CEDEP collaborates with small and medium-sized agri-industries, small garment workshops, shoemakers, metal workshops and bakeries to adopt business social responsibility principles by improving working conditions for their employees and sustainable production practices. Peru 2021 collaborates only with SMEs that are providers of larger companies in value chains promoting social and environmental standards.

    The main actors involved in the sustainable production networks are: the Eco-efficiency and Social Responsibility Center (CER), the Institute for the Transfer of Technology for Marginal Sectors (ITACAB), the National Council of Science and Technology (CONCYTEC), the Centers of Technological Innovation (CITEs) and the Peruvian Institute of Social Economy (IPES). While CER, IPES and most of CITEs are NGOs, ITACAB and CONCYTEC are (inter)governmental agencies. CER provides consultancy for small scale suppliers of larger domestic companies and single SMEs exporting to international markets. Through the projects EcoADEX, EcoHotels and EcoParks CER aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase eco-efficiency, optimize production and services processes and reduce operation costs in SMEs. ITACAB promotes technological transfer to small scale rural enterprises through the Center for Technological Transferring Resources. CONCYTEC promotes technological transfer for SMEs but it is currently dispersed into several institutional programmes. CITEs provide production technologies services to SMEs. In total there are 13 CITEs throughout Peru, each one specialized in particular type of products (i.e. leather and shoemaking, wood and furniture, wine and horticulture, tropical fruits and medicinal plants, garment, agro-industry, textile, logistic and tracing, software and forest wood). Finally, IPES promotes cleaner technologies in small scale industries and workshops located in urban areas. During the last year, IPES is focusing on the establishing of recycling SMEs of electronic waste. As this overview shows, in the sustainable production domain, not only NGOs perform central roles but also governmental agencies. In some cases, quite close cooperation occurs between NGOs and governmental agencies.

    In all three cases, networks of sustainability of SMEs are structured as interlinked platforms operating at local, national, Latin American and global level. For instance, in the organic production networks the Bioferias are at the local level, the Peruvian Agroecological Consortium at the national level, MAELA and GALCI at Latin American level and IFOAM at global level. Platforms include civil society, market and state actors. For instance, in the business social responsibility networks the civil society actors are CEDEP and CEDAL, in the organic production networks the market actors are the small scale enterprises affiliated with ANPE and Grupo Ecologica Peru, and in the sustainable production networks the state actors are CONCYTEC (governmental agency), ITACAB (inter-governmental agency) and the CITEs central office (OTCIT). Coordination and channeling of resources in the network platforms are performed by key actors, such as RAE Peru, Grupo Ecologica Peru, ANPE, Peru 2021, CEDAL, CEDEP, CER, CONCYTEC, ITACAB, OTCIT and IPES.

    The ten networks are composed by diverse types of NGOs. Next to conventional NGOs as key actors, producer NGOs, market NGOs, business NGOs, technocratic NGOs and government organized NGOs (GONGOs) have emerged. Although NGOs are central in most networks, (inter)governmental agencies (GONGOs) are also central in the cleaner technology network, the appropriate technology network and the technological innovation network. CONCYTEC, ITACAB and the CITES’ central office (OTCIT) are agencies that are part of the governmental structure, but they operate in practice pretty much as NGOs. Hence, NGOs and these (inter) governmental agencies perform similar roles in the networks, compete for funding and operate projects funded by international cooperation agencies. Therefore, the (inter)governmental agencies (GONGOs) that are part of these networks of sustainability of SMEs has been found out to be less effective in promoting sustainability of SMEs than more typical NGOs. As a result of this diversification of NGOs the struggle for leading positions in the network platforms and the competition for scarce funding and operate projects of international cooperation agencies have also intensified. This diversification of NGOs and, above all, the increasing of service-like NGOs aim to fulfill the business growth and market demands of SMEs in collaborating with market actors. Hence, new types of NGOs emerge to fulfill market demands.

    The discourses that NGOs and SMEs endorse in the networks of sustainability of SMEs are: market adaptation, market access or market democratization in the first case study; business upgrading and corporate responsibility in the second case study; and cleaner production and appropriate technology in the third case study. NGOs and SMEs involved in the networks of organic production endorse one of the following three discourses: market adaptation, market access or market democratization. The main storyline of the first discourse is that NGOs and small scale producers are forced to get new capacities and to adapt to the free market. Small scale producers do not have the competences to adapt to the free market by themselves, and NGOs play a crucial role in assisting them. The main storyline of the second discourse is that small scale producers are eager to move to competitive markets. Support is needed from specialized agents in managerial and technological issues to organize supply to competitive local and international organic markets. The main storyline of the last discourse is the prioritization of making the organic market also interesting for low and medium income consumers. Rather than adapt or access to the free market, small scale producers intend to build up a fair relationship with the market by making organic products available to all income groups.

