Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==phytotoxicity
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Plasmawater, een veelbelovend ontsmettings- en gewasbeschermingsmiddel
Quaedvlieg, William ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Lemmers, M.E.C. ; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Kolk, J.P. van der; Slootweg, G. ; Stijger, I. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 1 p.
tuinbouw - gewasbescherming - pectobacterium carotovorum - botrytis cinerea - fusarium - tomatenmozaïekvirus - gerbera - biociden - landbouwkundig onderzoek - fytotoxiciteit - corrosie - ontsmettingsmiddelen - glastuinbouw - horticulture - plant protection - tomato mosaic virus - biocides - agricultural research - phytotoxicity - corrosion - disinfectants - greenhouse horticulture
Voor dit onderzoek is gekeken of plasmawater onder laboratorium- en semi-praktijk condities verschillende soorten micro-organismen (bacteriën, schimmels en virussen) kan afdoden op het gewas. Tevens is gelet op de veiligheid voor het gewas (fyto-tox) en kas (corrosie). Poster van het PlantgezondheidEvent 2016.
Screening herbiciden voor toepassing na opkomst in bloembolgewassen
Bulle, A.A.E. ; Dijkema, M.H.G.E. - \ 2013
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit - 79
bloembollen - onkruidbestrijding - herbiciden - fytotoxiciteit - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - tests - ornamental bulbs - weed control - herbicides - phytotoxicity - authorisation of pesticides
Voor de onkruidbestrijding in de teelt van bloembollen worden na opkomst contactherbiciden toegepast. Het aantal herbiciden dat hiervoor beschikbaar is, is zeer beperkt. In dit onderzoeksproject zijn negen herbiciden onderzocht voor toepassing na opkomst. De proeven zijn gedurende twee jaar uitgevoerd in lelie, gladiool, tulp, narcis en hyacint. De keuze voor de te testen middelen is gemaakt in overleg met fabrikanten en de KAVB. Veel van de geteste herbiciden hebben al een toelating in de land- en/of tuinbouwsector. Doel van het project is het testen van de fytotoxiciteit (gewasveiligheid) van herbiciden in verschillende bloembolgewassen toegepast na opkomst, met als doel een toelating te krijgen voor de perspectiefvolle middelen. De proeven zijn uitgevoerd in de periode 2010 – 2012. Zes middelen zijn in de proeven waarin ze waren opgenomen veilig gebleken (middelen A, B, C, E, F en H). Een aantal middelen heeft in één of enkele proeven schade of opbrengstderving gegeven. Eén middel (middel G) bleek niet veilig en gaf in de meeste proeven flinke schade. In de combinaties van middelen is soms wat opbrengstderving gezien. In onderstaande tabel is een overzicht gegeven van de middelen-(combinaties) in de verschillende gewassen en of deze middelen gewasschade hebben gegeven. Vijf van de onderzochte middelen zijn perspectiefvol voor de praktijk. Voor drie hiervan is inmiddels ook de fabrikant met onderzoek bezig om tot toelating in de bloembollen te komen. Voor de twee andere middelen zal ook bekeken worden of toelating mogelijk is. Middel H bleek bij nader inzien kieming tegen te gaan en geen dodende werking op aanwezig onkruid te hebben. Bekeken zal moeten worden of dit middel perspectief heeft voor toepassing in bloembollen.
Olivine Weathering in Soil, and Its Effects on Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Ryegrass (lolium perenne L.): A Pot Experiment
Berge, H.F.M. ten; Meer, H.G. van der; Steenhuizen, J.W. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Knops, P. ; Verhagen, J. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
carbon-dioxide - plant - bioavailability - sequestration - phytotoxicity - serpentine - nickel - co2 - speciation - models
Mineral carbonation of basic silicate minerals regulates atmospheric CO2 on geological time scales by locking up carbon. Mining and spreading onto the earth's surface of fast-weathering silicates, such as olivine, has been proposed to speed up this natura
Risico-evaluatie OCAP-CO2 vanuit Abengoa: Deskstudie
Dueck, T.A. ; Dijk, C.J. van - \ 2011
Wageningen : PRI Agrosysteemkunde/WUR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Plant Research International 404) - 12
fytotoxiciteit - risicoschatting - evaluatie - kooldioxide - componentenanalyse - glastuinbouw - nederland - phytotoxicity - risk assessment - evaluation - carbon dioxide - component analysis - greenhouse horticulture - netherlands
Selective weed suppression by cover crop residues: effects of seed mass and timing of species’sensitivity
Kruidhof, H.M. ; Gallandt, E.R. ; Haramoto, E.R. ; Bastiaans, L. - \ 2011
Weed Research 51 (2011)2. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 177 - 186.
