Nutritional characteristics of mung bean foods
Dahiya, P.K. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Khetarpaul, N. ; Grewal, R.B. ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2014
British Food Journal 116 (2014)6. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1031 - 1046.
protein digestibility - ascorbic-acid - nutrient composition - iron-absorption - phytic acid - bioavailability - phytate - antinutrients - germination - zinc
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address malnourishment in developing countries by a food-based approach in which locally produced and consumed foods are improved by applying food processing techniques that benefit the amount and availability of desirable nutrients. Design/methodology/approach – To facilitate this approach, this paper reports on the composition and in vitro micronutrient accessibility of 14 traditional mung bean foods from India in relation to their preparation methods. Findings – Proximate composition, in vitro mineral accessibility, phytic acid and polyphenol contents varied among the range of products. Products requiring either fermentation or germination, had higher in vitro iron, zinc and calcium accessibility. Average in vitro iron, zinc and calcium accessibility of the mung bean products were 16, 9 and 418¿mg¿kg-1 dry weight. Phytic acid and polyphenols averaged 2.1 and 1.8¿g¿kg-1 dry weight, respectively, and were negatively correlated with in vitro mineral accessibility. Practical implications – Different mung bean products (100¿g) cover 12.0-59.5, 5.2-45.6, 4.2-28.6 and 1.1-7.1 per cent of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, iron, zinc and calcium, respectively, for seven- to nine-year-old Indian children. Originality/value – This study demonstrated the wide range of traditional mung bean foods in India and presents options to tackle malnourishment by a food-based approach.
EURRECA—Estimating Zinc Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values
Lowe, N.M.M. ; Dykes, F.C. ; Skinner, A.L. ; Patel, S. ; Warthon-Medina, M. ; Decsi, T. ; Fekete, K. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Bel, S. ; Moreno, L.A. ; Hermoso, M. ; Vollhardt, C. ; Berti, C. ; Cetin, I. ; Gurinovic, M. ; Novakovic, R.N. ; Harvey, L.J. ; Collings, R. ; Hall-Moran, V. - \ 2013
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53 (2013)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1110 - 1123.
current micronutrient recommendations - coronary-artery-disease - lung-cancer - serum zinc - genetic-polymorphism - stable-isotope - old patients - absorption - phytate - copper
Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements.
Nutrient composition of selected newly bred and established mung bean varieties
Dahiya, P.K. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Grewal, R.B. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 54 (2013)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 249 - 256.
greengram vigna-radiata - arietinum-l cultivars - phytic acid content - protein digestibility - antinutritional factors - starch digestibility - zinc bioavailability - human-nutrition - legume seeds - phytate
Seven newly bred and three established varieties of mung bean were analysed for proximate composition, minerals, anti-nutrients and in vitro mineral accessibility. They contained 18–23 g protein, 4.0–5.6 g crude fibre and 2.5–4.1 g ash per 100 g dry sample. Iron, zinc, calcium, sodium and potassium ranged from 3.4 to 4.6, 1.2 to 2.3, 79 to 115, 8.1 to 13.5 and 362 to 415 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. Phytic acid and polyphenols averaged 769 and 325 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. Varieties differed significantly in terms of nutrient and anti-nutrient contents. Phytic acid and polyphenols were negatively correlated with in vitro mineral accessibility and nutrient digestibility. Protein and starch digestibility ranged from 53 to 67 g/100 g dry weight and 20 to 29 mg maltose released/g dry weight, respectively. Average molar ratios of phytic acid to iron and zinc were 16.8 and 52.7, respectively. Differences in in vitro iron and zinc accessibility could not be explained by phytic acid to calcium nor magnesium molar ratios. However, the phytic acid amount in mung beans suffices to bind all minerals into indigestible complexes. The newly bred varieties have better agronomic yields but no better nutritional potential than the established varieties tested.
Phytic Acid-to-Iron Molar Ratio Rather than Polyphenol Concentration Determines Iron Bioavailability in Whole-Cowpea Meal among Young Women
Abizari, A.R. ; Moretti, D. ; Zimmerman, M.B. ; Armar-Klemesu, M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)11. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1950 - 1955.