    NGOs and SMEs in the business social responsibility networks endorse one of the following two discourses: business upgrading or corporate responsibility. In the first discourse, business social responsibility is seen as a strategy to match economic and social rights with sustainability of small scale enterprises. Connecting small scale enterprises with larger companies and influencing them to become sustainable is central in the discourse. In the second discourse, business social responsibility is seen as a business strategy that contributes to sustainability of larger companies and their supply value chains. Only small providers of large profitable value chains have the capacity to adopt social and environmental standards.

    NGOs and SMEs involved in the networks of sustainable production endorse one of the following two discourses: cleaner production or appropriate technology. In the first discourse, cleaner production is seen as a business strategy to make SME production more efficient and sustainable. Allocating the most up-to-date modern technology is considered as the best way to reduce environmental impacts and increase competitiveness. The discourse focuses on SMEs that are well established in the local market and have the capacities to reach international markets. In the second discourse, appropriate technology is seen as tailor-made technology adjusted to the needs of SMEs, particularly of micro and small enterprises. Low capital, small scale and suitable technology for the local social, economic and cultural setting are central in the discourse. The discourse highlights the use of renewable energy, development of local markets and poverty fighting.

    The seven discourses emphasize either market justice or sustainable market. This means that the discourses are different in their position towards social movement and the market. The discourses of sustainability of SMEs have evolved from long-standing antagonist discourses: the liberal market discourse on one hand and the social movement discourse on the other hand, which can be considered as the ‘mother’ discourses of the discourses of sustainability of SMEs. While the cleaner production discourse and the corporate responsibility discourse have their origins in the liberal market discourse, the market democratization discourse, the market adaptation discourse, the market access discourse, the business upgrading discourse and the appropriate technology discourse have their origins in the social movement discourse. Hence, the discourses of sustainability of SMEs share views with their mother discourses. Only, the market access discourse strongly diverges from its origins. The difference between market justice discourses and sustainable market discourses has to do with their interpretation of environmental reform and sustainability.

    In sum, the identified changes are expressed in new roles for NGOs. Next to the usual ‘watchdog’ roles, NGOs are developing roles of ‘helper’ in order to answer to the market needs of SMEs. The new roles are performed not only by new types of NGOs but also by ‘reoriented’ conventional NGOs. Consequently, NGOs have become market agents as a result of their new roles. Finally, the findings contribute to the theoretical debates on network society theory and ecological modernization theory. The analysis of networks promoting sustainability of SMEs helps to understand more deeply the way non-state actors cooperate, and challenges Castells’ scheme of space of flows versus space of place. Both spaces are connected and integrated in aiming for sustainability. Actors use rationalities, logics and power resources related to both spaces. Amending ecological modernization theory, the analysis suggests that it is needed to consider both ecological rationality and social rationality in order to advance environmental reform of SMEs in developing countries. The research also sheds light of issues of power. NGOs are becoming more collaborative and less confrontational, more conciliatory and less dogmatic towards market actors, but they remain rather conflictive and competitive towards fellow NGOs. Power of SMEs is not acknowledged in most discourses. However, SMEs show their power either by accepting or denying engage to the networks, either by collaborating or pressuring key actors and either by subscribing or being indifferent to the discourses. This power of SMEs pushes the networks to become more inclusive, participatory and valuable for SMEs. It rests on the capacity to be anchored within local social networks.

