Tolerance of Four Tropical Tree Species to Heavy Petroleum Contamination
Perez-Hernandez, I. ; Ochoa-Gaona, S. ; Schroeder, R.H.A. ; Rivera-Cruz, M.C. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2013
Water Air and Soil Pollution 224 (2013)8. - ISSN 0049-6979
soil-water relations - oxidative stress - bioremediated soils - seed-germination - end-point - phytoremediation - oil - hydrocarbons - growth - plants
Four species of trees were selected to evaluate the tolerance to heavy crude oil contamination by means of a tolerance index integrating germination, height, biomass and survival as variables. Fresh seeds to Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis) were planted in a Vertisol to which heavy crude petroleum was added at four different treatments (C0, 0; C1, 18,940; C2, 44,000; and C3, 57,000 mg kg(-1)), with the control being uncontaminated soil. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 203 days with a completely random design. The presence of petroleum in soil stimulated and increased germination of S. macrophylla and C. odorata, accelerated the germination of T. rosea and did not affect the germination of H. campechianum. The height and biomass of all species was reduced in the presence of petroleum in the soil. The survival of S. macrophylla and H. campechianum was not affected by petroleum at any concentration studied. On the other hand, C. odorata and T. rosea showed high mortality at all concentrations. The tolerance index showed that S. macrophylla was best at tolerating petroleum in soil and could be employed as a productive alternative for the advantageous use of contaminated sites. The use of tree species could be important because of the great potential of trees for phytoremediation due to their long life, biomass and deep roots that can penetrate and remediate deeper soil layers.
Gomphrena claussenii, the first South-American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance
Tomaz Villafort Carvalho, M. ; Amaral, D.C. ; Guilherme, L.R. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2013
Frontiers in Plant Science 4 (2013). - ISSN 1664-462X - 10 p.
sedum-alfredii hance - hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens - arabidopsis-thaliana - molecular-mechanisms - copper tolerance - zinc tolerance - plants - cadmium - soils - phytoremediation
Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae, is found at a zinc (Zn) mining area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Through soil and hydroponic experiments, the metal tolerance and accumulation capacities of G. claussenii were assessed and the effects on physiological characteristics were compared with a closely related non-tolerant species, G. elegans Mart. G. claussenii plants grown in soil sampled at the Zn smelting area accumulated up to 5318µgg-1 of Zn and 287 µg g-1 of cadmium (Cd) in shoot dry biomass after 30 days of exposure. Plants were grown in hydroponics containing up to 3000 µM of Zn and 100 µM of Cd for G. claussenii and 100 µM of Zn and 5 µM of Cd for G. elegans. G. claussenii proved to be an extremely tolerant species to both Zn and Cd, showing only slight metal toxicity symptoms at the highest treatment levels, without significant decrease in biomass and no effects on root growth, whereas the non-tolerant species G. elegans showed significant toxicity effects at the highest exposure levels. Both species accumulated more Zn and Cd in roots than in shoots. In G. elegans, over 90% of the Cd remained in the roots, but G. claussenii showed a root:shoot concentration ratio of around 2, with shoots reaching 0.93% Zn and 0.13% Cd on dry matter base. In G. claussenii shoots, the concentrations of other minerals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), were only affected by the highest Zn treatment while in G. elegans the Fe and Mn concentrations in shoots decreased drastically at both Zn and Cd treatments. Taking together, these results indicate that G. claussenii is a novel metallophyte, extremely tolerant of high Zn and Cd exposure and an interesting species for further phytoremediation studies Keywords: phytoremediation, Zn/Cd hypertolerance, hyperaccumulation, metal contamination, Gomphrena claussenii, Gomphrena elegans
‘Halophyte filters’: the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture
Lange, H.J. de; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Slim, P.A. - \ 2013
International Journal of Phytoremediation 15 (2013)4. - ISSN 1522-6514 - p. 352 - 364.
waste-water treatment - shrimp aquaculture - removal - effluent - system - phytoremediation - mariculture - performance - nutrient - marshes
World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already overexploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.
Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes
Hassan, Z. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Koornneef, co-promotor(en): Mark Aarts. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734303 - 223
thlaspi caerulescens - zink - hyperaccumulerende planten - fytoremediatie - genen - genexpressie - bodemverontreiniging - thlaspi caerulescens - zinc - hyperaccumulator plants - phytoremediation - genes - gene expression - soil pollution
Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two major requirements for this technology are the availability of plants that are accumulating Zn/Cd to high levels in their leaves and that are producing high biomass. Noccaea caerulescens is a natural model Zn/Cd/Ni hyperaccumulator species that can accumulate up to 3% of Zn and 1% of Cd. Unfortunately it does not make a lot of biomass, and is thus unsuitable for phytoremediation. To overcome this limitation, higher biomass producing crops like tobacco can be genetically modified with genes from N. caerulescens to induce metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation. NcZNT1 and NcMTP1 are metal transporter genes in N. caerulescens. Zeshan Hassan has engineered tobacco to express both these genes, separately and in combination, to investigate their role in Zn, Cd accumulation and tolerance and to explore their potential in improving the phytoremediation capacity of plants. Transgenic tobacco lines were more tolerant to high Zn and Cd, leading to higher biomass compared to non-transformed controls, and they accumulated 2-4 fold higher Zn and 2-3.5 fold higher Cd when grown in artificial nutrient solution systems. More importantly they also did so when grown in soil collected from a metal-contaminated site. One of the conclusions of Zeshan Hassan’s PhD thesis is that both NcZNT1 and NcMTP1 genes are important for Zn and Cd tolerance and accumulation and that transgenic tobacco expressing these genes have enhanced phytoremediation capacity, which could lead to interesting future applications.
