Plant Aromatic Prenyltransferases : Tools for Microbial Cell Factories
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Levisson, Mark ; Beekwilder, Jules ; Berkel, Willem J.H. van; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2020
Trends in Biotechnology 38 (2020)8. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 917 - 934.
bioactive compounds - isoprenoids - microbial cell factories - phytochemicals - prenylation - secondary metabolism
In plants, prenylation of aromatic compounds, such as (iso)flavonoids and stilbenoids, by membrane-bound prenyltransferases (PTs), is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many bioactive compounds. Prenylated aromatic compounds have various health-beneficial properties that are interesting for industrial applications, but their exploitation is limited due to their low abundance in nature. Harnessing plant aromatic PTs for prenylation in microbial cell factories may be a sustainable and economically viable alternative. Limitations in prenylated aromatic compound production have been identified, including availability of prenyl donor substrate. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about plant aromatic PTs and discuss promising strategies towards the optimized production of prenylated aromatic compounds by microbial cell factories.
Food Design to Feed the Human Gut Microbiota
Ercolini, Danilo ; Fogliano, Vincenzo - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66 (2018)15. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 3754 - 3758.
food ingredients - food processing - Mediterranean diet - melanoidins - metabolism - phytochemicals
The gut microbiome has an enormous impact on the life of the host, and the diet plays a fundamental role in shaping microbiome composition and function. The way food is processed is a key factor determining the amount and type of material reaching the gut bacteria and influencing their growth and the production of microbiota metabolites. In this perspective, the current possibilities to address food design toward a better feeding of gut microbiota are highlighted, together with a summary of the most interesting microbial metabolites that can be made from dietary precursors.
Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit : an interdisciplinary study on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) value chain
Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Matthijs Dekker; Ruud Verkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579859 - 190
physalis peruviana - value chain analysis - supply chain management - keeping quality - storage life - storage - phytochemicals - andean group - physalis peruviana - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - bewaartijd - opslag - fytochemicaliën - andesgroep
Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governance nature. This research is an interdisciplinary study on the Colombian cape gooseberry value chain. It aimed to evaluate quality attributes of the fruit during the supply chain, including the changes in the contents of health-promoting compounds; and also assessed the current situation of the value chain regarding degree of alignment of the actors.
Findings show that cape gooseberry is a source of health-promoting compounds and has antioxidant activity properties. Such health promoting compounds in cape gooseberry are subject to thermal degradation or formation but not to the extent that they are no longer present after heating. Vitamin C and β-carotene were relative stable after storage time during post-harvest. The main issue for shelf-life of fresh cape gooseberry is the growth of fungi. The intake assessment conducted based on the current consumption of cape gooseberry, concluded that the contribution of this fruit to the daily recommendation intake of vitamin C and β-carotene in Colombian and Dutch adult population is negligible.
Cape gooseberry is indeed a very low consumed fruit because is not well-known in international markets. However, it has potential to improve performance by first facing alignment issues, integrate the value chain and develop strategies to effectively plan the route to follow in order to scale up.
Uitstel of afstel : Hoogwaardige toepassingen voor plantinhoudsstoffen
Poot, Eric - \ 2016
phytochemicals - biobased chemicals - biobased chemistry - agroindustrial sector - biobased economy
Van oudsher wordt de waarde en enorme biodiversiteit van plantinhoudsstoffen onderkend. Toch verloopt het traject van het verwerken van nieuwe inhoudsstoffen voor hoogwaardige commerciële toepassingen in de farmaceutische, voedingsmiddelen- en cosmetische industrie vooralsnog moeizaam. Waar liggen de obstakels en hoe zijn deze te overwinnen? Interview met o.a. Eric Poot van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw
Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol
Papillo, V.A. ; Vitaglione, P. ; Graziani, G. ; Gokmen, V. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)18. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4119 - 4126.
in-vitro digestion - dietary fiber - phaseolus-vulgaris - phenolic-compounds - whole grains - risk - health - polyphenols - phytochemicals - quality
This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both solubilized and insoluble materials was measured at each step. Results showed that the overall TAC obtained by enzyme treatments was usually higher than that obtained by chemical extraction-based methods. In apple most of the TAC was released upon water washing and after pepsin treatment, whereas in spinach, beans, and whole wheat the TAC released by treatments with bacterial enzymes was prominent. Walnut had the highest TAC value, which was mainly released after pancreatin treatment. Therefore, the enzyme treatment is fundamental to estimate the overall potential TAC of foods having a high amount of polyphenols bound to dietary fiber or entrapped in the food matrix.
Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition
Renaud, E.N.C. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Myers, J.R. ; Caldas Paulo, M.J. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Zhu, N. ; Juvik, J.A. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16
glucosinolate-myrosinase system - lung-cancer risk - brassica-oleracea - cruciferous vegetables - beta-carotene - ascorbic-acid - vitamin-c - fertilization conditions - selenium fertilization - agricultural practices - organic farming - broccoli - cultivars - phytochemicals - plant breeding - organic foods - biologische landbouw - broccoli - cultivars - fytochemicaliën - plantenveredeling - biologische voedingsmiddelen
Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (d-, ¿-, a-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For d- and ¿- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.
Induction of electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene expression by tomato extracts in vitro
Gijsbers, L. ; Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Nguyen, T.H. ; Haan, L.H.J. de; Burg, B. van der; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2012
Food Chemistry 135 (2012)3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1166 - 1172.
flavonoid intake - lung-cancer - activation - lycopene - cells - risk - phytochemicals - products - women
The market for food products with additional health benefits is increasing rapidly and tools for identification of bio-functional characteristics of food items are essential. To facilitate the detection of beneficial effects of tomato on gene expression, methods to prepare tomato extracts suitable to test in the EpRE LUX assay and other cell-based reporter gene assays for health-related bioactivity mechanisms, were developed. An isoprenoid-containing chloroform extract of tomato fruit and most individual isoprenoids did not induce electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene expression. A semi-polar extract of tomato fruits, enzymatically hydrolysed to remove the glycosyl residues from the phenolic ingredients was able to induce EpRE-mediated luciferase expression at both mRNA and protein level, which might be partly due to the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin and naringenin chalcone. It was concluded that induction of EpRE-regulated genes, such as detoxifying phase II and antioxidant enzymes, may contribute to the beneficial health effects of tomato.
Structural elucidation and quantification of phenolic conjugates present in human urine after tea intake
Hooft, J.J.J. van der; Vos, R.C.H. de; Mihaleva, V. ; Bino, R.J. ; Ridder, L.O. ; Roo, N. de; Jacobs, D.M. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Vervoort, J.J.M. - \ 2012
Analytical Chemistry 84 (2012)16. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 7263 - 7271.
tandem mass-spectrometry - green tea - black tea - metabolite identification - ellagic acid - metabolomics - polyphenols - nmr - ingestion - phytochemicals
In dietary polyphenol exposure studies, annotation and identification of urinary metabolites present at low (micromolar) concentrations are major obstacles. In order to determine the biological activity of specific components, it is necessary to have the correct structures and the quantification of the polyphenol-derived conjugates present in the human body. We present a procedure for identification and quantification of metabolites and conjugates excreted in human urine after single bolus intake of black or green tea. A combination of a solid phase extraction (SPE) preparation step and two high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based analytical platforms was used; namely, accurate mass fragmentation (HPLC-FTMSn) and mass-guided SPE-trapping of selected compounds for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) measurements (HPLC-TOFMS-SPE-NMR). HPLC-FTMSn analysis led to the annotation of 138 urinary metabolites, including 48 valerolactone and valeric acid conjugates. By combining the results from MSn fragmentation with the one dimensional (1D)-1H-NMR spectra of HPLC-TOFMS-SPE trapped compounds, we elucidated the structures of 36 phenolic conjugates, including the glucuronides of 3’,4’-di, and 3’,4’,5’-trihydroxyphenyl-¿-valerolactone, three urolithin glucuronides, and indole-3-acetic acid glucuronide. We also obtained 26 hours of quantitative excretion profiles for specific valerolactone conjugates. The combination of the HPLC-FTMSn and HPLC-TOFMS-SPE-NMR platforms results in the efficient identification and quantification of low abundant phenolic conjugates down to nanomoles of trapped amounts of metabolite corresponding to micromolar metabolite concentrations in urine
Questionnaire survey of disease prevalence and veterinary treatments in organic layer husbandry in the Netherlands
Meulen, J. van der; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Kijlstra, A. - \ 2007
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 132 (2007)8. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 292 - 295.
