De boon op de troon
Weele, Cor van der; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Giller, Ken ; Jager, Ilse de - \ 2016
food security - human feeding - beans - grain legumes - lentils - food consumption - protein sources - food and agriculture organization - meat alternates - soil fertility - pisum sativum
Geinterviewd voor artikel in Wageningen World Nr.3 2016 In het kader van het Internationaal jaar van de peulvruchten.
Gele Erwt- Pisum Sativum / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
erwten - pisum sativum - droge bonen - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - peas - pisum sativum - dry beans - food crops - fodder crops - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas gele erwt. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods
Heng, L. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Fons Voragen; Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085041986 - 152
erwten - pisum sativum - peulvruchteiwit - geur en smaak - aroma - vluchtige verbindingen - geurstoffen en smaakstoffen - saponinen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - peas - pisum sativum - legume protein - flavour - aroma - volatile compounds - flavour compounds - saponins - novel foods
This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate the flavour aspects of peas and its protein fractions, as being potential ingredients for NPFs. To achieve this objective, the type and amount of flavour compounds from pea flour and pea protein preparations, as well as the stability and sensory characteristics of some of these compounds were investigated. The interactions of flavour compounds and pea protein fractions, as well as the effect of heating and presence of non-protein components on these interactions were also studied. With the results obtained, PROFETAS will be able to provide essential information for food industries and research institutes, to aid in the production of food with superior quality. Food manufacturers can better manipulate their ingredients and processing, optimising production conditions, which in turn lead to cost saving.
Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation
Tzitzikas, E. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken; C.J.J.M. Raemakers. - s.n. - ISBN 9789085042938 - 109
pisum sativum - erwten - eiwitten - globulinen - genetische variatie - genetische transformatie - rhizobium radiobacter - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - plantenveredeling - luciferasen - rassen (planten) - cultivars - pisum sativum - peas - proteins - globulins - genetic variation - genetic transformation - rhizobium radiobacter - novel foods - plant breeding - luciferases - varieties - cultivars
Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble albumins. The globulins are subdivided into two major groups based on their sedimentation coefficient: the 11S fraction (comprising the class ofleguminwith variousisoforms) and the 7S fraction (comprising the classes ofvicilinandconvicilin, each with variousisoforms).Pea cultivars with extreme variation in globulin composition (i.e. lacking a particular class of proteins) might become important for the food industry, because they could provide new raw materials for specific applications, like the production of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs), which receive attention as possible meatreplacers.This thesis aimed at (i) to determine the existing natural variation in pea's globulin content and composition, in order to identify suitable cultivars for the production ofNPFs, (ii) to develop a more efficient protocol for genetic modification of pea, and (iii) to modulate pea protein composition, based ondsRNAdirected silencing.An inventory of protein content and composition of pea was performed to characterize the genetic variation for these traits (Chapter 2). To include a wide range of natural genetic variation, cultivars from a wide geographic distribution, with differences in leaf and seed characteristics, were selected and characterized. Large variation was observed between the various lines. Results on protein content showed a variation from 16.3% to 36.6% of dry matter (DM), with an overall average content of 26.6%. Globulins content varied between 49.2% and 81.8% of the proteins of the total pea protein extract (TPPE). On individual globulins level,legumincontent varied between 5.9% and 24.5%.Vicilinwas the most abundant protein of pea, and its content varied between 26.3% and 52.0% of the TPPE. The processedvicilinwas the predominant of the two, with values between 17.8% and 40.8%, whereas the non-processed ones constituted between 3.1% and 13.5% of the TPPE.Convicilinwas the least abundant globulin having an average content of 6.1%. Its content ranged from 3.9% to 8.3%. Finally, the globulin-related proteins were present in amounts ranging from 2.8% to 17.3% of the TPPE. The globulins showed the largest relative variation of the four globulin classes.It is known that a lowvicilin/convicilinratio can result in poorgelation. Based on our data (Chapter 2) and the literature, it is concluded that pea isolates have a morefavourableprotein composition for gelling applications as compared to those from soybean. Moreover, the genetic variation for this trait appears to be larger in pea than in soybean, which might offer opportunities to reduce theconvicilincontent further.Our inventory did not show cultivars lacking a specific globulin. Such cultivars might be important, because they could have morefavourablephysical properties for the production ofNPFs. To produce such lines genetic modification approaches were employed. To carry out genetic modification a reliable protocol is needed. At the time this study started, protocols for the production of genetically modified peas were available, but particularly the regeneration of plants from transgenic cells was very inefficient. Most of the plants obtained were either