green manure - secale-cereale - growth - management - soil - allelochemicals - rye - phytotoxicity - decomposition - establishment
Laboratory bioassays have shown that large-seeded species better tolerate cover crop residue–mediated stress than small-seeded species. This provides the potential for selective suppression of small-seeded weeds in large-seeded crops. We conducted two field experiments in which seedling emergence of a range of crop and weed species was monitored in soil without cover crop residues and soil with recently incorporated lucerne, winter oilseed rape or winter rye residues. A positive relationship was found between seed mass and tolerance to winter oilseed rape and lucerne residues in both experiments, whereas winter rye residues did not inhibit seedling emergence. Both the gradual reduction in residue-mediated inhibitory potential with time in the first experiment, as well as the sudden increase in lucerne residue–mediated inhibitory potential following a severe rainfall event in the second experiment, illustrated the importance of temporal dynamics. Therefore, we hypothesised that time between residue incorporation and receptor plant emergence could serve as an additional variable for explaining the variation in inhibition of seedling emergence among receptor plant species. Re-analysis of data from two previously published field experiments revealed that seed mass and time of emergence only contributed significantly to explaining variance in receptor plant emergence when both these factors were included in the analysis. Our findings suggest that considering temporal synchrony of receptor species’ sensitivity and potential residue effects in field studies provides a valuable framework for analysing crop residue-mediated effects
Alternative Stable States Driven by Density-Dependent Toxicity
Heide, T. van der; Nes, E.H. van; Katwijk, M.M. van; Scheffer, M. ; Hendriks, A.J. ; Smolders, A.J.P. - \ 2010
Ecosystems 13 (2010)6. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 841 - 850.
eelgrass zostera-marina - distinguishing resource competition - fresh-water wetlands - vegetation dieback - baltic sea - ecosystems - sulfide - phytotoxicity - interference - populations
Many populations are exposed to naturally occurring or synthetic toxicants. An increasing number of studies demonstrate that the toxicity of such compounds is not only dependent on the concentration or load, but also on the biomass or density of exposed organisms. At high biomass, organisms may be able to alleviate adverse effects of the toxicant by actively lowering ambient concentrations through either a joint detoxification mechanism or growth dilution. We show in a conceptual model that this mechanism may potentially lead to alternative stable states if the toxicant is lethal at low densities of organisms, whereas a high density is able to reduce the toxicant concentrations to sub-lethal levels. We show in an example that this effect may be relevant in real ecosystems. In an earlier published experimental laboratory study, we demonstrated that ammonia toxicity in eelgrass is highly dependent on the eelgrass shoot density. Here, we used the results of these experiments to construct a model describing the complex interactions between the temperate seagrass Zostera marina and potentially lethal ammonia. Analyses of the model show that alternative stable states are indeed present over wide ranges of key-parameter settings, suggesting that the mechanism might be important especially in sheltered, eutrophicated estuaries where mixing of the water layer is poor. We argue that the same mechanism could cause alternative stable states in other biological systems as well.
