The effect of steam pelleting of a dry dog food on the Maillard reaction
Rooijen, C. van; Bosch, G. ; Wierenga, P.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2014
Animal Feed Science and Technology 198 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 238 - 247.
glycation end-products - physical quality - nutritive-value - animal feed - lysine - diet - digestibility - absorption - components - proteins
During processing of pet foods, the Maillard reaction (MR) can occur, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids like lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study examined the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90 °C) and die hole length (ø 5 × 45, 65, and 80 mm) during pelleting processing of a standard dry dog food on selected indicators of the MR (total lysine, reactive lysine, fructoselysine, ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine, (5-hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, lysinoalanine), browning development and CIE-Lab color. Steam pelleting variables did not cause a significant loss of lysine or change in color and absorbance values. Analyzing the unprocessed ingredient mix suggests that the choice of the ingredients used in the ingredient mix, rather than the pelleting process applied, is responsible for the RL/TL ratio observed in the dry standard dog food used in this study. MRP content increased during steam pelleting (fructoselysine: 366.2 to 538.8 mg/kg DM; ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine: 12.6 to 14.8 mg/kg DM; lysinoalanine: 5.7 to 7.7 mg/kg DM; P <0.05). Increasing conditioning temperature from 65 to 90 °C increased fructoselysine (475.9 to 601.6 mg/kg DM; P <0.01) and ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine (14.3 to 15.1 mg/kg DM; P = 0.003). An increased die hole length of 80 mm decreased fructoselysine content compared to 45 and 65 mm (461.3 vs. 573.3 and 581.6 mg/kg DM; P <0.01) but increased lysinoalanine content (8.8 vs. 7.4 and 6.8 mg/kg DM; P = 0.002). Analyzing total and reactive lysine and absorbance values are not accurate enough to predict the MR and formation of MRPs during processing.
Soil processes and functions across an international network of critical zone observations: introduction to experimental methods and initial results
Banwart, S. ; Menon, M. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Weng, L.P. - \ 2012
Comptes Rendus Geoscience 344 (2012). - ISSN 1631-0713 - p. 758 - 772.
ecosystem services - physical quality - organic-matter - damma glacier - switzerland - climate
Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach is proposed as a methodology to analyse data along the soil life cycle and test how soil processes and rates vary within, and between, the CZOs representing different life cycle stages. In addition, frameworks are discussed that will help to communicate the results of this science into a more policy relevant format using ecosystem service approaches.
Soil processes and functions in critical zone observatories: hypotheses and experimental design
Banwart, S. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Gaans, P. van; Riemsdijk, W.H. van - \ 2011
Vadose Zone Journal 10 (2011)3. - ISSN 1539-1663 - p. 974 - 987.
solid-solution interface - physical quality - organic-matter - water-quality - river-basin - adsorption - catchments - (hydr)oxides - ecosystems - deposition
European Union policy on soil threats and soil protection has prioritized new research to address global soil threats. This research draws on the methodology of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) to focus a critical mass of international, multidisciplinary expertise at specific field sites. These CZOs were selected as part of an experimental design to study soil processes and ecosystem function along a hypothesized soil life cycle—from incipient soil formation where new parent material is being deposited, to highly degraded soils that have experienced millennia of intensive land use. Further CZOs have been selected to broaden the range of soil environments and data sets to test soil process models that represent the stages of the soil life cycle. The scientific methodology for this research focuses on the central role of soil structure and soil aggregate formation and stability in soil processes. Research methods include detailed analysis and mathematical modeling of soil properties related to aggregate formation and their relation to key processes of reactive transport, nutrient transformation, and C and food web dynamics in soil ecosystems. Within this program of research, quantification of soil processes across an international network of CZOs is focused on understanding soil ecosystem services including their quantitative monetary valuation within the soil life cycle. Further experimental design at the global scale is enabled by this type of international CZO network. One example is a proposed experiment to study soil ecosystem services along planetary-scale environmental gradients. This would allow scientists to gain insight into the responses of soil processes to increasing human pressures on Earth's critical zone that arise through rapidly changing land use and climate.
Pelleting of diet ingredients: Diet selection and performance in choice-fed growing pigs
Brand, H. van den; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2007
Animal Feed Science and Technology 138 (2007)2. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 169 - 177.
physical quality - animal feed - lysine - foods - preferences - tryptophan - threonine - behavior - piglet - sex
An experiment was completed with individually housed growing pigs to examine whether pigs can compose their optimal diet when allowed a choice of three different pellets. Forty cross-bred pigs (20 castrates and 20 gilts) with an initial live weight of 22.0 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to either a complete control diet (C) or to a choice feed diet (CF) during a 4-week period. The C pigs received a complete feed as one pellet, whereas CF pigs could select their diet out of three pellets being: an energy-rich, protein-rich or premix-rest pellet. The CF pigs were offered their pellets in one feeding trough, which was divided in three compartments. All diets were administered ad libitum. Gilts fed the CF diet selected a higher crude protein (CP) diet than barrows (222 and 193 g/kg DM, respectively), whereas the C pigs, both gilts and castrates, were fed a diet with the same CP content (i.e., 204 g/kg DM; treatment by sex interaction; P
Multi-dimensional regional inequality as an alternative allocation mechanism for eu structural funds remittances: the case of Spain and Hungary
Folmer, H. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2005
Annals of Regional Science 39 (2005)2. - ISSN 0570-1864 - p. 337 - 352.
quality-of-life - physical quality - index - indicators - countries
We propose a multidimensional approach to regional inequality as an alternative allocation mechanism for EU Structural Funds remittances based on per capita GDP, particularly after EU enlargement. The indicators of regional inequality are combined to a composite index by means of Maasoumi's aggregator function. We propose Partial Common Principal Component Aanalysis as the estimator of the weights for the aggregator function. Application of the multidimensional approach to Spain shows that there are substantial differences between the rankings of the regions obtained by means of the multidimensional approach and the traditional approach based on per capita GDP. For Hungary, which is less developed than Spain, the rankings differ less