ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS: a data set of bird morphological traits from the Atlantic forests of South America
Rodrigues, Rodolpho Credo ; Hasui, Érica ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Pena, João Carlos Castro ; Muylaert, Renata L. ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Martello, Felipe ; Regolin, André Luis ; Vernaschi Vieira da Costa, Thiago ; Pichorim, Mauro ; Carrano, Eduardo ; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves ; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira de; Fontana, Carla Suertegaray ; Roos, Andrei Langeloh ; Gonçalves, Fernando ; Banks-Leite, Cristina ; Cavarzere, Vagner ; Efe, Marcio Amorim ; Alves, Maria Alice S. ; Uezu, Alexandre ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Tarso Zuquim de Antas, Paulo de; Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros Ferraz, Katia Maria de; Calsavara, Larissa Corsini ; Bispo, Arthur Angelo ; Araujo, Helder F.P. ; Duca, Charles ; Piratelli, Augusto João ; Naka, Luciano N. ; Dias, Rafael Antunes ; Gatto, Cassiano A.F.R. ; Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro ; Reis Menezes, Gregório dos; Bugoni, Leandro ; Rajão, Henrique ; Zocche, Jairo José ; Willrich, Guilherme ; Silva, Elsimar Silveira da; Manica, Lilian Tonelli ; Camargo Guaraldo, André de; Althmann, Giulyana ; Serafini, Patricia Pereira ; Francisco, Mercival Roberto ; Lugarini, Camile ; Machado, Caio Graco ; Marques-Santos, Fernando ; Bobato, Rafaela ; Souza, Elivan Arantes de; Donatelli, Reginaldo José ; Ferreira, Carolina Demetrio ; Morante-Filho, José Carlos ; Paes-Macarrão, Natalia Dantas ; Macarrão, Arthur ; Lima, Marcos Robalinho ; Jacoboski, Lucilene Inês ; Candia-Gallardo, Carlos ; Alegre, Vanesa Bejarano ; Jahn, Alex E. ; Camargo Barbosa, Karlla Vanessa de; Cestari, Cesar ; Silva, José Nilton da; Silveira, Natalia Stefanini da; Vara Crestani, Ana Cristina ; Petronetto, Adeliane Peterle ; Abreu Bovo, Alex Augusto ; Viana, Anderson Durão ; Araujo, Andrea Cardoso ; Santos, Andressa Hartuiq dos; Araújo do Amaral, Andreza Clarinda ; Ferreira, Ariane ; Vieira-Filho, Arnaldo Honorato ; Ribeiro, Bianca Costa ; Missagia, Caio C.C. ; Bosenbecker, Camila ; Bronzato Medolago, Cesar Augusto ; Rodriguez Espínola, Cid Rodrigo ; Faxina, Claudenice ; Campodonio Nunes, Cristiane Estrela ; Prates, Cristine ; Apolinario da Luz, Daniela Tomasio ; Moreno, Daniele Janina ; Mariz, Daniele ; Faria, Deborah ; Meyer, Douglas ; Doná, Eder Afonso ; Alexandrino, Eduardo Roberto ; Fischer, Erich ; Girardi, Fabiane ; Giese, Felipe Borba ; Santos Shibuya, Felipe Leonardo ; Faria, Fernando Azevedo ; Bittencourt de Farias, Fernando ; Lima Favaro, Fernando de; Ferneda Freitas, Fernando José ; Chaves, Flávia G. ; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria ; Rosa, Gabriel L.M. ; Massaccesi de laTorre, Gabriel ; Bochio, Gabriela Menezes ; Bonetti, Giselle Evelise ; Kohler, Glauco ; Toledo-Lima, Guilherme Santos ; Plucenio, Gustavo Piletti ; Menezes, Ícaro ; Denóbile Torres, Ingrid Maria ; Carvalho Provinciato, Ivan Celso ; Viana, Ivan Réus ; Roper, James Joseph ; Persegona, Jaqueline Evelyn ; Barcik, Jean Júnior ; Martins-Silva, Jimi ; Gava Just, João Paulo ; Tavares-Damasceno, João Paulo ; Almeida Ferreira, João Ricardo de; Rodrigues Rosoni, Jonas Rafael ; Teixeira Falcon, José Eduardo ; Schaedler, Laura Maria ; Mathias, Leonardo Brioschi ; Deconto, Leonardo Rafael ; Cruz Rodrigues, Licléia da; Meyer, Marcela Afonso P. ; Repenning, Márcio ; Melo, Marcos Antônio ; Santos de Carvalho, Maria Amélia ; Rodrigues, Marcos ; Conti Nunes, Maria Flavia ; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina ; Lopes Gonçalves, Mariana ; Vecchi, Maurício B. ; Bettio, Maurício ; Matta Baptista, Michelle Noronha da; Arantes, Murilo