    The ethno-politics of water security: contestations of ethnicity and gender in strategies to control water in the Andes of Peru
    Vera-Delgado, J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; E.B. Zoomers, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461731043 - 257
    waterzekerheid - waterrechten - irrigatie - waterbeleid - geslacht (gender) - etniciteit - andes - peru - water security - water rights - irrigation - water policy - gender - ethnicity - andes - peru

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary research which tries to explain water injustices and the threats to water rights access and control experienced by indigenous peasants of the Peruvian Andes. It attempts to contribute to the analysis of the interactions between ethnicity and gender, and to understand how these form an intrinsic part of the contemporary ethno-politics of water. It also critically analyses the role of state interventions and international financial aid programmes in irrigation development and peasant communities. For the purposes of this research, ethnography and ethno-history, complemented by data generated by means of action-research and an intensive literature study of records written by Spanish and indigenous chroniclers, have been used. Through the presentation and analysis of these written sources, and by carefully mapping and documenting existing water practices in the communities of the Colca Valley, located in the southern Andes of Peru, the thesis shows how water has played a role not only in livelihood strategies but also in shaping cultural identity and the socio-organizational and political dynamics of communities. Water has constituted a central resource in defining and re-defining ethnicity and gender in the Andes. Conversely, ethnicity and gender have also been constitutive elements of fair and secure access to water by supporting and creating power asymmetries and hierarchies in Andean communities throughout Peruvian history. The thesis shows how irrigation policies and interventions have created spaces and opportunities both for inclusion and exclusion, for contestation and struggles, as well as for the empowerment of marginalized people.

    Keywords: ethno-politics, water security, ethnicity, gender, water rights, cultural politics, modernization, irrigation development, large-scale irrigation, alternative development and resistance.