escapes orchimeric(not all cells of a plant are genetically modified). Therefore, our study focused on obtaining a novel regeneration protocol, which in combination with the transformation procedure would result in an improved method for obtaining transgenic pea lines.The novel regeneration protocol started with subculture of stem tissue with one node (Chapter 3) or whole seeds (Chapter 4) on TDZ supplemented medium. Repeated subculture of stem tissue with one node resulted in a greenhyperhydrictissue in the swollen bases of the multiple shoots, which is fully covered with small buds [bud-containing tissue (BCT)] was formed. BCT fragments were isolated andsubculturedin the same medium and, as a result, they were able to reproduce themselves in a cyclic fashion. Subculture of BCT on medium supplemented with a combination of GA 3 ,cytokininsandauxinsresulted in the production of rooted shoots. In-vitro plants were transferred to the greenhouse foracclimatisationand further development. All tested pea cultivars ('Espace', 'Classic', 'Solara', and 'Puget') responded in the same way.Culture of seeds for a relatively long time (Chapter 4) on TDZ supplemented medium resulted in the production of very high numbers of shoots together with BCT which was identical to the BCT described in Chapter 3. This protocol resulted in the faster production of BCT as compared to the protocol described in Chapter 3.The regeneration protocol from Chapter 3 was combined with genetic modification (Chapter 5). Transgenic pea plants were obtained after co-cultivation of bud containing tissue (BCT) andshootyBCT withAgrobacteriumtumefaciens strain AGL0(pG49A). The binary vector pG49A contained an interrupted inverted repeat of aleguminA gene, flanked by the promoter of thetrypsin/chymotrypsininhibitor gene, together with theluciferasegene for selection of transgenic tissue.Luciferasepositive tissue was identified, isolated, andsubculturedon TDZ-supplemented medium. On this medium, BCT can be multiplied, and theshootyBCT will become pure BCT again. Theluciferasebased selection procedure was repeated until (almost) completeluciferasepositive BCT cultures were obtained. Plants (S 0 ) of 23 transgenic lines were grown in the greenhouse. The S 0 plants were smaller in size and produced less seeds than the control plants. All lines producedluciferasepositive seeds. The transgenic nature of 5 S 0 plants was further confirmed using Southern blot analysis. Protein analysis with SDS PAGE electrophoresis of the seeds of 8 lines indicated differences in protein composition, although our data were not conclusive on whether the amount ofleguminA or otherleguminswas affected. Further experiments should show whether the protein compositional changes resulted from silencing of theleg Agene, or other factors such as genetic or epigenetic changes in the genetically modified plants, caused by the tissue culture procedures.Seeds of 6 lines were grown to produce S 1 . The S 1 plants were comparable in height to control plants. However, the number of seeds per plant was significantly lower.The developed transformation protocol is highly repeatable. Each experiment resulted in genetic modified plants, in contrast to other systems, which have low repeatability. However, our system is more time consuming than those developed by others. Therefore, the regeneration system, which produces BCT directly from the seeds without the need for production of in-vitro plants, should be combined with genetic modification in the future. Furthermore, the selection of transgenic tissue should be optimised using selectable marker genes such asnpt IIor pat .
Nieuwe eiwitgewassen voor de voeding van varkens in de biologische houderij
Balkema, A. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 311) - 26
eiwit - diervoedering - varkens - biologische landbouw - nederland - varkenshouderij - voederpeulvruchten - pisum sativum - vicia faba - lupinus albus - lupinus luteus - lupinus angustifolius - chenopodium quinoa - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - eiwitleverende planten - protein - animal feeding - pigs - organic farming - netherlands - pig farming - fodder legumes - pisum sativum - vicia faba - lupinus albus - lupinus luteus - lupinus angustifolius - chenopodium quinoa - new crops - protein plants
Voor biologische veehouders geldt vanaf 2005 de eis dat alle voeders van biologische oorsprong dienen te zijn. In deze deskstudie worden de eigenschappen en potentie van alternatieve eiwitgewassen beschreven. Zaden van in ons land passendeleguminosen (erwt ( Pisum sativum), veldboon ( Vicia faba), lupine ( Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius) ) hebben een hoog eiwitgehalte vergeleken met dat van andere zaadgewassen doch lager dan dat van soja. De aminozuursamenstelling vanleguminosen is goed, alleen de niveaus van tryptofaan en de zwavelhoudende aminozuren zijn suboptimaal. Het gehalte aan lysine en threonine in het eiwit is hoog; hierdoor is het eiwit qua samenstelling complementair aan dat van granen. Leguminosenbevatten zogenaamde antinutritionele factoren (ANF): stoffen die de verteerbaarheid verminderen. De belangrijkste ANF s zijn: alkaloiden en tanninen, fytaat, protease-remmers, lectines, saponines en oligosachariden.Het gewas quinoa is interessant vanwegehet relatief hoge vet- en eiwitgehalte en de goede kwaliteit van het eiwit ten opzichte van granen. Voederproeven met biggen en kippen laten zien dat - met name - rassen van leguminosen met lage ANF-gehaltes het soja-aandeel in mengvoeders kunnenvervangen. Voor de biologische teler is veldboon wellicht het aantrekkelijkste gewas omdat dit gewas minder problemen met ziekten dan erwt kent. Op langere termijn zal ook lupine aantrekkelijk worden als aan de Nederlandse omstandigheden aangepaste rassenbeschikbaar komen; de thans in het buitenland ontwikkelde nieuwe rassen zullen zich in Nederland moeten bewijzen! Hetzelfde geldt voor quinoa.