Sérgio ; Ruiz, Nicolás Luciano ; Bisetto de Andrade, Paulo Guilherme ; Lima Ribeiro, Pedro Henrique ; Galetti Junior, Pedro Manoel ; Macario, Phoeve ; Oliveira Fratoni, Rafael de; Meurer, Rafael ; Saint-Clair, Rafael S. ; Romagna, Rafael Spilere ; Alves Lacerda, Raquel Caroline ; Serpa Cerboncini, Ricardo Augusto ; Lyra, Ricardo Brioschi ; Lau, Ricardo ; Rodrigues, Roberta Costa ; Faria, Rogério Rodrigues ; Laps, Rudi Ricardo ; Althoff, Sérgio Luiz ; Jesus, Shayana de; Namba, Sumiko ; Braga, Talita Vieira ; Molin, Tamara ; França Câmara, Thanyria P. ; Enedino, Thayz Rodrigues ; Wischhoff, Uschi ; Oliveira, Vanessa Cristina de; Leandro-Silva, Victor ; Araújo-Lima, Vitor ; Oliveira Lunardi, Vitor de; Gusmão, Reginaldo Farias de; Souza Correia, Jozélia Maria de; Gaspar, Lucas P. ; Batista Fonseca, Renata Cristina ; Fonseca Pires Neto, Paulo Affonso ; Medeiros Morato de Aquino, Ana Carla ; Camargo, Bruna Betagni de; Cezila, Beatriz Azevedo ; Costa, Leonardo Marques ; Paolino, Roberta Montanheiro ; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran ; Monteiro, Erison C.S. ; Oshima, Júlia Emi F. ; Alves-Eigenheer, Milene ; Pizo, Marco Aurelio ; Silveira, Luís F. ; Galetti, Mauro ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar - \ 2019
Ecology 100 (2019)6. - ISSN 0012-9658
body size - functional diversity - individual variation - interspecific variation - phenotypic plasticity - phylogenetic diversity - rapid evolution - tropical forest
Scientists have long been trying to understand why the Neotropical region holds the highest diversity of birds on Earth. Recently, there has been increased interest in morphological variation between and within species, and in how climate, topography, and anthropogenic pressures may explain and affect phenotypic variation. Because morphological data are not always available for many species at the local or regional scale, we are limited in our understanding of intra- and interspecies spatial morphological variation. Here, we present the ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS, a data set that includes measurements of up to 44 morphological traits in 67,197 bird records from 2,790 populations distributed throughout the Atlantic forests of South America. This data set comprises information, compiled over two centuries (1820–2018), for 711 bird species, which represent 80% of all known bird diversity in the Atlantic Forest. Among the most commonly reported traits are sex (n = 65,717), age (n = 63,852), body mass (n = 58,768), flight molt presence (n = 44,941), molt presence (n = 44,847), body molt presence (n = 44,606), tail length (n = 43,005), reproductive stage (n = 42,588), bill length (n = 37,409), body length (n = 28,394), right wing length (n = 21,950), tarsus length (n = 20,342), and wing length (n = 18,071). The most frequently recorded species are Chiroxiphia caudata (n = 1,837), Turdus albicollis (n = 1,658), Trichothraupis melanops (n = 1,468), Turdus leucomelas (n = 1,436), and Basileuterus culicivorus (n = 1,384). The species recorded in the greatest number of sampling localities are Basileuterus culicivorus (n = 243), Trichothraupis melanops (n = 242), Chiroxiphia caudata (n = 210), Platyrinchus mystaceus (n = 208), and Turdus rufiventris (n = 191). ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS (ABT) is the most comprehensive data set on measurements of bird morphological traits found in a biodiversity hotspot; it provides data for basic and applied research at multiple scales, from individual to community, and from the local to the macroecological perspectives. No copyright or proprietary restrictions are associated with the use of this data set. Please cite this data paper when the data are used in publications or teaching and educational activities.