Bestrijding van Phoma telephii in Sedum
Bulle, A.A.E. ; Slootweg, G. ; Hollinger, T.C. ; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Trompert, J.P.T. - \ 2010
phoma - verkleuring - verkleuring door schimmels - bestrijdingsmethoden - fytotoxiciteit - discoloration - fungal stains - control methods - phytotoxicity
Informatieposter over de bestrijding van Phoma telephii in Sedum
Risico-evaluatie toepassing groen gas in de Nederlandse glastuinbouw
Dijk, C.J. van; Dueck, T.A. ; Burgers, W. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 33
tuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - bio-energie - biogas - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fytotoxiciteit - risicofactoren - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - biobased economy - horticulture - protected cultivation - bioenergy - biogas - sustainability - phytotoxicity - risk factors - agricultural research - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - biobased economy
In deze studie worden de mogelijke risico’s die het gebruik van biogas in de glastuinbouw met zich mee kunnen brengen zo goed mogelijk in beeld gebracht. Aan de hand van de samenstellingseisen in de aansluit' en Transport' voorwaarden Gas RNB en de resultaten van biogasanalyses bij vijf verschillende vergistingprojecten is bepaald welke componenten in het gas kunnen voorkomen. Op basis de maximaal toegestane concentratie in het gas is vervolgens een schatting gemaakt van de te verwachte maximale concentratie in de kas, op plantniveau. De verhouding tussen de fytotoxiciteit van de betreffende component en de te verwachte concentratie in de kas bepaald of de component een potentieel risico vormt voor kasgewassen.
Microbial enrichment of torrefied grass fibers : a novel ingredient of potting soil
Trifonova, R.D. - \ 2008
University of Groningen. Promotor(en): J.D. van Elsas, co-promotor(en): Joeke Postma. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789036736695 - 146
groeimedia - vezels - hooi - grassen - microbiële flora - verrijking - verbeteraars - fytotoxiciteit - growing media - fibres - hay - grasses - microbial flora - enrichment - amendments - phytotoxicity
Assessment of chronic effects of n-undecane on plants
Dueck, T.A. ; Dijk, C.J. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 204) - 24
gewassen - risicoschatting - koolwaterstoffen - fumigatie - phaseolus - brassica - solanum - plantago - fytotoxiciteit - bomen - crops - risk assessment - hydrocarbons - fumigation - phytotoxicity - trees
This report describes a study that was performed to quantify the effects of undecane on plants in order to derive no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOECs) for each plant species.
Assessment of chronic effects of 1,3,5-trimethyl-benzene (mesitylene) on plants
Dueck, T.A. ; Dijk, C.J. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 203) - 24
fytotoxiciteit - koolwaterstoffen - fumigatie - gewassen - phaseolus - brassica - picea - trifolium - solanum - holcus - plantago - bomen - risicoschatting - phytotoxicity - hydrocarbons - fumigation - crops - trees - risk assessment
This report describes a study that was performed to quantify the effects of mesitylene on plants in order to derive no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOECs) for each plant species.
Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum
Trifonova, R.D. ; Postma, J. ; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H. ; Elsas, J.D. van - \ 2008
Microbial Ecology 56 (2008)3. - ISSN 0095-3628 - p. 561 - 571.
coconut coir dusts - sp-nov. - soil - methylobacterium - 4-chlorophenol - microorganisms - phytotoxicity - populations - sequence - removal
This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that improves plant growth. TGF and torrefied grass extracts (TGE) were inoculated with a suspension of microorganisms obtained from soil. Sequential microbial enrichment steps were then performed in both substrates. The microbial communities developing in the substrates were assessed using cultivation-based and cultivation-independent approaches. Thus, bacterial isolates were obtained, and polymerase chain reaction¿denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses for bacterial communities were performed. Partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene from isolates and bands from DGGE gels showed diverse communities after enrichment in TGE and TGF. Bacterial isolates affiliated with representatives of the ¿-proteobacteria (Methylobacterium radiotolerans, Rhizobium radiobacter), ¿-proteobacteria (Serratia plymuthica, Pseudomonas putida), Cytophaga¿Flavobacterium¿Bacteroides (CFB) group (Flavobacterium denitrificans), ß-proteobacteria (Ralstonia campinensis), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas parahominis, Leifsonia poae, L. xyli subsp. xyli, and Mycobacterium anthracenicum), and the firmicutes (Bacillus megaterium) were found. In TGE, ¿-proteobacteria were dominant (61.5% of the culturable community), and 20% belonged to the CFB group, whereas actinobacteria (67.4%) and ¿-proteobacteria (21.7%) were prevalent in TGF. A germination assay with lettuce seeds showed that the phytotoxicity of TGF and TGE decreased due to the microbial enrichment
Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: an example for plants exposed to nickel in soil
Semenzin, E. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Marcomini, A. - \ 2007
Environmental Pollution 148 (2007)2. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 642 - 647.
