Phylogeny and taxonomy of Phaeoacremonium and its relatives
Mostert, L. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pedro Crous, co-promotor(en): E.C.A. Abeln. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044604 - 249
diaporthales - pezizomycotina - deuteromycotina - fylogenie - taxonomie - phaeohyphomycose - humane ziekten - medische mycologie - determinatietabellen - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - diaporthales - pezizomycotina - deuteromycotina - phylogeny - taxonomy - keys - phaeohyphomycosis - human diseases - medical mycology - plant pathogenic fungi
Species of Phaeoacremonium are known vascular plant pathogens causing wilt and dieback of woody hosts. The most prominent diseases in which they are involved are Petri disease and esca, which occur on grapevines and are caused by a complex of fungi, including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and several species of Phaeoacremonium . Various Phaeoacremonium species are also opportunistic on humans, where they are known to cause phaeohyphomycosis.
The genus Togninia was confirmed as the teleomorph of Phaeoacremonium by means of morphology, sexual compatibility, and DNA phylogeny. Subsequently, the genus Togninia was monographed along with its Phaeoacremonium anamorphs. Ten species of Togninia and 22 species of Phaeoacremonium were treated. Several new species of Togninia were found during the course of the study, namely T. argentinensis , T. austroafricana , T. krajdenii , T.parasitica , T.rubrigena and T. viticola . New species of Phaeoacremonium includePm. alvesii, Pm. amstelodamense,Pm. argentinense ,Pm. australiense,Pm. austroafricanum, Pm. griseorubrum,Pm.krajdenii,Pm. novae-zealandiae , Pm . iranianum ,Pm. scolyti, Pm. sphinctrophorum,Pm.subulatum,Pm. tardicrescens,Pm . theobromatisandPm. venezuelense . Species were identified based on their cultural and morphological characters, supported by DNA data derived from partial sequences of the actin and β-tubulin genes. Phylogenies of the SSU and LSU rRNA genes were used to determine whether Togninia has more affinity with the Calosphaeriales or the Diaporthales . These results confirmed that Togninia had a higher affinity to the Diaporthales than the Calosphaeriales . Examination of type specimens revealed that T.cornicola , T.vasculosa , T . rhododendri, T . minima var. timidula and T.villosa , were not members of Togninia . New combinations such as Calosphaeria cornicola,Calosphaeriarhododendri , Calosphaeriatransversa , Calosphaeriatumidula,Calosphaeriavasculosa and Jattaeavillosawere therefore proposed to accommodate these species.
The mating strategy of several Togninia species was investigated with ascospores obtained from fertile perithecia produced in vitro . Togninia argentinensis and T.novae-zealandiae have homothallic mating systems, whereas T. austroafricana , T. krajdenii , T. minima , T.parasitica , T. rubrigena and T. viticola are heterothallic. The species predominantly isolated from diseased grapevines are Pm. aleophilum , Pm. parasiticum and Pm. viticola . Perithecia of two of these species, T. minima and T. viticola , have been found on grapevines in the field, indicating that these species recombine in vineyards.
The genetic diversity among isolates of
Seven species of Togninia and 15 species of Phaeoacremonium were newly described during the course of this study. The data obtained in this study, as well as the newly developed dichotomous and online polyphasic keys will enable scientists to correctly identify all the known species and also provide a reference database to which new species can be added in future. The newly reported host ranges and distributions, together with pathogenicity data, will enable scientists to identify species of possible quarantine concern.
Species of Phaeoacremonium associated with human infections and environmental reservoirs in infected woody plants
Mostert, L. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Summerbell, R.C. ; Robert, V. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Padhye, A.A. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2005
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43 (2005)4. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 1752 - 1767.
phialophora-repens - primer sets - phaeohyphomycosis - phylogeny - grapevine - togninia - disease
To date, three species of Phaeoacremonium have been associated with phaeohyphomycosis. These are P. parasiticum (formerly Phialophora parasitica), P. inflatipes, and P. rubrigenum. Numerous unknown isolates resembling Phaeoacremonium spp. have in recent years been isolated from human patients as well as from woody plants that appear to be the main environmental source of these fungi. Nine new Phaeoacremonium species, of which six were obtained as etiologic agents of human opportunistic infection, are reported. They can be identified based on their cultural and morphological characters, and the identifications are strongly supported in phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the actin, ß-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. A multiple-entry electronic key based on morphological, cultural, and ß-tubulin sequence data was developed to facilitate routine species identification. Reexamination of all isolates of P. inflatipes associated with human disease showed them to be misidentified and to belong to the new taxa described here