Agriculture erases climate constraints on soil nematode communities across large spatial scales
Li, Xianping ; Zhu, Huimin ; Geisen, Stefan ; Bellard, Céline ; Hu, Feng ; Li, Huixin ; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Liu, Manqiang - \ 2019
Global Change Biology (2019). - ISSN 1354-1013
beta diversity - biotic homogenization - environmental gradient - functional traits - land conversion - phylogenetic diversity - soil biodiversity - soil nematodes
Anthropogenic conversion of natural to agricultural land reduces aboveground biodiversity. Yet, the overall consequences of land-use changes on belowground biodiversity at large scales remain insufficiently explored. Furthermore, the effects of conversion on different organism groups are usually determined at the taxonomic level, while an integrated investigation that includes functional and phylogenetic levels is rare and absent for belowground organisms. Here, we studied the Earth's most abundant metazoa—nematodes—to examine the effects of conversion from natural to agricultural habitats on soil biodiversity across a large spatial scale. To this aim, we investigated the diversity and composition of nematode communities at the taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic level in 16 assemblage pairs (32 sites in total with 16 in each habitat type) in mainland China. While the overall alpha and beta diversity did not differ between natural and agricultural systems, all three alpha diversity facets decreased with latitude in natural habitats. Both alpha and beta diversity levels were driven by climatic differences in natural habitats, while none of the diversity levels changed in agricultural systems. This indicates that land conversion affects soil biodiversity in a geographically dependent manner and that agriculture could erase climatic constraints on soil biodiversity at such a scale. Additionally, the functional composition of nematode communities was more dissimilar in agricultural than in natural habitats, while the phylogenetic composition was more similar, indicating that changes among different biodiversity facets are asynchronous. Our study deepens the understanding of land-use effects on soil nematode diversity across large spatial scales. Moreover, the detected asynchrony of taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity highlights the necessity to monitor multiple facets of soil biodiversity in ecological studies such as those investigating environmental changes.
Diversity of tryptophan halogenases in sponges of the genus Aplysina
Gutleben, Johanna ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; McPherson, Kyle ; Pomponi, Shirley ; Wijffels, René H. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Sipkema, Detmer - \ 2019
FEMS microbiology ecology 95 (2019)8. - ISSN 0168-6496
bioactive compounds - environmental enzymes - Halogenase - host-associated microbiome - marine sponges - phylogenetic diversity
Marine sponges are a prolific source of novel enzymes with promising biotechnological potential. Especially halogenases, which are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of brominated and chlorinated secondary metabolites, possess interesting properties towards the production of pharmaceuticals that are often halogenated. In this study we used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening to simultaneously examine and compare the richness and diversity of putative tryptophan halogenase protein sequences and bacterial community structures of six Aplysina species from the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas. At the phylum level, bacterial community composition was similar amongst all investigated species and predominated by Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria. We detected four phylogenetically diverse clades of putative tryptophan halogenase protein sequences, which were only distantly related to previously reported halogenases. The Mediterranean species Aplysina aerophoba harbored unique halogenase sequences, of which the most predominant was related to a sponge-associated Psychrobacter-derived sequence. In contrast, the Caribbean species shared numerous novel halogenase sequence variants and exhibited a highly similar bacterial community composition at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level. Correlations of relative abundances of halogenases with those of bacterial taxa suggest that prominent sponge symbiotic bacteria, including Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria, are putative producers of the detected enzymes and may thus contribute to the chemical defense of their host.