How genetic modification of roots affects rhizosphere processes and plant performance
Kabouw, P. ; Dam, N.M. van; Putten, W.H. van der; Biere, A. - \ 2012
Journal of Experimental Botany 63 (2012)9. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 3475 - 3483.
oryza-sativa l - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - transgenic rice plants - drought-resistance - metal hyperaccumulation - nematode resistance - molecular markers - modified crops - acc deaminase - phytoremediation
Genetic modification of plants has become common practice. However, root-specific genetic modifications have only recently been advocated. Here, a review is presented regarding how root-specific modifications can have both plant internal and rhizosphere-mediated effects on aboveground plant properties and plant performance. Plant internal effects refer to pleiotropic processes such as transportation of the modified gene product. Rhizosphere-mediated effects refer to altered plant–rhizosphere interactions, which subsequently feed back to the plant. Such plant–soil feedback mechanisms have been demonstrated both in natural systems and in crops. Here how plant internal and rhizosphere-mediated effects could enhance or counteract improvements in plant properties for which the genetic modification was intended is discussed. A literature survey revealed that rice is the most commonly studied crop species in the context of root-specific transgenesis, predominantly in relation to stress tolerance. Phytoremediation, a process in which plants are used to clean up pollutants, is also often an objective when transforming roots. These two examples are used to review potential effects of root genetic modifications on shoots. There are several examples in which root-specific genetic modifications only lead to better plant performance if the genes are specifically expressed in roots. Constitutive expression can even result in modified plants that perform worse than non-modified plants. Rhizosphere effects have rarely been examined, but clearly genetic modification of roots can influence rhizosphere interactions, which in turn can affect shoot properties. Indeed, field studies with root-transformed plants frequently show negative effects on shoots that are not seen in laboratory studies. This might be due to the simplified environments that are used in laboratories which lack the full range of plant–rhizosphere interactions that are present in the field.
Phytoremediation of nutrient polluted stormwater runoff: water hyacinth as a model plant
Fox, L.J. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; J.E. Nowak. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853916 - 103
biologische filtratie - waterplanten - waterverontreiniging - afvloeiingswater - waterkwaliteit - eichhornia crassipes - fytoremediatie - biological filtration - aquatic plants - water pollution - runoff water - water quality - eichhornia crassipes - phytoremediation
Phytoremediation of nutriënt polluted stormwater runoff using water hyacinth as a model plant was explored in greenhouse and field studies in south-eastern Virginia, USA
Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils
Koopmans, G.F. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Fokkema, M.J. ; Song, J. ; Luo, Y.M. ; Japenga, J. ; Zhao, F.J. - \ 2008
Environmental Pollution 156 (2008)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 905 - 914.
hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens - metal-accumulating plants - polluted soils - heavy-metals - sandy soil - zn - cd - phytoremediation - rhizosphere - field
A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg¿1. A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha¿1 yr¿1 yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production.
Mobilization of heavy metals from contaminated paddy soil by EDDS, EDTA, and elemental sulfur
Wang, G. ; Koopmans, G.F. ; Song, J. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Luo, Y. ; Zhao, Q. ; Japenga, J. - \ 2007
Environmental Geochemistry and Health 29 (2007)3. - ISSN 0269-4042 - p. 221 - 235.