donnan membrane technique - chemical speciation - heavy-metals - trace-metals - terrestrial - toxicity - phytotoxicity - systems - growth
The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the `free¿ nickel (Ni2+) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account.
Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals
Vries, W. de; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Schutze, G. - \ 2007
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 191 (2007). - ISSN 0179-5953 - p. 91 - 130.
zinc - rice - accumulation - copper - iron - food - phytotoxicity - netherlands - increases - exposures
To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The latter effect is related to the phenomenon that a chemical accumulates in species through different trophic levels in a food chain, or secondary poisoning. Heavy metal accumulation in the food chain is specifically considered important with respect to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and, to a lesser extent, lead (Pb). Accumulation ultimately causes toxic effects on (i) humans by affecting food quality of crops (Kawada and Suzuki 1998) and animal products, as well as drinking water quality, and (ii) animal health by affecting fodder quality and by direct intake of contaminated soil (Adriano 2001). For both humans and animals, health effects arise mainly through accumulation in target organs such as kidney and liver (Satarug et al. 2000). Apart from direct health effects related to intake of food and soil, elevated metal levels in soil also lead to an increase in leaching losses of metals to groundwater and surface water, which will, after a considerable delay time, affect both drinking water quality and aquatic organisms (Crommentuijn et al. 1997).
Eindrapportage ontwikkeling van analysemethoden voor substraten en bodemverbeterende middelen
Blok, C. - \ 2006
Wageningen : PPO Glastuinbouw, Wageningen UR - 7
substraten - bodemverbeteraars - erkende regelingen - europa - verontreinigingen - fytotoxiciteit - onkruiden - verteerbaarheid - kwaliteitszorg - substrates - soil conditioners - approval schemes - europe - impurities - phytotoxicity - weeds - digestibility - quality management
Dit project was gericht op het ontwikkelen van methoden om substraten en bodemverbeterende middelen fysisch, chemisch en biologisch te kunnen karakteriseren. Er is na vergelijkend onderzoek een methode gekozen voor het meten van impurities (ongewenste materialen als glas, steen, plastic en metaal) in substraat(mengsels). Verder is een belangrijke bijdrage geleverd aan het programma van CEN op het gebied van weed testing, fytotoxicity testing en bio-degradation. In 2006 zullen verschillende van deze methoden op Europees niveau worden vastgesteld (aanvaard).
A practical and low cost microbiotest to assess the phytotoxic potential of growing media and soil
Blok, C. ; Persoone, G. ; Wever, G. - \ 2006
fytotoxiciteit - biotesten - biologische technieken - groeimedia - microbiologie - phytotoxicity - bioassays - biological techniques - growing media - microbiology
A good biotest should provide the possibility to grow plants in close contact with the material to test but without interference of the physical characteristics of the latter. To achieve optimal implementation the biotest should be simple and cheap. A new microbiotest (called Phytotoxkit) has been developed to meet these demands and has been compared with a more traditional biotest
Fytotoxiciteit, nematotoxiciteit, en microbiele stabiliteit van getorreficeerd gras
Zoon, F.C. ; Kok, C.J. ; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 380) - 30
groeimedia - plantenresten - grassen - phragmites - vezelgewassen - fytotoxiciteit - torrefactie - growing media - plant residues - grasses - fibre plants - phytotoxicity - torrefaction
Al toxicity and plant nutrient uptake: a role for root cell walls, pH and organic chelators
Postma, J. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem van Riemsdijk, co-promotor(en): W.G. Keltjens. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9058089290 - 169
planten - aluminium - voedingsstoffenopname (planten) - plantenvoeding - fytotoxiciteit - wortels - celwanden - chelaatvormers - plants - aluminium - nutrient uptake - plant nutrition - phytotoxicity - roots - cell walls - chelating agents
Phytotoxicity and bioavailablity of nickel: chemical speciation and bioaccumulation
Weng, L.P. ; Lexmond, T.M. ; Wolthoorn, A. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Riemsdijk, W.H. van - \ 2003
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22 (2003)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2180 - 2187.