Molecular characterisation and heat-induced gelation of pea vicilin and legumin
O'Kane, F.E. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Harry Gruppen. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089847 - 136
erwten - viciline - legumine - planteiwitten - gelering - karakterisering - heterogeniteit - pisum sativum - peas - vicilin - legumin - plant proteins - gelation - characterization - heterogeneity - pisum sativum
The most important globular pea proteins are legumin and vicilin, and a minor protein is convicilin. The first two have extensive molecular heterogeneity that is well documented in literature, and the latter possesses a distinctive highly charged N-terminal extension region. Characterisation of two vicilin fractions (one contaminated by convicilin) via column chromatography, gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism and solubility experiments lead to the conclusion that convicilin is not a separate protein. It was denoted as thea-subunit of vicilin, and is another heterogeneous factor of this protein. Further experiments showed that when present in large amounts thesea-subunits increase the minimum gelling concentration of purified pea proteins at near-neutral pH, and cause transparent heat-induced gels to be formed. This behaviour was attributed to the repulsive forces on the N-terminal extension region at near-neutral pH, and was supported by the fact that no difference in the gelationbehaviourof the two vicilin fractions was observed a low pH values where the repulsive charges would have been neutralised. Thesea-subunits also appeared to have an impact of the gelation of the pea protein isolates when present in sufficient quantity. Heat-induced gelation of legumin was compared with its analogous protein in soybean, namely glycinin. Overall the results of DSC and small deformation rheology showed that both the proteins have the same physical and chemical driving forces acting during gelation, but soybean glycinin, unlike legumin, was consistently able to form reheatable gels. Comparison of the amino acid profiles of the two proteins gave no indication as to why these homologous proteins form gels with different gel network stabilities. When comparing protein isolates and legumin from different pea cultivarsit was shown that the contribution of legumin to pea protein isolategelationwas cultivar specific and that The contribution of legumin to pea protein isolate gelation was no easier to characterise, and althoughdisulphide bonds were seen toplayed a role in gelation, butthey did not demonstrate the gel strengthening ability that they are often reported to posses.
Comparative studies on ENOD40 in legumes and non-legumes
Vleghels, I.J.E. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ton Bisseling, co-promotor(en): Henk Franssen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088086 - 99
genexpressie - tomaten - arabidopsis - transgene planten - pisum sativum - wortelknolletjes - rhizobium - gene expression - tomatoes - arabidopsis - transgenic plants - pisum sativum - root nodules - rhizobium
Plants, unlike animals, continue to form organs after the completion of embryogenesis. This continuous formation of new organs allows plants to be flexible in a constantly changing environment. A unique example of adaptation to an environmental signal can be found among members of the family of Leguminosae . Legumes can enter a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria that leads to the formation of a complete new organ, the root nodule. Inside these nodules, the hosted bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. Root nodule formation is considered to be acquired by legumes in the course of evolution (Gualtieri and Bisseling, 2000). Several studies show that evolution of new traits involves changes of transcription factors, signalling molecules and structural proteins (Carroll et al ., 2001). Homologues of nodulin genes (genes that are highly induced during nodule formation) can be found in non-legumes. This indicates that at least some of the genes and maybe even processes necessary for nodule development must be functioning in non-legumes, suggesting that rhizobia have recruited genes involved in general plant development for nodule formation. The presence of nodulin homologues in non-legumes opens the possibility to compare the regulation and function of nodulins and nodulin homologues in legumes and non-legumes. From such studies one might learn how the regulation or function of these genes was adjusted to establish a symbiosis with Rhizobium .
We studied the regulation and function of the legume ENOD40 gene and its tomato homologue LeENOD40 . ENOD40 homologues have been found in legumes as well as non-legumes such as rice (Kouchi et al . 1999), maize, citrus and tobacco (Van de Sande et al . 1996). In the legume Medicago truncatula , ENOD40 was shown to be required for proper nodule development (Charon et al . 1999). Ectopic expression of soybean ENOD40 in the non-legume tobacco leads to reduced apical dominance (Van de Sande et al. 1996). This indicates that ENOD40 plays an important role in both nodule formation and non-symbiotic plant development.
In chapter 1 an introduction on root nodule development in legumes is described and the current knowledge on the role of ENOD40 in this process is summarised.
In chapter 2 the isolation of the LeENOD40 gene from tomato and its mapping position on the tomato genome is described. To enable detailed expression studies of ENOD40 , LeENOD40::GUS is introduced in tomato. Expression of LeENOD40::GUS is analysed throughout the plant life cycle. LeENOD40::GUS expression strikingly co-localises with sites of increased ethylene production in plant development such as in the seed after germination and in flowers before the onset of and during flower senescence. Furthermore, the expression studies show that LeENOD40 is negatively regulated during initiation of lateral root formation, suggesting that the gene plays a role in lateral root formation.
In chapter 3 we compare regulation of LeENOD40::GUS and GmENOD40::GUS expression in a legume and a non-legume background. Our studies show that LeENOD40::GUS and GmENOD40::GUS expression are similarly regulated in non-legumes. We also show that LeENOD40::GUS is expressed in similar nodular tissues as the endogenous ENOD40 .
In chapter 4 we investigate the effect of ectopic expression of GmENOD40 ( 35S::GmENOD40 ) on tomato development in transgenic tomato plants. Preliminary studies show that ectopic expression of GmENOD40 causes an increase in flower and leaf size in 2 transgenic tomato plants. The leaves and flowers of these plants contain cells larger than wild-type cells in the epidermis.