disuccinic acid edds - enhanced phytoextraction - lead phytoextraction - chelating-agents - phytoremediation - biodegradation - extraction - pb - cu - accumulation
For enhanced phytoextraction, mobilization of heavy metals (HMs) from the soil solid phase to soil pore water is an important process. A pot incubation experiment mimicking field conditions was conducted to investigate the performance of three soil additives in mobilizing HMs from contaminated paddy soil (Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosol): the [S, S]-isomer of ethylenediamine disuccinate (EDDS) with application rates of 2.3, 4.3, and 11.8 mmol kg¿1 of soil, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA; 1.4, 3.8, and 7.5 mmol kg¿1), and elemental sulfur (100, 200, and 400 mmol kg¿1). Temporal changes in soil pore water HM and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and pH were monitored for a period of 119 days. EDDS was the most effective additive in mobilizing soil Cu. However, EDDS was only effective during the first 24 to 52 days, and was readily biodegraded with a half-life of 4.1 to 8.7 days. The effectiveness of EDDS decreased at the highest application rate, most probably as a result of depletion of the readily desorbable Cu pool in soil. EDTA increased the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soil pore water, and remained effective during the whole incubation period due to its persistence. The highest rate of sulfur application led to a decrease in pH to around 4. This increased the pore water HM concentrations, especially those of Zn and Cd. Concentrations of HMs in the soil pore water can be regulated to a large extent by choosing the proper application rate of EDDS, EDTA, or sulfur. Hence, a preliminary work such as our pot experiment in combination with further plant experiments (not included in this study) will provide a good tool to evaluate the applicability of different soil additives for enhanced phytoextraction of a specific soil.
Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils
Koopmans, G.F. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Song, J. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Japenga, J. - \ 2007
Water Air and Soil Pollution 181 (2007)1-4. - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 355 - 371.
hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens - organic-matter - lead phytoextraction - accumulating plants - sewage-sludge - phytoremediation - cadmium - ph - phosphate - zinc
The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain a reliable estimate of the phytoextraction duration. To simulate the decrease in the HM content in soil and to assess the resulting decrease in the uptake of HMs by plants, contaminated soil was mixed with uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil. Uptake of Cd, Pb, and Zn by the indicator plant Lupinus hartwegii and the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (La Calamine ecotype) was a log-linear function of the in-situ measured HM soil solution concentrations. Over a wide range in dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations, uptake of these HMs by T. caerulescens was (much) greater than by L. hartwegii. Experimentally derived regression models describing the relationships between soil, soil solution, and plant were implemented in a HM mass balance model used to obtain estimates of the phytoextraction duration. For our target soils, estimates of the Cd phytoextraction duration using L. hartwegii or T. caerulescens increased significantly by more than 100 or 50 years when experimental soil¿soil solution¿plant relationships were used instead of the assumption of constant plant uptake of Cd. The two approaches gave similar results for phytoextraction of Zn by T. caerulescens.
Uptake and distribution of root-applied or foliar-applied 65Zn after flowering in aerobic rice
Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. ; Lingna, J. ; Keulen, H. van; Ming, Z. ; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2007
Annals of Applied Biology 150 (2007)3. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 383 - 391.
developing wheat grains - zinc uptake - zn - plants - accumulation - manganese - iron - cu - phytoremediation - nutrition
We investigated the uptake and distribution of zinc (Zn) either applied to the roots or to the leaves in rice during grain development. Plants of two aerobic rice cultivars were grown in a nutrient solution with either sufficient Zn or surplus Zn. Root treatment with 1 week`s supply of both 65Zn and unlabelled Zn was started at flowering or 15 days after flowering (DAF). Foliar treatment with 65Zn applied to the flag leaf or to senescent leaves was carried out at flowering. When 65Zn was applied to roots, plants continued to take up Zn after flowering, even beyond 15 DAF, irrespective of cultivar and Zn nutritional status of the plants. During the 1 week of supply of both 65Zn and unlabelled Zn, which either started at flowering or 15 DAF, the absorbed 65Zn was mainly distributed to roots, stem and grains. Little 65Zn was allocated to the leaves. Following a week of 65Zn supply directly after flowering, under sufficient Zn or surplus Zn, the proportions of total 65Zn uptake allocated to the grains continued to change during grain filling (9¿33%). This Zn mainly came from the roots but under sufficient Zn supply also from the stem. With 65Zn applied to leaves (either the flag leaf or the lowest senescent leaf), both cultivars showed similar Zn distribution within the plants. About 45¿50% of the 65Zn absorbed was transported out of the 65Zn-treated leaf. From that Zn, more than 90% was translocated to other vegetative organs; little was partitioned to the panicle parts and even less to the grains. These results suggest that in rice plants grown under sufficient or surplus Zn supply, most of the Zn accumulated in the grains originates from uptake by roots after flowering and not from Zn remobilisation from leaves
|Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications
Lens, P.N.L. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Malina, G. ; Tabak, H.H. - \ 2005
London, UK : IWA Publishing (Integrated environmental technology series ) - ISBN 9781843391005 - 523
bodemverontreiniging - herstel - biotechnologie - biodegradatie - bioremediëring - verontreinigde sedimenten - fytoremediatie - soil pollution - rehabilitation - biotechnology - biodegradation - bioremediation - contaminated sediments - phytoremediation
Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects of these technologies will be addressed. Special attention will be given to novel biotechnological processes that utilise sulfur cycle conversions, e.g. sulfur and heavy metal removal from soils. Also the potential of phytoremediation will be highlighted. In addition, treatment schemes for the clean-up of polluted megasites, e.g. harbours and Manufactured Gaswork Plants (MGP), will be elaborated.