biologische landbouw - veterinaire producten - kippenziekten - ziektedistributie - uitbraken (ziekten) - epidemiologie - veterinaire praktijk - kippen - vaccins - vaccinatie - homeopathische geneesmiddelen - fytochemicaliën - vragenlijsten - epidemiologische onderzoeken - dierziektepreventie - organic farming - veterinary products - fowl diseases - disease distribution - outbreaks - epidemiology - veterinary practice - fowls - vaccines - vaccination - homeopathic drugs - phytochemicals - questionnaires - epidemiological surveys - animal disease prevention - animal health - livestock production - welfare - systems - europe - hens
Disease prevalence and veterinary treatments in organic animal production differ from those in conventional systems. In order to gather information about current current practices in organic layer husbandry, 33 organic egg producers of 16 small, 12 medium-sized and 5 large farms were asked to complete a questionnaire on disease prevalence and treatments. On these farms, the mean mortality was 9% and the mean laying percentage was 79%. In contrast with the regulations for organic farming, the use of chemotherapeutics was not recorded on 30% of the farms. One third of the farmers were not aware of the type of vaccination given to their hens, and on the other farms hens had been vaccinated as pullets against nine or more viral and bacterial diseases. Several health problems were mentioned, such as feather pecking, red mites, helminthes, infectious bronchitis, colibacillosis and coccidiosis. On 19 farms, diseases were treated with homeopathic, phytotherapeutic, or other alternative medicines; on 10 of these farms chemotherapeutics were also used. Although quite a large number of organic layer farmers in the Netherlands used homeopathic, phytotherapeutics or other alternative medicines, the use of chemotherapeutics is currently inevitable to prevent animal suffering or distress in organic husbandry
Disease prevalence and veterinary treatments in organic animal production differ from those in conventional systems. In order to gather information about current practices in organic layer husbandry, 33 organic egg producers of 16 small, 12 medium-sized, and 5 large farms were asked to complete a questionnaire on disease prevalence and treatments. On these farms, the mean mortality was 9% and the mean laying percentage was 79%. In contrast with the regulations for organic farming, the use of chemotherapeutics was not recorded on 30% of the farms. One third of the farmers were not aware of the type of vaccination given to their hens, and on the other farms hens had been vaccinated as pullets against nine or more viral and bacterial diseases. Several health problems were mentioned, such as feather pecking, red mites, helminths, infectious bronchitis, colibacillosis, and coccidiosis. On 19 farms, diseases were treated with homeopathic, phyto-therapeutic, or other alternative medicines; on 10 of these farms chemotherapeutics were also used. On 4 farms only chemotherapeutics were used, on 10 farms no products were used, and on some farms up to seven products were used. Although quite a large number of organic layer farmers in the Netherlands used homeopathic, phytotherapeutic, or other alternative medicines, the use of chemotherapeutics is currently inevitable to prevent animal suffering or distress in organic husbandry.
Metabolomics technologies applied to the identification of compounds in plants : a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - nuclear magnetic resonance perspective over the tomato fruit
Moco, S.I.A. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Raoul Bino; Sacco de Vries, co-promotor(en): Jacques Vervoort; Ric de Vos. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047421 - 222
solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - metabolieten - fytochemicaliën - kernmagnetische resonantiespectroscopie - metabolomica - lc-ms - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - metabolites - phytochemicals - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - metabolomics - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging in which the detailed description of biochemical phenomena, at the cellular level, is important for a better understanding of physiological, developmental, and biomolecular processes in plants. This emerging field is oriented towards the characterisation of small molecules (metabolites) that act as substrates, products, ligands or signalling entities in cells. This thesis concerns the development and establishment of such metabolomics strategies for screening and identifying metabolites in biological systems. Most technological strategies were applied to the assignment of metabolites from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. Tomato was chosen for being a widely consumed crop with nutritional attributes, representing a model for the Solanaceae family. In order to achieve both high coverage of detected metabolites and valuable information for identification purposes, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) technologies were used. In addition, metabolite databases, based on experimental data (mass-based, in the case of LC-MS and chemical shift-based, in the case of NMR) were initiated, in order to systemize the extensive metabolite information. The chapters in this thesis describe method developments and their applications in plant metabolomics