In chapter 5 we investigate whether we can assign a function to the peptide encoded by ENOD40 by searching for protein binding partners for the peptide. For this we used the yeast Two-Hybrid system to screen a cDNA library of young pea nodules. This resulted in the isolation of Ps-p40, a pea homologue of the ribosomal protein p40. In situ hybridisation studies show that the expression sites of p40 and ENOD40 partly overlap in nodules. Further investigation is necessary to confirm or disprove the interaction between p40 and ENOD40.
In the concluding remarks of this thesis (chapter 6) we discuss a possible function of ENOD40 and we discuss whether ENOD40 represents a gene that is recruited during evolution for nodule formation.
Medicago truncatula, an intergenomic vehicle for the map-based cloning of pea (Pisum sativum) genes : comparative structural genomic studies of the pea Sym2-Nod3 region
Gualtieri González-Latorre, G.S. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.H.J. Bisseling. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084392 - 146
pisum sativum - genen - genomen - genetische kartering - medicago truncatula - genetische modificatie - pisum sativum - genes - genomes - genetic mapping - medicago truncatula - genetic engineering
To determine the usefulness of M. truncatula as intergenomic vehicle for the positional cloning of pea genes it was studied whether these legumes are microsyntenic. These studies were focused on the pea Sym2 and Nod3 genomic regions. The M. truncatula orthologous genomic regions have been cloned and it was shown that these regions of the two legumes are microsyntenic. Both Sym2 and Nod3 play a key role in the pea- Rhizobium symbiosis, controlling Nod factor-structure dependent infection and autoregulation of nodule number, respectively.
A M. truncatula A17 BAC library was screened with a pea marker tightly linked to Sym2 and 11 clones were isolated. These clones formed three different contigs named C1, C2, and C3, which were extended to about twice their original size by chromosome walking resulting in contigs of 300 Kbp, 170 Kbp and 150 Kbp, respectively. Genetic and FISH mapping in M. truncatula revealed that the three contigs map on chromosome 5, and that C1 and C2 are tightly linked while C3 maps at a distance of 9 cM from C1/C2 on the same arm of this chromosome. By a combination of contig physical data and FISH it was estimated that C1 and C2 were separated by a gap of 30-40 Kbp. C1 and C2 were further linked to each other by screening an expanded version of the M. truncatula BAC library with the C1 and C2 contig-end subclones Mtg2511 and Mtg3556, respectively. Consequently, the small gap was closed by a 12 Kbp sequence linking C1/C2 which final size resulted in about 480 Kbp. Eight RFLP markers (including cDNAs and contig subclones) were isolated from C1/C2. Mapping of these markers using pea RILs and introgression lines demonstrated that C1/C2 represents the MedicagoSym2 -orthologous genomic region. Moreover, three markers showed recombinations between their pea homologous sequences and Sym2 , delimitating both the pea Sym2 region in the RILs and introgression lines, and the MedicagoSym2 -orthologous region . The MedicagoSym2 -orthologous region was delimitated to about 350 Kbp of C1/C2. In addition, by using a C2 subclone that encodes for a sequence highly homologous to the LRR-motif of the Cf4 and Cf9 tomato [ Licopersicon esculentum ] disease resistance proteins, a pea cDNA was isolated from a pea root hair library that also contains a LRR-domain highly homologous to that of Cf4 / Cf9 . The isolation of this pea RFLP marker demonstrates the use of M. truncatula as intergenomic positional-cloning vehicle of pea genes located within microsyntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, it was shown that the pea Sym2 -region is rich in Cf4 / Cf9 LRR-like sequences. The cloned C1/C2 Sym2 -orthologues candidates include receptor kinases and LRR-containing ( Cf4 / Cf9 -like, TMV -like) genes. Detailed analysis of 22 sequences from C1/C2 (including all RFLP markers) and the pea Sym2 -containing region showed that 4 of these sequences have homologues in c3, and that they are organized in clusters with a similar linear order in these contigs. This indicates that C1/C2 and C3 probably arose through duplication of a chromosomal segment.
By using the RNA differential display in combination with RILs and introgression lines, the tightly linked RFLP markers dd21.5 and Psc2.6 were isolated that are linked to the hypernodulating Nod3 locus and represent the closest markers mapping to the "south" of this locus on pea linkage group I in between Eil2 and Nod3 . These markers were used to identify the M. tuncatula A17 orthologous region with the aim to start the microsynteny-based positional cloning of Nod3 . The M. truncatula A17 BAC library was screened with these two markers. BAC clone 21F22 was isolated that contains the orthologue of dd21.5 . In addition 5 BAC clones were identified that co-hybridize with both dd21.5 and Psc2.6 , demonstrating the existence of M. truncatula genomic regions microsyntenic with the pea genomic region containing these two markers. BAC 21F22 was mapped by FISH on M. truncatula chromosome 4, revealing a local disruption of synteny at the dd21.5 locus between pea linkage group 1 and M. truncatula chromosome 5 that were syntenic for other markers (i.e. the markers isolated from the Sym2 -orthologous region, and the pea Eil2 marker). This finding reveals a chromosomal translocation that took place either in pea or in M. truncatula . However, it is unknown whether this translocation extends beyond the dd21.5 locus and includes the Nod3 locus. In addition to the strong FISH signal given by 21F22 on chromosome 4, weak signals were observed close to the telomeres of chromosome 5 and the position of one of these signals is comparable to the position of the C1/C2 Sym2 -orthologous region. Thus, it is possible that in spite of the translocation, chromosome 5 contains sequences with a low homology with those of the pea linkage group I segment containing dd21.5 . It remains to be determined whether the five microsyntenic BACs map in these chromosome 5 regions or whether they map in chromosome 4 and form a contig with BAC 21F22.