planten - chemische analyse - zware metalen - nikkel - toxiciteit - bodem ph - chemische speciatie - biologische beschikbaarheid - fytotoxiciteit - ecotoxicologie - plants - chemical analysis - soil ph - heavy metals - nickel - toxicity - chemical speciation - bioavailability - phytotoxicity - ecotoxicology - donnan membrane technique - soil-ph - copper toxicity - trace-metals - availability - systems - cadmium - maize
The effect of pH on the bioaccumulation of nickel (Ni) by plants is opposite when using a nutrient solution or a soil as a growing medium. This paradox can be understood if the pH effect on the bioaccumulation, on the chemical speciation in the soil solution, and on the binding to the soil of Ni are all taken into account. Using simple equations to describe the individual relationships, it is possible to quantify these effects once the relationships have been established. Increased Ni uptake leads to reduced plant dry weight production for a certain growing period. The median effective concentration (EC50) decreased from 23 to 1.7 muM Ni in the nutrient solution for pH 4.0 to 7.0, whereas the EC50 of added Ni in a sandy soil increased from 0.72 to 9.95 mmol Ni/kg soil for pH 4.7 to 6.8. Bioaccumulation, binding to the soil solid phase, and binding to the dissolved organic matter all increase with increasing pH. However, the magnitude of the effect is the least for bioaccumulation as a function of pH, causing the apparent paradox.
Explorative research into quality of slurry manure from dairy farms with different feeding strategies
Reijs, J.W. ; Meijer, W.H. ; Bakker, E.J. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2003
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 51 (2003)1-2. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 67 - 89.
rundveemest - rundveedrijfmest - stikstof - diervoedering - grasbestand - fytotoxiciteit - grassen - klavers - biotesten - melkveehouderij - cattle manure - cattle slurry - nitrogen - animal feeding - herbage - phytotoxicity - grasses - clovers - bioassays - dairy farming - cress lepidium-sativum - seed-germination - sewage-sludge - cattle feces - growth - mineralization - decomposition - netherlands - deterrents
To assess cattle slurry manure quality in relation to feeding strategy, a field experiment and a bio-assay were carried out with slurries from four dairy farming systems that used diets differing in protein content and digestibility. Several quality aspects were evaluated. In the field experiment the effects of slurry manure type on herbage rejection by grazing heifers and herbage yield on undisturbed plots under cages were studied for a grass monoculture and a grass/clover mixture. The bio-assay, consisting of a cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination test, was used to study differences in phytotoxicity between the slurry types. After five weeks of undisturbed growth at equal amounts of applied inorganic nitrogen (N), the herbage yields differed statistically for the different slurries. This was probably due to immobilization of N in the case of the two slurries from farming systems in which straw was fed and used as bedding material. Herbage rejection by grazing animals was significantly shown for all slurry types and was significantly and positively correlated with the NH3/NH4 +-N content of the slurry. The slurries showed large differences in phytotoxicity to seeds and seedlings in the bio-assay. Ammonia and electric conductivity appeared to be the most important slurry parameters with inhibiting effects. The slurries with a high C/N ratio showed lowest phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity in the cress seed germination test did not account for reduced herbage yields in the field experiment. On the contrary, when the slurries were ranked according to their phytotoxicity the order was the same as the ranking on the basis of undisturbed herbage yield. It was concluded that there is a need for other laboratory tests that show greater resemblance with what is observed in the field to assess slurry quality.
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