that are also feasible to be implemented on other biological systems. A review on the technologies used for metabolomics with a perspective on compound identification is presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, a robust large scale LC-MS method for the analysis of metabolites in plants is described in detail. It presents a step-by-step protocol with thorough information about the reagents used, sample preparation, instrument setup, methods of analysis and data processing strategies. The described analytical method combines LC with photo diode array (PDA) and MS detection, and allows the analysis of mostly semi-polar secondary metabolites present in plants, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, saponins, alkaloids and derivatives thereof. Chapter 3 presents an application of the LC-PDA-MS method for the profiling of metabolites present in tomato fruit. The metabolites putatively identified in this fruit were included in a tomato dedicated-database (the MoTo DB) that is available for public search on the web (see: http://appliedbioinformatics.wur.nl). A comparison between two tomato fruit tissues, peel and flesh, for their metabolite content was made using this MoTo DB. Using the same LC-PDA-MS setup, several different tomato fruit tissues were compared in more detail, along the fruit ripening timeline, in Chapter 4. The presence of tissue-specific metabolites, at determined ripening stages, suggests developmental control of metabolite biosynthesis. Such tissue-specific metabolomics approach may give rise to a biological view over metabolite compartmentalisation. Chapters 5 and 6 describe the implementation of a NMR database for secondary metabolites, mostly including flavonoids, the Flavonoid Database (see: Flavonoid Database under http://www.wnmrc.nl). The acquisition of a large data set of related standard compounds allowed the analysis of shifts in NMR characteristics by the presence of certain functional groups or substituents in the flavonoid backbone. In addition, a 1H NMR-based prediction model was iteratively trained from the acquired experimental data and can be used for the prediction of unknown related molecules. This approach greatly increases the efficiency in the identification of (flavonoid) metabolites. Chapter 7 describes correlations of metabolomics data derived from LC-MS and NMR analyses of a large number of different tomato cultivars. The identification of metabolites is obtained among other available sources, the MoTo DB and the Flavonoid Database. This approach illustrates the complementariness and coincidence of NMR and MS as analytical techniques, applied to the detection of metabolites in tomato fruit. The summarizing discussion and conclusions, sets the work presented in this thesis into a biochemical perspective, and prospects suggestions for the future.
Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage
Oerlemans, K. ; Barrett, D.M. ; Bosch Suades, C. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2006
Food Chemistry 95 (2006). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 19 - 29.
parent indole glucosinolate - cruciferous vegetables - brassica vegetables - breakdown products - brussels-sprouts - white cabbage - broccoli - postharvest - cooking - phytochemicals
Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was inactivated prior to the thermal treatments. All identified glucosinolates degradation when heated at temperatures above 100 °C. The indole glucosinolates 4-hydroxy-glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin showed the highest degree of showed degradation, even at temperatures below 100 °C. Kinetic parameters have been estimated for the degradation that could be described by first-order kinetics. At temperatures below 110 °C indole glucosinolates have a significant higher degradation rate constant as compared to aliphatic glucosinolates. The breakdown of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin seems to consist of two parallel reaction pathways. Based on the proposed degradation kinetics and the estimated parameters, the degree of thermal degradation of all individual glucosinolates at standardized heating conditions (blanching, cooking and canning) was simulated. Glucosinolates are expected to be not very susceptible to thermal degradation during blanching conditions. Cooking will cause more thermal degradation to indole glucosinolates (38%) as compared to aliphatic glucosinolates (8%). Canning, the most severe heat treatment, will result in significant thermal degradation (73%) of the total amount of glucosinolates
Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong voor behandeling van biologisch zaad
Wolf, J.M. van der; Birnbaum, Y.E. - \ 2003
zaadbehandeling - gewasbescherming - plantenziektebestrijding - etherische oliën - fytochemicaliën - natuurlijke producten - biologische zaden - seed treatment - plant protection - plant disease control - essential oils - phytochemicals - natural products - organic seeds
Poster met onderzoeksresultaten: In de biologische landbouw wordt gezocht naar fysische methoden en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO’s) waarmee effectief zaadovergaande ziekteverwekkers op het zaad kunnen worden bestreden. Hierna kan het gedesinfecteerde zaad effectief worden gecoat met antagonisten. We laten hier de effectiviteit van tijmolie zien voor bestrijding van bacteriën en schimmels op zaad.