The data presented in this thesis set the basis for the microsynteny-based cloning of the Sym2 and Nod3 genes by using M.truncatula as intergenomic positional-cloning vehicle. In addition, the molecular resources generated in this thesis are useful to extend microsynteny studies at the Sym2 and Nod3 regions to other legume (e.g. Lotus japonicus ) and actinorhizal nodule-forming species, and also to non-nodulating related species from the Rosid I clade and non-nodulating less-related species (e.g. Arabidopsis and Brassica species that belong to the Rosid II clade). This will enable the identification of genes within these genomic regions that might be unique to nodule-forming plants engaged in symbiotic nitrogen fixation, representing a predisposition for nodulation at the ancestral root of the Rosid I clade. In other words, these studies will enable to answer one of the most interesting questions of plant biology and comparative genomics: whether the ability of legume and actinorhizal plants to establish a nodular symbioses, is given by unique properties that left their evolutionary "signatures" at the genome level.
|Dry fractionation of peas
Dijkink, B.H. ; Langelaan, H.C. - \ 2000
Industrial Proteins 8 (2000)1. - ISSN 1381-0022 - p. 11 - 13.
erwten - pisum sativum - fractionering - scheiding - groenvoederfractionering - eiwitextractie - agro-industriële sector - postagrarische sector - voedselindustrie - zetmeel - voedselverwerking - kosten - peas - fractionation - separation - green crop fractionation - protein extraction - agroindustrial sector - postagricultural sector - food industry - starch - food processing - costs
De verschillende factoren die de droge scheiding van erwten in eiwit en zetmeel beinvloeden zijn uiteengezet
Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria
Elvira-Recuenco, M. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.J. Jeger; J.W.L. van Vuurde; J.D. Taylor. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789058082916 - 200
erwten - pisum sativum - pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi - genetisch bepaalde resistentie - ziekteresistentie - biologische bestrijding - plantenveredeling - peas - pisum sativum - pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi - genetic resistance - disease resistance - biological control - plant breeding
Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish landraces.
Pea bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi) occurs worldwide and can cause severe damage under cool and wet conditions particularly at the seedling stage in wintersown crops. Seven Ps. syr. pv. pisi races are currently recognized. There are no resistant cultivars to race 6, which is becoming increasingly important. Current disease control measures include disease avoidance through seed testing and the deployntent of resistant cultivars with race specific resistance gene(s). In the present study two novel control measures were investigated with the potential for integration to give a durable and sustainable disease control. The first was breeding for resistance based on race non-specific resistance present in Pisum abyssinicum, which confers resistance to all races, including race 6. Its mode of inheritance was investigated through a crossing programme with Pisum sativum cultivars. Resistance was controlled by a major recessive gene and a number of modifiers. Progenies of crosses between resistant F5 populations and commercial cultivars are now available. Molecular markers for race non-specific resistance based on a pea retrotransposon marker system were developed. It is suggested that the combination of race specific and race non-specific resistance provides the optimal genetic background for the maximum expression of resistance to all races of the pathogen in all plant parts and under field conditions. The second measure was biological control by endophytic bacteria. Studies on the ecology of endophytic bacteria in pea and identification of efficient indigenous colonizers for potential application in biocontrol have been made. Endophytic population levels were in the range 10 3 -10 6 CFU/g fresh tissue in roots and stems. There was a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. Arthrobacter sp. and Curtobacterium sp. were the main Gram-positive bacteria. Factors such as soil type, plant genotype and crop growth stage may significantly influence the diversity and population levels of endophytic bacteria. Future research should focus on the combination and testing of elite breeding lines with selections of disease suppressive endophytic isolates under a variety of field conditions in order to obtain an efficient and durable performance in commercial agriculture.
Fine mapping of the SYM2 locus of pea linkage group 1
Kozik, A. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Kammen; T. Bisseling. - S.l. : Kozik - ISBN 9789054855439 - 111
rhizobiaceae - rhizobium - immuniteit - immunologie - immuunsysteem - pisum sativum - rhizobiaceae - rhizobium - immunity - immunology - immune system - pisum sativum
The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium bacteria and leguminous plants results in the formation of root nodules which are specific, nitrogen-fixing organs that supply the plant with ammonia required for its growth. The formation of a nitrogen-fixing root nodule involves a complex series of steps requiring the expression of genes in both the rhizobial symbiont and the host plant. The necessary genes of rhizobia for nodulation, the nod genes, and for nitrogen fixation, the fix and nif genes, are well studied, nearly all of them having been cloned and characterized. In contrast the symbiosis genes of the legumes are not well understood. A number of plant genes which are specifically expressed in nodules or display enhanced expression in nodules, the so-called nodulin genes, have been identified in pea, soybean, alfalfa and other legumes by mRNA analysis and cDNA cloning. The time of expression of several nodulins has been analyzed in a number of cases and the nodulin genes which are expressed shortly after infection and in the first steps of nodule formation are referred to as early nodulins (ENODs).