sodium-bicarbonate - phaseolus-vulgaris - absorption - isotope - food - fortification - phytate - humans - beans - availability
Limited data exist on iron absorption from NaFeEDTA and FeSO(4) in legume-based flours. The current study compared iron absorption from NaFeEDTA and FeSO(4) as fortificants within and between red and white varieties of cowpea with different concentrations of polyphenols (PP) but similar phytic acid (PA)-to-iron molar ratios. We performed a paired crossover study in young women (n = 16). Red-cowpea (high-PP) and white-cowpea (low-PP) test meals (Tubani) were each fortified with ((57)Fe)-labeled NaFeEDTA or ((58)Fe)-labeled FeSO(4) and were randomly administered. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Per serving, the mean (±SD) PP concentrations of the white- and red-cowpea-based meals were 74 ± 3.6 and 158 ± 1.8 mg, respectively, and the molar ratio of PA to iron was 3.0 and 3.3. Iron bioavailabilities from red and white cowpeas were 1.4 and 1.7%, respectively, in NaFeEDTA-fortified meals and 0.89 and 1.2%, respectively, in FeSO(4)-fortified meals. Compared with FeSO(4), fortification with NaFeEDTA increased the amount of iron absorbed from either of the cowpea meals by 0.05 to 0.08 mg (P <0.05). Irrespective of the fortificant used, there was no significant difference in the amount of iron absorbed from the 2 varieties of cowpea. The results suggest that NaFeEDTA is more bioavailable in legume-based flours compared with FeSO(4). In cowpea-based flours, the major determinant of low iron absorption may be the high molar ratio of PA to iron and not variations in PP concentration
Preparation, Consumption, and Nutritional Composition of West African cowpea dishes
Madode, Y.E.E. ; Houssou, P. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2011
Ecology of Food and Nutrition 50 (2011)2. - ISSN 0367-0244 - p. 115 - 136.
kanwa alkaline salt - vigna-unguiculata - antinutritional factors - phytic acid - food - quality - phytate - benin - beans - digestibility
In Africa, nutrient intake deficiencies are widespread. We, therefore, investigated the potential contribution of cowpea dishes to the ingestion of several macro- and micronutrients. Processors and consumers were interviewed and cowpea dishes analyzed. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and calcium contents ranged from 1647 to 2570 kJ, 10 to 25 g, 1 to 35 mg, 1.5 to 3.0 mg, 38 to 380 mg per 100 g d.w., respectively. The iron and calcium contents were highest in dishes containing leaves. The consumption of these dishes should be promoted along with research on how to further decrease the associated antinutritional factors of traditional cowpea dishes
Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers
Martin-Tereso Lopez, J. ; Distefano, C. ; Laar, H. van; Mulder, K. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2011
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 95 (2011)1. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 73 - 80.
zeolite-a supplementation - magnesium absorption - dry period - phosphorus - cows - calcium - phytate - homeostasis - metabolism - zinc
Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice bran (RBF), defining three treatments: control (CRT), low dose (LD) and high dose (HD). In weeks 1 and 3, all animals received 3 kg of PF and in week 2: CRT received 3 kg of PF, LD received 1.5 kg of PF and 1.5 kg of RBF and HD received 3 kg of RBF. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (DMI). Feed intakes and growth rates indicated that all heifers had nutritional requirements that exceeded their Ca intakes. Serum Ca, urinary Ca, calcitriol or hydroxyproline remained unaffected. Urinary Ca was consistently low indicating high renal Ca reabsorption, which is indicative of insufficient Ca supply. Rice bran feed influenced P, Mg and Zn intakes and serum and urine presence of these minerals. Most heifers already presented an upregulated Ca metabolism, being inadequate to study adaptive changes in Ca homeostasis of multiparous dry cows. This metabolic difference can be explanatory to the very low susceptibility of heifers to milk fever, further supporting the induction of homeostatic adaptation before calving to prevent milk fever. Rice bran feed did not reduce DMI, and was not detrimental to P, Mg or Zn status.
The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality – Evidence for fibre–protein interactions
Noort, M.W.J. ; Haaster, D.J. van; Hemery, Y. ; Schols, H.A. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2010
Journal of Cereal Science 52 (2010)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 59 - 64.
water unextractable solids - loaf volume - phenolic-acid - brown bread - breadmaking - pentosans - phytate - layers - grain
The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions were added to white flour and water addition was adjusted to obtain dough with a constant consistency. Both dough-mixing properties and bread-making quality were affected by the addition of bran. The negative influence was enhanced when bran particle size was reduced. The effects on bread quality are strongly correlated to negative effects of bran on gluten network formation. The results show that fibre–gluten interactions are the main cause for the negative effects of fibres, rather than dilution of gluten, piercing of gas cells or particles disturbing the gluten network. Two possible explanations for the enhancement of the adverse effects when reducing the particle size of bran fractions are discussed: 1) increased interaction surface 2) liberation of reactive components due to cell breakage.