    Riego campesino en los Andes. Seguridad hídrica y seguridad alimentaria en Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia
    Vos, J.M.C. ; Rap, E.R. - \ 2010
    Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad. Seccion Concertación 14) - ISBN 9789972512810 - 336
    waterbeheer - landbouwproductie - bolivia - peru - ecuador - andes - water management - agricultural production - bolivia - peru - ecuador - andes
    Lo colectivo y el agua: entre los derechos y las prácticas
    Bustamante Zenteno, R.R. - \ 2010
    Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad. Seccion Concertación 13) - ISBN 9789972512797 - 272
    waterbeheer - watervoorraden - collectieve overeenkomsten - plattelandsontwikkeling - bolivia - ecuador - peru - waterrechten - andes - water management - water resources - collective agreements - rural development - bolivia - ecuador - peru - water rights - andes
    Reseña: La reivindicación de los derechos colectivos ha sido parte importante de las luchas de las organizaciones sociales que gestionan el agua en los Andes. Las formas de lo colectivo y las reglas en torno a su constitución están muy vinculadas a la existencia de estas organizaciones y a la diversidad de las relaciones que se establecen con y en torno al agua. Estas relaciones se mantienen a pesar de los fuertes embates de la "modernización" que a través de múltiples mecanismos promueve la existencia de derechos individualizados y transables en el mercado. ¿Cómo se manifiesta esta confrontación entre una gestión basada en derechos colectivos y procesos de reforma institucional que promueven la individualización en diferentes contextos socioeconómicos, históricos y políticos?, ¿ qué tipo de transformaciones están atravesando las organizaciones que gestionan el agua a raíz de estas dinámicas?
    Seed predation and defleshing in the agouti-dispersed palm Astrocaryum standleyanum
    Jansen, P.A. ; Elschot, K. ; Verkerk, P.J. ; Wright, S.J. - \ 2010
    Journal of Tropical Ecology 26 (2010)5. - ISSN 0266-4674 - p. 473 - 480.
    bruchid beetle - forest - patterns - rodents - fruits - recruitment - germination - survival - poachers - peru
    The agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) meticulously defleshes Astrocaryum standleyanum palm seeds before scatter hoarding. On Barro Colorado Island, Panama, we experimentally tested three hypotheses on how this behaviour could reduce seed predation to the mutual benefit of the tree and the rodent. The first and established hypothesis – that defleshing reduces seed predation by bruchid beetles by intercepting larvae – was rejected. Experiments in which manually defleshed seeds or entire fruits were incubated at different times showed that defleshing reduced bruchid infestation before fruit fall but not after fruit fall. The second hypothesis – that defleshing reduces cache pilferage by making seeds less conspicuous – was supported. An experiment in which intact fruits and manually defleshed seeds were placed in mimicked agouti caches and followed showed that seeds with flesh were pilfered at higher rates than defleshed seeds. The third hypothesis – that defleshing reduces post-dispersal infestation of cached seeds – was rejected. An experiment in which intact fruits and manually defleshed seeds were placed in mammal exclosures and later collected to assess infestation showed that burial reduced seed infestation but defleshing did not. Thus, seed defleshing reduced palm seed predation, but in a different way than previously believed. We also found that (1) bruchid beetles can be pre-dispersal rather than post-dispersal seed predators, (2) seed infestation by scolytid beetles may control bruchid larvae, and (3) scolytids rather than bruchids are the main invertebrate seed predators of this palm
    Nuevos Campesinos, campesinos e imperios alimentarios
    Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2010
    Barcelona : Icaria (Perspectivas agroecológicas 5) - ISBN 9788498882063 - 430
    boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandssamenleving - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - ondernemerschap - globalisering - rurale sociologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - politiek - landbouwbeleid - italië - nederland - peru - peasantry - peasant farming - rural development - rural society - farmers - farming - farming systems - entrepreneurship - globalization - rural sociology - sustainability - food production - politics - agricultural policy - italy - netherlands - peru
    Dit nieuwe boek van ruraal socioloog Jan Douwe van der Ploeg is een pleidooi voor een nieuwe boerenlandbouw als een agrarisch systeem dat het best en meest duurzaam de zorg op zich kan nemen voor de vele cultuurlandschappen die de wereld rijk is. De oude landbouw wordt namelijk steeds meer gedomineerd door wereldwijde conglomeraten als het Italiaanse Parmalat. Terwijl familiebedrijven ook in tijden van mindere economische voorspoed blijven boeren op de plek waar ze zijn, en dus ook het landschap onderhouden waarop ze boeren, schakelt de internationale agroindustrie net zo gemakkelijk van een akker in Afrika naar die in Amerika of Europa, naar gelang de grondkosten, de productie per hectare en de arbeidskosten.
    I nuovi contadini, le campagne e le risposte alla globlizzazione
    Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2009
    Roma : Donzelli Editore - ISBN 9788860364166 - 403
    boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandssamenleving - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - ondernemerschap - globalisering - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - politiek - landbouwbeleid - italië - nederland - peru - landschapsbeheer - peasantry - peasant farming - rural development - rural society - farmers - farming - farming systems - entrepreneurship - globalization - rural sociology - development studies - sustainability - food production - politics - agricultural policy - italy - netherlands - peru - landscape management
    Aguas Rebeldes. Imágenes de la lucha por el agua y la justicia en los Andes
    Boelens, R.A. ; Parra, R. - \ 2009
    Quito : IEP & IMPREFEPP - ISBN 9789978302149 - 369
    waterbeheer - recht - richtlijnen (directives) - plattelandsgemeenschappen - politiek - wetgeving - cultuur - weerstand - collectieve overeenkomsten - ecuador - peru - bolivia - chili - watervoorraden - waterrechten - inheemse volkeren - identiteit - politieke bewegingen - justitie - andes - water management - law - directives - rural communities - politics - legislation - culture - resistance - collective agreements - ecuador - peru - bolivia - chile - water resources - water rights - indigenous people - identity - political movements - justice - andes
    Spatial and temporal patterns in pupal and adult production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand
    Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Aldstadt, J. ; Kijchalao, U. ; Sithiprasasna, R. ; Getis, A. ; Jones, J.W. ; Scott, T.W. - \ 2008
    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79 (2008)2. - ISSN 0002-9637 - p. 230 - 238.
    primary-school children - iquitos - peru - surveillance - population - culicidae - dynamics - diptera - bangkok - indexes