In addition, a large series of naturally occurring and induced plant mutants, the sym mutants, which have an altered symbiosis, have been described but the sym genes have not been characterized and the functions of the proteins encoded by these genes are not known. Since it seems a reasonable assumption that there will be a limited number of genes involved in nodule formation and metabolism it might well be that some of the sym mutants represent defects in nodulin-coding or controlling sequences. The study presented in this thesis is centred on one of the sym genes, sym2, as we suspected that the sym2 gene has a role in the first interaction between the Rhizobium bacteria and the legume host plant. A typical characteristic of the Rhizobium legume symbiosis is the host specific nature. Most Rhizobium species can nodulate only plants of a specific plant genus. In the recently past years it has been demonstrated that in the Rhizobium bacteria the nod genes are responsible for the strong specificity in the bacteria-plant interaction. The nod genes are involved in the synthesis of specific lipo-oligosaccharides called Nod factors, that can induce the early responses in host plants leading to root nodule formation. Nod factors with a very specific structure are required to induce these responses and they are active at very low concentrations. Therefore it is probable that, as a first step in inducing the reactions leading to nodule formation, the Nod factors are recognized by a special receptor in the host plant. There are now several reasons to presume that the plant sym2 gene might encode the receptor for the specific recognition of Nod factors. The aim of the study presented in this thesis is a further characterization of the interaction between sym2 containing pea lines and different strains of Rhizobium leguminosarium bv. viciae in an attempt to find further support for this hypothesis. At the same time, we have started the detailed genetic mapping of sym2 on the pea genome, in preparation for eventually cloning and molecular characterization of sym2 .
In chapter 1 a general introduction summarizes the history of the discovery of the sym2 gene and presents the arguments for the hypothesis that sym2 might code for a receptor of rhizobial Nod factors. In chapter 2 a further genetic characterization of sym2 is given. Chapter 3 describes how a novel early nodulin gene of PsENOD7 was characterized and mapped near the sym2 locus. In chapter 4 a detailed map of the sym2 locus linkage group I is presented including some new molecular markers tightly linked to the sym2 locus. In chapter 5 it is demonstrated how the Rhizobium, nodO gene determines whether sym2 is a dominant or a recessive allele. The thesis ends with some concluding remarks on the nature of sym2 and the impact of the research described in the thesis for the cloning of sym2 .
Root nodule organogenesis : molecular characterization of the zonation central tissue
Yang, W.C. - \ 1994
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Kammen; T. Bisseling. - S.l. : Yang - ISBN 9789054852230 - 146
assimilatie - stikstof - rhizobium - pisum sativum - erwten - moleculaire biologie - genexpressie - assimilation - nitrogen - rhizobium - pisum sativum - peas - molecular biology - gene expression
Legume plants form root nodules by interacting with the soil bacterium, Rhizobium. In these nodules bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia which is used by the host plants as nitrogen source. Therefore symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules is of great importance for agriculture.
Root nodule formation involves several developmental stages, namely are: induction of cell divisions in the root cortex, formation of nodule primordium and meristern, and finally differentiation of the meristern into nodule tissues. A mature nodule is composed of a central tissue where bacteria are hosted and several peripheral tissues. The induction of nodule specific genes of the host plants as well as the bacteria in a temporally and spatially controlled manner regulates the development of root nodules. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to investigate mechanisms that control nodule development. For this purpose genes of interest have been isolated and their expression was studied by means of the in situ hybridization technique.
In chapter 2 a general introduction summarizing what we know about nodule development at present is given with an emphasis on gene expression and exchange of signals between the host plant and the rhizobia.
Early studies of Allen et al. (1953) and more recently Hirsch et al. (1989) on polar auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) provided evidences that exogenously applied ATIs cause the formation of nodule-like structures on several legume plants. These studies showed that auxin plays a major role in nodule development. Since certain flavonoids, e.g. quercetin, are endogenous ATIs, we studied the expression of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes, which encode a key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, in situ during nodule development. The results are presented in chapter 3.
To study gene expression during nodule development, two nodulin genes, ENOD40 and NOD6, were isolated and their expression during nodule development was studied by in situ hybridization. In chapter 4, a cDNA clone of the early nodulin gene ENOD40 was characterized. The pattern of expression of ENOD40 during soybean and pea nodule development suggested that it may play an important role in nodule formation. In chapter 5, the isolation of the late nodulin gene NOD6 was described and its expression pattern was compared with that of other nodulin genes.