In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid levels in rice-based consumer products in China
Liang, J. ; Han, B.Z. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2010
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 61 (2010)1. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 40 - 51.
molar ratios - complementary foods - kilosa district - tannic-acid - phytate - bioavailability - cereals - infants - availability - fermentation
In vitro solubility of calcium, iron and zinc in relation to phytic acid (PA) levels in 30 commercial rice-based foods from China was studied. Solubility of minerals and molar ratios of PA to minerals varied with degrees of processing. In primary products, [PA]/[Ca] values were less than 5 and [PA]/[Fe] and [PA]/[Zn] similarly ranged between 5 and 74, with most values between 20 and 30. [PA]/[mineral] molar ratios in intensively processed products were lower. Solubility of calcium ranged from 0% to 87%, with the lowest in brown rice (12%) and the highest in infant foods (50%). Iron solubility in two-thirds of samples was lower than 30%, and that of zinc narrowly ranged from 6% to 30%. Solubility of minerals was not significantly affected by [PA]/ [mineral]. At present, neither primary nor intensively processed rice-based products are good dietary sources of minerals. Improvements should be attempted by dephytinization, mineral fortification or, preferably, combination of both
Genetic analysis identifies quantitative trait loci controlling rosette mineral concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana under drought
Ghandilyan, A. ; Barboza, L. ; Tisne, S. ; Granier, C. ; Reymond, M. ; Koornneef, M. ; Schat, H. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2009
New Phytologist 184 (2009)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 180 - 192.
soil-water deficit - natural variation - brassica-rapa - plant-growth - accumulation - populations - phytate - leaves - seeds - qtls
• Rosettes of 25 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and an Antwerp-1 (An-1) × Landsberg erecta (Ler) population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown in optimal watering conditions (OWC) and water deficit conditions (WDC) were analysed for mineral concentrations to identify genetic loci involved in adaptation of mineral homeostasis to drought stress. • Correlations between mineral concentrations were determined for accessions and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed for the RIL population. • Plant growth and rosette mineral contents strongly decreased in WDC compared with OWC. Mineral concentrations also generally decreased, except for phosphorus (P), which remained constant, and potassium (K), which increased. Large variations in mineral concentrations were observed among accessions, mostly correlated with total rosette leaf area. Mineral concentration QTLs were identified in the RIL population, but only a few were common for both conditions. Clusters of mineral concentration QTLs often cosegregated with dry weight QTLs. • Water deficit has a strong effect on rosette mineral status. This is genetically determined and seems largely a pleiotropic effect of the reduction in growth. The low number of common mineral concentration QTLs, shared among different RIL populations, tissues and conditions in Arabidopsis, suggests that breeding for robust, mineral biofortified crops will be complex
|Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.
Yu, Q. ; Boonstra, A. ; Shi, Z. ; Pan, X. ; Yuan, B. ; Dai, Yue ; Zhao, J. ; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Kok, F.J. ; Zhou, M. - \ 2009
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 18 (2009)2. - ISSN 0964-7058 - p. 193 - 199.
preschool-children - iron intake - adults - association - people - absorption - calcium - phytate - anemia
Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three consecutive days. Insufficient zinc intake was calculated based on the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes. Results: Overall, the percentage of subjects with insufficient intake of zinc was 22.9%, with a declining trend with age. Except for the group >=50 years, mean zinc intake of all other groups were below the age- and sex- specific Recommended Nutrition Intakes (RNI). Approximately 2/3rds of the subjects =50 years (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.8; OR:0.55, 95%CI: 0.47-0.64). Mean intake of iron, copper, magnesium and selenium met the Chinese DRIs respectively, except for selenium in females. The prevalence of insufficient intake of copper, magnesium and selenium was 37.2%, 22.8% and 29.3%, respectively, while the overall prevalence of insufficient iron intake was only 3.4%. Conclusion: Dietary zinc intake of the Jiangsu Province population does not generally meet the Chinese RNI. Children and adolescents in particular have a higher risk of insufficient zinc intake
Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children
Mitchikpe, C.E.S. ; Dossa, R.A.M. ; Ategbo, E.A.D. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van; Kok, F.J. - \ 2009
Public Health Nutrition 12 (2009)3. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 414 - 422.