    We investigated how temporal and spatial effects confound the functional relationship between pupal and adult populations of Aedes aegypti and thus the value of pupal numbers as predictors of dengue transmission risk in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. We found considerable seasonal shifts in productivity of key containers. Tires contained much less pupae in the dry season than in the wet season. Earthenware jars and cement tanks for washing purposes were consistent producers over the entire study period. Houses in the two villages, with approximately twice as many houses per unit area, were significantly more likely to have adults and pupae. No significant annual, seasonal, or spatial effects on the strength of correlations between pupal and adult populations were found. Except for 2 (of 16) occasions, pupal, and adult populations were correlated strongly in time and space. Our results are consistent with application of the pupal survey technique for assessing dengue transmission risk.
    Camponeses e Impérios Alimentares; lutas por autonomia e sustentabilidade na era da globalicação
    Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2008
    Porto Alegre : UFRGS Editora - ISBN 9788538600299 - 372
    boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandssamenleving - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - ondernemerschap - globalisering - rurale sociologie - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - politiek - landbouwbeleid - italië - nederland - peru - landschapsbeheer - peasantry - peasant farming - rural development - rural society - farmers - farming - farming systems - entrepreneurship - globalization - rural sociology - development - sustainability - food production - politics - agricultural policy - italy - netherlands - peru - landscape management
    The New Peasantries, struggles for autonomy and sustainability in an era of empire and globalization
    Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2008
    London [etc.] : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844075584 - 356
    boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandssamenleving - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - ondernemerschap - globalisering - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - politiek - landbouwbeleid - italië - nederland - peru - landschapsbeheer - peasantry - peasant farming - rural development - rural society - farmers - farming - farming systems - entrepreneurship - globalization - rural sociology - development studies - sustainability - food production - politics - agricultural policy - italy - netherlands - peru - landscape management
    This book explores the position, role and significance of the peasantry in an era of globalization, particularly of the agrarian markets and food industries. It argues that the peasant condition is characterized by a struggle for autonomy that finds expression in the creation and development of a self-governed resource base and associated forms of sustainable development. In this respect the peasant mode of farming fundamentally differs from entrepreneurial and corporate ways of farming. The author demonstrates that the peasantries are far from waning. Instead, both industrialized and developing countries are witnessing complex and richly chequered processes of 're-peasantization', with peasants now numbering over a billion worldwide. The author's arguments are based on three longitudinal studies (in Peru, Italy and The Netherlands) that span 30 years and provide original and thought-provoking insights into rural and agrarian development processes. The book combines and integrates different bodies of literature: the rich traditions of peasant studies, development sociology, rural sociology, neo-institutional economics and the recently emerging debates on Empire.
    Property rights after market liberalization reforms: land titling and investments in rural Peru
    Fort Meyer, R.A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): J. Escobar. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048305 - 125
    eigendomsrechten - markten - toegang - toegangsrecht - grondeigendom - registratie - grondbeleid - instellingen - financiële instellingen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - krediet - peru - ontwikkelingseconomie - liberalisatie - institutionele economie - property rights - markets - access - right of access - land ownership - registration - land policy - institutions - financial institutions - small farms - credit - peru - development economics - liberalization - institutional economics
    This study discusses the links between land access, property rights, and economic development, analyzing the results and limitations of a public intervention- Land Titling and Registration- that constitutes one of the main instruments for contemporary land policy in Peru. It starts with a global perspective, and then develops a meso (or regional) and micro level approach for the study of the Peruvian Land Tilting and Registration Program (PETT). The study attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis and discussion of the importance of institutions, like land property rights, in the context of market liberalization reforms. In operational terms, this means verifying whether land titling constitutes a necessary and/or sufficient condition to promote investments and increase land values. To accomplish this objective, we use information at two different levels. We assembled a country-level panel dataset for the macro perspective, and rely on household’s surveys collected during the year 2004 as part of the evaluation of the PETT Program for the micro approach of this study. Our findings reveal that titling and registration can be considered as a necessary condition to improve investment opportunities when its implementation procedure is based on the recognition of previous informal land rights and community networks, because its effect on the reduction of transaction costs at a regional level improves the dynamics of land markets and facilitates the entrance of formal financial institutions. A decentralized program is more likely to understand and correctly assess local conditions, as well as to concentrate its work on poorer farmers confronting stronger limitations to acquire tenure security by other means. Targeting must be applied also at the regional level, identifying less-developed areas that can benefit from the externality effects provided by increased levels of titling density. However, the presence of other limitations that constrain the participation of small farmers in the formal credit market, and the inability of titling to solve them by itself, makes it difficult to consider this policy as a sufficient condition to improve the livelihood of poorer farmers.
    Pluralismo Legal, Reforma Hïdrica y Polïticas de Reconocimiento
    Boelens, R.A. ; Guevara Gil, A. ; Hendriks, J. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Lsg. Irrigatie en Waterbouwkunde (WALIR studies vol. 13) - ISBN 9789085851554 - 306
    waterbeheer - recht - wetgeving - wettelijke rechten - water - peru - bolivia - chili - ecuador - plaatselijke bevolking - waterrechten - inheemse volkeren - andes - actieonderzoek - water management - law - legislation - legal rights - water - peru - bolivia - chile - ecuador - local population - water rights - indigenous people - andes - action research
    Pirámides de agua. Constucción e impacto de imperios de riego en la costa norte de Perú
    Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2006
    Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir ) - ISBN 9789972511530 - 363
    waterbeheer - irrigatie - waterverdeling - peru - water management - irrigation - water distribution - peru
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