In chapters 6 and 7, the expression patterns in pea nodules of several bacterial genes were studied. These genes are nif A and nif H , and rop A The expression pattern of nif A and nif H in nodules is described in chapter 6. The expression of the rop A gene, which encodes a bacterial outer membrane protein, is described in chapter 7. The expression pattern of rop A in nodules is compared with that of nif H . The rop A protein was localized at a ultrastructural level by immunocytochemistry.
In chapter 8, the results reported in this thesis are discussed with respect to the mechanisms that controls the induction of cortical cell divisions, meristern formation and formation of zones in the nodule central tissue.
Verbetering van de helderheid van de opgiet bij doperwten
Neuvel, J.J. ; Schijvens, E. ; Deelen, W. van - \ 1993
In: Jaarboek 1993-1996 : verslagen van afgesloten onderzoeksprojecten op de Regionale Onderzoekcentra en het PAGV. Vollegrondsgroenteteelt Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond [etc.] (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra No. 70b-81B) - p. 89 - 96.
voedsel - voedselsamenstelling - voedselbewaring - voedingsmiddelen - voedingswaarde - erwten - pisum sativum - eigenschappen - kwaliteit - groenten - food - food composition - food preservation - foods - nutritive value - peas - pisum sativum - properties - quality - vegetables
Het doel van het onderzoek was om achter de factoren te komen die het optreden van troebelheid beinvloeden bij verwerking tot conservendoperwten in glas en welke verwerkingsmethode optimaal is om de troebelheid te beperken
Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development
Bruijn, S.M. de - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C.M. Karssen; D. Vreugdenhil. - S.l. : De Bruijn - ISBN 9789054851851 - 147
abscisinezuur - distributie - voedingsstoffenreserves - plantenfysiologie - plantenontwikkeling - vruchten - rijp worden - fabaceae - pisum sativum - erwten - brassicaceae - formatie - groei - abscisic acid - distribution - nutrient reserves - plant physiology - plant development - fruits - ripening - fabaceae - pisum sativum - peas - brassicaceae - formation - growth
This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with seed size and seed growth rates. However, since ABA is at least partly synthesized in the leaves and transported to the seeds via the phloem, a correlation between ABA levels and growth rate can easily be explained as the result of the combined transport of ABA and assimilates. Reports about the effect of applied ABA on transport of assimilates to seeds are contradictory (Table 1.I). Moreover, application of ABA has several disadvantages: the application technique itself may cause artefacts, and the results are difficult to interpret since the endogenous ABA level after application depends on penetration, transport and metabolism in the tissue. For these reasons, we have chosen for a different approach, viz . the use of hormone mutants. Two species were used: Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana .
Growth and development of the ABA-deficient ' wilty ' mutant of pea is described in detail (Chapter 2). A non-wilty isogenic line was obtained after six successive backcrosses of the mutant with a closely approximating line. The plants were grown at conditions of high relative humidity and cultured on hydroponics, since leaves of ABA-deficient plants fail to accumulate ABA at drought stress and consequently do not close their stomata- For the same reason, mutant leaves have a higher dry matter content than wild-type leaves. The mutant grew slower and especially root growth was reduced; this resulted in a considerably larger shoot/root ratio. Similar effects have been found in ABA-deficient mutants of several other species. This root-growth promotive effect of ABA can be explained as a measure to prevent an undesirable water status of the leaves by increasing the volume of soil explored under dry conditions.
ABA-deficient plants had fewer and smaller seeds than wild-type plants, but since the mutants plants themselves were also smaller, the weight ratio of reproductive to vegetative parts was similar in both lines. The seeds of mutant plants contained about five times less ABA than wild-type seeds. It was concluded that the lower growth rate of both vegetative and reproductive parts was not directly caused by the lower ABA content of these organs, but by disturbed water relations.
One of the reasons to choose the pea mutant was that transport of assimilates to legume seeds can be studied by the empty-seed-coat technique. After removal of a part of the pod wall and the seed coat, the embryo is replaced by a buffer, while leaving most of the maternal tissue intact. This buffer receives assimilates from the seed-coat and is regularly analysed for the presence of sucrose. The rate of sucrose efflux calculated from the seed-coat into the medium is assumed to be a measure for phloem import, especially during the period of near-constant sucrose release (4-10 hours after the start of the experiment). The effect of ABA on sucrose release was studied by applying various ABA concentrations to the buffer (Figure 3. 1) and expressing the amount of sucrose released into these buffers relative to the amount present in a control seed-coat (a surgically modified seed-coat containing buffer without ABA). It was shown that hardly any ABA leaked from one seed-coat to another. The experiments were performed with both wildtype and ABA-deficient plants, either or not at source-limited conditions, since it was assumed that a possible effect of ABA might be more pronounced in ABA-deficient plants and at source-limited conditions. Source-limiting indeed caused a reduction of the sucrose release- rate. However, no effect of ABA on sucrose release could be discerned, irrespective of the experimental conditions.
Another advantage of the use of mutants is the possibility to study competition between genetically different seeds, for the same source of assimilates (Figure 1.3). In pea, this was achieved by crossing an ABA-deficient mother plant with pollen from plants that were heterozygous for this trait. Chapter 4 describes experiments on ABA-deficient pea plants bearing pods with both ABA-deficient and ABA-containing seeds in the same pod. Seeds in the same pod usually have the same growth rate. In these pods, the growth rate of the seeds was determined by measuring the diameter of the seeds with a pair of callipers. In a control experiment it was shown that these manipulations (opening of the pod and measuring the seeds) did not disturb the normal growth pattern of the seeds. No effect of the genotype on the growth rate of the seeds was detected.