Assembly processes of waterbird communities across subsidence wetlands in China: A functional and phylogenetic approach
Li, Chunlin ; Zhang, Yong ; Zha, Daode ; Yang, Sen ; Huang, Zheng Y.X. ; Boer, Willem F. de - \ 2019
Diversity and Distributions 25 (2019)7. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 1118 - 1129.
assembly process - environmental filtering - functional diversity - phylogenetic diversity - subsidence wetland - waterbird assemblage
Aim: Although assembly processes have been studied in a wide range of taxa, determining assembly rules remains controversial, particularly in assemblages consisted of species with strong dispersal capacities. Moreover, few studies focused on communities in recently human-created habitats. We tested two prevailing but opposing hypotheses, environmental filtering and limiting similarity, in waterbird communities across subsidence wetlands created by underground coal mining in China, with an aim to better understand assembly processes in communities composed of highly mobile species in human-dominated landscape. Location: The North China Plain. Methods: We quantified taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of the waterbird assemblages in different seasons and compared the mean pairwise distances (MPD) and the mean nearest taxon distances (MNTD) with null models to examine whether co-occurring species were clustered or overdispersed on the functional dendrogram or phylogenetic tree. Independent contributions of multi-scale habitat variables therein were determined using a hierarchical partitioning method. Results: We showed asynchronous patterns of seasonal dynamics among the multiple diversity metrics, with highest species diversity during autumn migration. Generally, the co-occurring species were functionally and phylogenetically clustered. Habitat variables had stronger effects on the functional structure than on the phylogenetic structure of the communities. The degree of functional clustering increased in older and larger wetlands, while the assemblages shifted from functional clustering to overdispersion with increasing habitat diversity, landscape connectivity and human disturbance. Main conclusions: The waterbird assemblages were mainly structured by environmental filtering, and the assembly processes were significantly affected by habitat variables, with stronger effects on functional diversity. Our study highlights the importance of environmental filtering and habitat variables in structuring assemblages dominated by species with high dispersal capacities and suggests that increasing habitat diversity and reducing disturbances will contribute to waterbird conservation in this human-dominated landscape.
sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses
Bruelheide, Helge ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Purschke, Oliver ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Chytrý, Milan ; Pillar, Valério D. ; Jansen, Florian ; Kattge, Jens ; Sandel, Brody ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Field, Richard ; Haider, Sylvia ; Jandt, Ute ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peyre, Gwendolyn ; Sabatini, Francesco Maria ; Schmidt, Marco ; Schrodt, Franziska ; Winter, Marten ; Aćić, Svetlana ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Alvarez, Miguel ; Ambarlı, Didem ; Angelini, Pierangela ; Apostolova, Iva ; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A.S. ; Arnst, Elise ; Attorre, Fabio ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Beckmann, Michael ; Berg, Christian ; Bergeron, Yves ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Bondareva, Viktoria ; Borchardt, Peter ; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán ; Boyle, Brad ; Breen, Amy ; Brisse, Henry ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cabido, Marcelo R. ; Casella, Laura ; Cayuela, Luis ; Černý, Tomáš ; Chepinoga, Victor ; Csiky, János ; Curran, Michael ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Dajić Stevanović, Zora ; Bie, Els De; Ruffray, Patrice de; Sanctis, Michele De; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Dressler, Stefan ; Ejrnæs, Rasmus ; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.E.R.M. ; Enquist, Brian ; Ewald, Jörg ; Fagúndez, Jaime ; Finckh, Manfred ; Font, Xavier ; Forey, Estelle ; Fotiadis, Georgios ; García-Mijangos, Itziar ; Gasper, André Luis de; Golub, Valentin ; Gutierrez, Alvaro G. ; Hatim, Mohamed Z. ; He, Tianhua ; Higuchi, Pedro ; Holubová, Dana ; Hölzel, Norbert ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Indreica, Adrian ; Işık Gürsoy, Deniz ; Jansen, Steven ; Janssen, John ; Jedrzejek, Birgit ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Jürgens, Norbert ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kavgacı, Ali ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kessler, Michael ; Knollová, Ilona ; Kolomiychuk, Vitaliy ; Korolyuk, Andrey ; Kozhevnikova, Maria ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Krstonošić, Daniel ; Kühl, Hjalmar ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Küzmič, Filip ; Landucci, Flavia ; Lee, Michael T. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Li, Ching Feng ; Liu, Hongyan ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lysenko, Tatiana ; Macanović, Armin ; Mahdavi, Parastoo ; Manning, Peter ; Marcenò, Corrado ; Martynenko, Vassiliy ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Minden, Vanessa ; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold ; Moretti, Marco ; Müller, Jonas V. ; Munzinger, Jérôme ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Nobis, Marcin ; Noroozi, Jalil ; Nowak, Arkadiusz ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Overbeck, Gerhard E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Pauchard, Anibal ; Pedashenko, Hristo ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Peterka, Tomáš ; Petřík, Petr ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Prokhorov, Vadim ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Revermann, Rasmus ; Rodwell, John ; Ruprecht, Eszter ; Rūsiņa, Solvita ; Samimi, Cyrus ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Schmiedel, Ute ; Šibík, Jozef ; Šilc, Urban ; Škvorc, Željko ; Smyth, Anita ; Sop, Tenekwetche ; Sopotlieva, Desislava ; Sparrow, Ben ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Swacha, Grzegorz ; Tang, Zhiyao ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis ; Turtureanu, Pavel Dan ; Uğurlu, Emin ; Uogintas, Domas ; Valachovič, Milan ; Vanselow, Kim André ; Vashenyak, Yulia ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Vélez-Martin, Eduardo ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Vibrans, Alexander Christian ; Violle, Cyrille ; Virtanen, Risto ; Wehrden, Henrik von; Wagner, Viktoria ; Walker, Donald A. ; Wana, Desalegn ; Weiher, Evan ; Wesche, Karsten ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Wiser, Susan ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Yamalov, Sergey ; Zizka, Georg ; Zverev, Andrei - \ 2019
Journal of Vegetation Science 30 (2019)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 161 - 186.
biodiversity - community ecology - ecoinformatics - functional diversity - global scale - macroecology - phylogenetic diversity - plot database - sPlot - taxonomic diversity - vascular plant - vegetation relevé
Aims: Vegetation-plot records provide information on the presence and cover or abundance of plants co-occurring in the same community. Vegetation-plot data are spread across research groups, environmental agencies and biodiversity research centers and, thus, are rarely accessible at continental or global scales. Here we present the sPlot database, which collates vegetation plots worldwide to allow for the exploration of global patterns in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity at the plant community level. Results: sPlot version 2.1 contains records from 1,121,244 vegetation plots, which comprise 23,586,216 records of plant species and their relative cover or abundance in plots collected worldwide between 1885 and 2015. We complemented the information for each plot by retrieving climate and soil conditions and the biogeographic context (e.g., biomes) from external sources, and by calculating community-weighted means and variances of traits using gap-filled data from the global plant trait database TRY. Moreover, we created a phylogenetic tree for 50,167 out of the 54,519 species identified in the plots. We present the first maps of global patterns of community richness and community-weighted means of key traits. Conclusions: The availability of vegetation plot data in sPlot offers new avenues for vegetation analysis at the global scale.