iron-absorption - bioavailable iron - dietary-intake - phytic acid - phytate - anemia - consumption - degradation - humans - women
Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To analyse the food pattern and resulting energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children in relation to season and school attendance. Subjects and methods: The study was performed in northern Benin in eighty randomly selected children aged 6¿8 years. Dietary intake was assessed using observed weighed records. Food, energy and nutrient intakes were measured in post- and pre-harvest seasons. Complete food consumption data sets were available for seventy-five children. Results: Food pattern showed seasonal variations. Cereals, roots and tubers were the main staple foods. Contributions of animal products to the diet were very small. The food pattern was not different for either boys v. girls or for children attending v. not attending school. Median daily energy intakes were 5?0 and 5?3 MJ in the post- and pre-harvest season, respectively. Only fat and vitamin C showed seasonal differences (P,0?05). Energy and nutrient intakes were different for boys and girls but, unexpectedly, not for children attending v. not attending school. Conclusions: Seasonal variations in food pattern did not result in seasonality in energy and nutrient intakes. Because the children¿s diet was low in animal products, protein, fat and vitamin C and high in fibre, the absorption of fat, fatsoluble vitamins, carotenoids, Fe and Zn might be low. Fe and Zn bioavailability from such a diet needs further investigation.
Iron, zinc and phytic acid content of selected rice varieties from China
Liang, J. ; Han, B.Z. ; Han, L. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2007
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87 (2007)3. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 504 - 510.
molar ratios - phytate - availability - nutrition - minerals - calcium - seeds - zn
Rice is the major Chinese staple food (per capita approx 250 g day-1) and, as such, is an important source of essential minerals. However, due to a number of factors the bio-availability of these minerals is limited. In this study, the variation of phytic acid (PA), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) levels in 56 varieties of Chinese rice was investigated. The samples included in this study were collected in proportion to the importance of the rice-growing regions in China. Fe levels showed the biggest variation (9-45 mg kg-1) and were not related with PA content or grain shape although growing locations were identified yielding higher (25.2 mg kg-1) and lower (14.2 mg kg-1) Fe levels. Zn showed a moderate variability (13-39 mg kg-1), which was narrower than for Fe, while broader than for PA (7.2-11.9 g kg-1). Zn content is correlated (R2 = 0.5; P <0.01) with PA content, and shows a relation with growing region and kernel shape. Variation of PA content is the least among the three components. Molar ratios of PA to Fe and Zn ranged from 15 to 105 and 27 to 67, respectively. The results of the mineral contents and PA content can be interpreted in terms of expected bio-availability. This study shows that the mineral bio-availability of Chinese rice varieties will be
Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia
Umeta, M. ; West, C.E. ; Fufa, H. - \ 2005
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18 (2005)8. - ISSN 0889-1575 - p. 803 - 817.
randomized controlled-trials - lactic-acid fermentation - phytic acid - developing-countries - ascorbic-acid - molar ratios - phytate - bioavailability - phosphorus - children
The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in zinc and iron, many also contained high levels of phytic acid and tannins, which impair bioavailability of zinc and iron. The phytate:zinc molar ratios were >20 for non-fermented cereal foods, >15 for legumes, and 15 are associated with low bioavailability of zinc. Given the high iron content and the relatively favourable phytate:iron molar ratio, tef enjera was the best source of bioavailable iron of all foods analysed. Foods prepared from tef, enset and kale are rich sources of calcium. The consumption of diets based on cereals and legumes but poor in animal products can lead to deficiencies of zinc and iron. However, since fermentation can decrease the phytate content by a factor of 3¿4, traditional household practices such as fermentation need to be encouraged to address the problem of zinc deficiency, which is particularly prevalent in Ethiopia
Influence of feeding various phosphorus sources on apparent digestibility of phosphorus in dairy cows
Ekelund, A. ; Sporndly, R. ; Valk, H. ; Murphy, M. - \ 2003
Animal Feed Science and Technology 109 (2003)1-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 95 - 104.
dry-matter intake - milk-production - excretion - sheep - availability - performance - metabolism - absorption - phytate - diets
The present investigated differences in the apparent digestibility of phosphorus (ADP) in lactating cows fed various feed materials containing organic forms of phosphorus (P) or a highly available inorganic phosphorus source. Cows milking an average of 36 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 4-week periods to measure the P excretion in faeces. Four different concentrates with monosodium phosphate (MSP), rapeseed (RS), sunflower seed/palm kernel (SSP) and wheat middlings/bran (WMB) as the main P source (0.56¿0.67 of P in the total diet) were offered, together with grass silage. The dietary supply of P was 82¿93 g per day, corresponding on average to 4.0 g per kg DM intake. Daily faecal P excretion was determined by total collection for 5 days and the P ranged from 39.7 to 45.8 g per day. ADP were 0.498, 0.519, 0.474 and 0.522 for MSP, RS, SSP and WMB, respectively. There were no significant differences between the diets in terms of ADP, milk production or milk composition. The retention of P was 9¿17 g per day, the highest values being associated with the highest P intake. Under normal feeding conditions for dairy cows, there seems to be no need to use different absorption coefficients for different concentrate ingredients.