Similar studies were performed with Arabidopsis mutants (Chapter 5). In one series of experiments, successive flowers of a recombinant of an ABA-deficient and an ABA-insensitive mutant (aba,abi3) were alternatingly pollinated with pollen from either wildtype or double-mutant plants. In another series of experiments, a double-mutant that was both ABA-deficient and starchless was used as a mother plant; the amount of available assimilates in these plants was reduced by decreasing the light intensity. The growth rate of the seeds was determined by exposing the mother plants to radiolabelled CO 2 and detecting the amount of radioactivity in the seeds. The weight of the seeds of these crosses was determined on a high-precision balance. In these experiments, again no significant influence of the genotype on either the import of radioactivity or the weight of the seeds could be detected.
The possible effect of ABA on the deposition of reserve material in seeds was studied with some Arabidopsis mutants. Arabidopsis is a crucifer and its seeds initially accumulate starch which is degraded and converted to lipids during seed maturation. Seeds of the ABA-deficient (aba) and the ABA-insensitive (abi3) mutant and their recombinant (aba,abi3) were collected during development and their lipid and carbohydrate composition was analysed and compared with wild-type seeds. The maximum dry and fresh weight of the seeds was not influenced by the genotype. All mutants had considerably reduced levels of eicosenoic acid (20: 1) in the triacylglycerol fraction as compared to wild- type seeds; it is concluded that ABA is involved in the regulation of elongation of fatty acids. The total amount of neutral lipids in seeds of the single mutants was similar to that in wild-type seeds (about 30-35 % on a dry weight basis), but doublemutant seeds contained only half this amount. On the other hand, double-mutant seeds had elevated levels of starch and soluble sugars. Apparently, the blockade in lipid synthesis in these mutants is so strong that it results in starch accumulation and finally in accumulation of soluble sugars. It is concluded that both the presence of ABA and the sensitivity to ABA are required for normal acyl-chain elongation and lipid accumulation; the absence of both factors results in a higher proportion of the imported assimilates being stored as carbohydrates.
From the above-mentioned experiments, it was concluded that ABA has no major influence on the long-distance transport of assimilates, at least not in the species Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana. However, ABA appears to be involved in the distribution of assimilates over the various types of storage material during seed development.
Bestrijding van donkere vlekkenziekte in erwten
Timmer, R.D. - \ 1992
In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 93 - 99.
desinfectie - dothideales - fungiciden - erwten - pisum sativum - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - gewasbescherming - zaadbehandeling - zaden - mycosphaerellaceae - disinfection - dothideales - fungicides - peas - pisum sativum - plant pathogenic fungi - plant protection - seed treatment - seeds - mycosphaerellaceae
Effect van zaaizaadbehandeling en gewasbespuiting met fungiciden op de produktie
Ontwikkeling van systemen van gedeelde toepassing van onkruidbestrijdingsmiddelen in erwten en veldbonen
Wijnholds, K.H. ; Zweep, A. - \ 1992
In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 101 - 106.
tuinbonen - herbiciden - erwten - pisum sativum - gewasbescherming - vicia faba - faba beans - herbicides - peas - pisum sativum - plant protection - vicia faba
Teelt van doperwten
Neuvel, J.J. ; Zwanepol, S. ; Alblas, J. ; Titulaer, H.H.H. ; Sukkel, W. - \ 1992
Lelystad : PAGV [etc.] (Teelthandleiding nr. 48) - 92
erwten - pisum sativum - akkerbouw - veldgewassen - teelthandleidingen - industriële gewassen - peas - pisum sativum - arable farming - field crops - cultivation manuals - industrial crops
Optimalisatie van de zaaizaadproduktie bij erwtenAspects of growing peas for seed - production
Kempenaar, C. - \ 1991
In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 67 - 70.
nederland - erwten - prestatieniveau - pisum sativum - kwaliteit - zaadproductie - zaadbehandeling - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - netherlands - peas - performance - pisum sativum - quality - seed production - seed treatment - yield increases - yield losses - yields
Het onderzoek is gericht om na te gaan welke nadelen het gebruik van besmet zaaizaad met zich mee brengen. Daarnaast besteedt men aandacht aan teeltmaatregelen die de gezondheid van het zaaizaad kunnen vebeteren
Biotoets voetziekten in erwten
Oyarzun, P.J. - \ 1991
Lelystad : PAGV (Verslag / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond nr. 120) - 155
indicatorplanten - nederland - erwten - pisum sativum - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - grondanalyse - bodembiologie - bodemfauna - bodemflora - indicator plants - netherlands - peas - pisum sativum - plant pathogenic fungi - soil analysis - soil biology - soil fauna - soil flora
Kwaliteitsaspecten bij doperwten
Dekker, P.H.M. - \ 1989
In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 134 - 139.
erwten - prestatieniveau - pisum sativum - kwaliteit - peas - performance - pisum sativum - quality