Data from: The evolutionary legacy of diversification predicts ecosystem function
Yguel, Benjamin ; Jactel, H. ; Pearse, Ian S. ; Moen, Daniel ; Winter, M. de; Hortal, J. ; Helmus, Matthew R. ; Kühn, I. ; Pavoine, S. ; Purschke, Oliver ; Weiher, Evan ; Violle, C. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Brändle, Martin ; Bartish, I. ; Prinzing, Andreas - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
community ecology - evolutionary history - lineage-through-time plots - phylogenetic diversity - productivity - species coexistence
The Rdata files are simulated phylogenies and lineage through time plot of these simulated phylogenies, used in Yguel et al. 2016 AmNat. The code to extract the LTT plot from the phylogenies is given in the Appendices of the article as well as the method used to make these simulations.The name of the Rdata file indicates which simulation the file is refering to. The Excel files contain measures of phylogenetic structure of these simulated phylogenies (Measure phylogenetic structure parameters on simulated phylogenies.xlsx) and phylogenies of the experimental communities used in the article (Measure phylogenetic structure parameters on Cadotte Zanne phylog.xlsx). The code to calculate a1, a2, a3, and to measure S1 and S2 are given in the method of the article. In all excel files, a1 a2 a3 are the polynomial parameters fitted on the LTT plots. S1 and S2 are respectively ES1 and ES2, the "elderness surface" presented in the article. MPD, MNTD, gamma, and Colless are the common phylogenetic structure measurement (see also method), and invNRI and invNTI the standardized version of MPD and MNTD. RichSpe or Sps correspond to the species richness. PlotID corresponds to the identification of the plot. Mean19962007 corresponds to the mean productivity from 1996 to 2007.
Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies
Venail, P. ; Gross, K. ; Oakley, T.H. ; Narwani, A. ; Allan, E. ; Flombaum, P. ; Isbell, F. ; Joshi, J. ; Reich, P.B. ; Tilman, D. ; Ruijven, J. van; Cardinale, B.J. - \ 2015
biodiversity - community biomass - data-synthesis - ecosystem functioning - grasslands - phylogenetic diversity - relatedness stability
1.Hundreds of experiments have now manipulated species richness of various groups of organisms and examined how this aspect of biological diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Ecologists have recently expanded this field to look at whether phylogenetic diversity among species, often quantified as the sum of branch lengths on a molecular phylogeny leading to all species in a community, also predicts ecological function. Some have hypothesized that phylogenetic divergence should be a superior predictor of ecological function than species richness because evolutionary relatedness represents the degree of ecological and functional differentiation among species. But studies to date have provided mixed support for this hypothesis. 2.Here, we re-analyze data from 16 experiments that have manipulated plant species richness in grassland ecosystems and examined the impact on aboveground biomass production over multiple time points. Using a new molecular phylogeny of the plant species used in these experiments, we quantified how the phylogenetic diversity of plants impacts average community biomass production as well as the stability of community biomass production through time. 3.Using four complementary analyses we show that, after statistically controlling for variation in species richness, phylogenetic diversity (the sum of branches in a molecular phylogenetic tree connecting all species in a community) is neither related to mean community biomass nor to the temporal stability of biomass. These results run counter to past claims. However, after controlling for species richness, phylogenetic diversity was positively related to variation in community biomass over time due to an increase in the variances of individual species, but this relationship was not strong enough to influence community stability. 4.In contrast to the non-significant relationships between phylogenetic diversity, biomass, and stability, our analyses show that species richness per se tends to increase the mean biomass production of plant communities, after controlling for phylogenetic diversity. The relationship between species richness and temporal variation in community biomass was either positive, non-significant or negative depending on which analysis was used. However, the increases in community biomass with species richness, independently of phylogenetic diversity, always led to increased stability. These results suggest that phylogenetic diversity is no better as a predictor of ecosystem functioning than species richness. 5.Synthesis. Our study on grasslands offers a cautionary tale when trying to relate phylogenetic diversity to ecosystem functioning suggesting that there may be ecologically important trait and functional variation among species that is not explained by phylogenetic relatedness. Our results fail to support the hypothesis that the conservation of evolutionarily distinct species would be more effective than the conservation of species richness as a way to maintain productive and stable communities under changing environmental conditions.
Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe
Tsiafouli, M.A. ; Thébault, E. ; Sgardelis, S. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Birkhofer, K. ; Hemerik, L. ; Vries, F.T. de; Bardgett, R.D. ; Brady, M. ; Bjornlund, L. ; Bracht Jörgensen, H. ; Christensen, S. ; Herfelt, T. D'; Hotes, S. ; Hol, W.H.G. ; Frouz, J. ; Liiri, M. ; Mortimer, S.R. ; Setälä, H. ; Stary, J. ; Tzanopoulos, J. ; Uteseny, C. ; Wolters, V. ; Hedlund, K. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 973 - 985.
food-web structure - land-use intensity - taxonomic distinctness - community structure - phylogenetic diversity - arthropod communities - temporal variability - 7-year period - ecosystem - management
Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems.
Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity
Mace, G.M. ; Reyers, B. ; Alkemade, R. ; Biggs, R. ; Stuart Chapin, F. ; Cornell, S.E. ; Diaz, S. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 28 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 289 - 297.
plant functional traits - global biodiversity - ecosystem services - phylogenetic diversity - tree mortality - tipping points - conservation - extinction - time - biosphere
The idea that there is an identifiable set of boundaries, beyond which anthropogenic change will put the Earth system outside a safe operating space for humanity, is attracting interest in the scientific community and gaining support in the environmental policy world. Rockstrom et al. (2009) identify nine such boundaries and highlight biodiversity loss as being the single boundary where current rates of extinction put the Earth system furthest outside the safe operating space. Here we review the evidence to support a boundary based on extinction rates and identify weaknesses with this metric and its bearing on humanity's needs. While changes to biodiversity are of undisputed importance, we show that both extinction rate and species richness are weak metrics for this purpose, and they do not scale well from local to regional or global levels. We develop alternative approaches to determine biodiversity loss boundaries and extend our analysis to consider large-scale responses in the Earth system that could affect its suitability for complex human societies which in turn are mediated by the biosphere. We suggest three facets of biodiversity on which a boundary could be based: the genetic library of life; functional type diversity; and biome condition and extent. For each of these we explore the science needed to indicate how it might be measured and how changes would affect human societies. In addition to these three facets, we show how biodiversity's role in supporting a safe operating space for humanity may lie primarily in its interactions with other boundaries, suggesting an immediate area of focus for scientists and policymakers.
Advancing the understanding of biogeography-diversity relationships of benthic microorganisms in the North Sea
Sapp, M. ; Parker, E.R. ; Teal, L.R. ; Schratzberger, M. - \ 2010
FEMS microbiology ecology 74 (2010)2. - ISSN 0168-6496 - p. 410 - 429.
16s ribosomal-rna - gradient gel-electrophoresis - microbial community composition - continental-shelf sediments - coastal marine-sediments - wadden sea - bacterial communities - sp-nov. - callianassa-subterranea - phylogenetic diversity
Knowledge on the spatial distribution of prokaryotic taxa is an essential basis to understand microbial diversity and the factors shaping its patterns. Large-scale patterns of faunal distribution are thought to be influenced by physical environmental factors, whereas smaller scale spatial heterogeneity is maintained by species-specific life-history characteristics, the quantity and quality of food sources and local disturbances including both natural and man-induced events. However, it is still not clear which environmental parameters control the diversity and community structure of sedimentary microorganisms mediating important ecosystem processes. In this study, multiscale patterns were elucidated at seven stations in the Oyster Ground, North Sea (54°4'N/4°E), 100 m to 11 km apart. These were related to biotic (e.g. multicellular organisms) and abiotic parameters (e.g. organic carbon content in the sediment) to establish the relationship between the distribution of both bacterial and archaeal communities and their environment. A relatively high variability was detected at all scales for bacterial and archaeal communities, both of which were controlled by different suites of biotic and abiotic environmental variables. The bacterial community consisted mainly of members belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria and the Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria group. Members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria also contributed to the bacterial community. Euryarchaeota formed the majority of archaeal phylotypes together with three phylotypes belonging to the Crenarchaeota
Novel multilocus sequence typing scheme reveals high genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes within the United States
O'Donnell, K. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Rinaldi, M.G. ; Gueidan, C. ; Crous, P.W. ; Geiser, D.M. - \ 2009
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47 (2009)12. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 3851 - 3861.
