Data from: Short-term, but not long-term, increased daytime workload leads to decreased night-time energetics in a free-living song bird
Visser, Marcel E. ; Dooremalen, Coby van; Tomotani, Barbara ; Bushuev, Andrey ; Meijer, Harro A.J. ; Marvelde, Luc Te; Gienapp, Phillip - \ 2019
compensation hypothesis - Anthropocene - Ficedula hypoleuca - increased-intake hypothesis - daily energy expenditure - pied flycatcher - feeding frequency - basal metabolic rate
Reproduction is energetically expensive and to obtain sufficient energy, animals can either alter their metabolic system over time to increase energy intake (increased-intake hypothesis) or reallocate energy from maintenance processes (compensation hypothesis). The first hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and energy expenditure (DEE) because of the higher energy demands of the metabolic system at rest. The second hypothesis predicts a trade-off between different body functions, with a reduction of the BMR as a way to compensate for increased daytime energetic expenditure. We experimentally manipulated the workload of wild pied flycatchers by adding or removing chicks when chicks were 2 and 11 days old. We then measured the feeding frequency (FF), DEE and BMR at day 11, allowing us to assess both short- and long-term effects of increased workload. The manipulation at day 2 caused an increase in FF when broods were enlarged, but no response in DEE or BMR, while the manipulation at day 11 caused an increase in FF, no change in DEE and a decrease in BMR in birds with more chicks. Our results suggest that pied flycatchers adjust their workload but that this does not lead to a higher BMR at night (no support for the increased intake hypothesis). In the short term, we found that birds reallocate energy with a consequent reduction of BMR (evidence for the compensation hypothesis). Birds thus resort to short-term strategies to increase energy expenditure, which could explain why energy expenditure and hard work are not always correlated in birds.
Data from: Simulated moult reduces flight performance but overlap with breeding does not affect breeding success in a long-distance migrant
Mizumo Tomotani, Barbara ; Muijres, F.T. ; Koelman, Julia ; Casagrande, Stefania ; Visser, Marcel E. - \ 2017
trade-off - pied flycatcher - high-speed camera - parental care - PIT-TAG - oxidative stress - plumage - Ficedula hypoleuca
1. Long-distance migrants are time-constrained as they need to incorporate many annual cycle stages within a year. Migratory passerines moult in the short interval between breeding and migration. To widen this interval, moult may start while still breeding, but this results in flying with moulting wings when food provisioning. 2. We experimentally simulated wing gaps in breeding male pied flycatchers by plucking 2 primary feathers from both wings. We quantified the nest visitations of both parents, proportion of high-quality food brought to the nestlings and adults and nestlings condition. Differences in oxidative damage caused by a possible reduction in flight efficiency were measured in amounts of ROMs and OXY in the blood. We also measured how flight performance was affected with recordings of the male`s escape flight using high-speed cameras. Finally, we collected data on adult survival, clutch size and laying date in the following year. 3. “Plucked” males travelled a 5% shorter distance per wingbeat, showing that our treatment reduced flight performance. In line with this, “plucked” males visited their nests less often. Females of “plucked” males, however, visited the nest more often than controls, and fully compensated their partner’s reduced visitation rate. As a result, there were no differences between treatments in food quality brought to the nest, adult or chick mass or number of successfully fledged chicks. Males did not differ in their oxidative damage or local survival to the following year. In contrast, females paired with plucked males tended to return less often to breed in the next year in comparison to controls, but this difference was not significant. For the birds that did return there were no effects on breeding. 5. Our results reveal that wing gaps in male pied flycatchers reduce their flight performance, but when it occurs during breeding they prioritise their future reproduction by reducing parental care. As a result, there is no apparent detriment to their condition during breeding. Because non-moulting females are able to compensate their partner’s reduced care, there is also no immediate costs to the offspring, but females may pay the cost suffering from a reduced survival.
Communication in the Third Dimension: Song Perch Height of Rivals Affects Singing Response in Nightingales
Sprau, P. ; Roth, T. ; Naguib, M. ; Amrhein, V. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
broad-band trills - pairing success - phylloscopus-trochilus - luscinia-megarhynchos - pied flycatcher - territory - distance - location - choice - signal
Many animals use long-range signals to compete over mates and resources. Optimal transmission can be achieved by choosing efficient signals, or by choosing adequate signalling perches and song posts. High signalling perches benefit sound transmission and reception, but may be more risky due to exposure to airborne predators. Perch height could thus reflect male quality, with individuals signalling at higher perches appearing as more threatening to rivals. Using playbacks on nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos), we simulated rivals singing at the same height as residents, or singing three metres higher. Surprisingly, residents increased song output stronger, and, varying with future pairing success, overlapped more songs of the playback when rivals were singing at the same height than when they were singing higher. Other than expected, rivals singing at the same height may thus be experienced as more threatening than rivals singing at higher perches. Our study provides new evidence that territorial animals integrate information on signalling height and thus on vertical cues in their assessment of rivals.