fungus aspergillus-fumigatus - vitro antifungal resistance - phylogenetic diversity - ginseng fields - contact-lens - susceptibility - identification - recognition - polymorphism - infections
Species limits within the clinically important Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes (FIESC and FCSC, respectively) were investigated using multilocus DNA sequence data. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of aligned DNA sequences from four loci resolved 28 species within the FIESC, within which the species were evenly divided among two clades designated Incarnatum and Equiseti, and four species within the FCSC. Sequence data from a fifth locus, ß-tubulin, was excluded from the study due to the presence of highly divergent paralogs or xenologs. The multilocus haplotype nomenclature adopted in a previous study (K. O'Donnell, D. A. Sutton, A. Fothergill, D. McCarthy, M. G. Rinaldi, M. E. Brandt, N. Zhang, and D. M. Geiser, J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:2477-2490, 2008) was expanded to all of the species within the FIESC and FCSC to provide the first DNA sequence-based typing schemes for these fusaria, thereby facilitating future epidemiological investigations. Multilocus DNA typing identified sixty-two sequence types (STs) among 88 FIESC isolates and 20 STs among 26 FCSC isolates. This result corresponds to indices of discrimination of 0.985 and 0.966, respectively, for the FIESC and FCSC four-locus typing scheme using Simpson's index of discrimination. Lastly, four human and two veterinary isolates, received as members of the FIESC or FCSC, were resolved as five phylogenetically distinct species nested outside these species complexes. To our knowledge, these five species heretofore have not been reported to cause mycotic infections (i.e., F. armeniacum, F. brachygibbosum, F. flocciferum, and two unnamed Fusarium species within the F. tricinctum species complex)
A two-locus DNA sequence database for typing plant and human pathogens within the Fusarium oxysporum species complex
O'Donnell, K. ; Gueidan, C. ; Sink, S. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Crous, P.W. ; Glenn, A. ; Riley, R. ; Zitomer, N.C. ; Colyer, P. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Lee, T. van der; Moretti, A. ; Kang, S. ; Kim, H.S. ; Geiser, D.M. ; Juba, J.H. ; Baayen, R.P. ; Cromey, M.G. ; Bithel, S. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Skovgaard, K. ; Ploetz, R. ; Kistler, H.C. ; Elliot, M. ; Davis, M. ; Sarver, B.A.J. - \ 2009
Fungal Genetics and Biology 46 (2009)12. - ISSN 1087-1845 - p. 936 - 948.
vegetative compatibility groups - f-sp cubense - fragment-length-polymorphisms - intergenic spacer region - genetic diversity - ribosomal dna - fungus fusarium - discontinuous distribution - phylogenetic diversity - nectria-haematococca
We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1a) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Of the 850 isolates typed, 101 EF-1a, 203 IGS rDNA, and 256 two-locus sequence types (STs) were differentiated. Analysis of the combined dataset suggests that two-thirds of the STs might be associated with a single host plant. This analysis also revealed that the 26 STs associated with human mycoses were genetically diverse, including several which appear to be nosocomial in origin. A congruence analysis, comparing partial EF-1a and IGS rDNA bootstrap consensus, identified a significant number of conflicting relationships dispersed throughout the bipartitions, suggesting that some of the IGS rDNA sequences may be non-orthologous. We also evaluated enniatin, fumonisin and moniliformin mycotoxin production in vitro within a phylogenetic framework.