Rights or ability : Access to plant genetic resources in India
Patnaik, A. ; Jongerden, J.P. ; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. - \ 2018
Journal of World Intellectual Property 21 (2018)3-4. - ISSN 1422-2213 - p. 157 - 175.
ability - access - commons - intellectual property rights - plant genetic resources - ability - access - commons - Intellectual property rights - plant genetic resources
The difficulties that stakeholders face in accessing plant genetic resources have been a concern of many scholars since the introduction of intellectual property rights. One of these issues is that of access, which is mostly approached from a rights perspective. Here it is argued that such a rights perspective limits a critical reflection on the possibilities for enhancing accessibility to the Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs) on three grounds and to go beyond this limitation, we introduce an ability perspective. The ability perspective brings into focus how farmers organise their access to PGRs and is researched in four PGRs conservation banks in India; one ex situ and three in situ. An informal system of conservation (in situ) and sharing through informal networks is found to provide better access mechanisms for the small and marginal farmers in India, while access to conserved resources stored at the three in situ banks created biosocial
relations and biosocial commons. However, each case studied had certain disadvantages in respect of granting access to the farmers, so additional mechanisms to facilitate better access to the conserved resources are suggested.
Aardappel: knolgewas van wereldformaat : De oorsprong van de aardappel (herziene versie)
Pistorius, R. ; Hoekstra, R. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland - 20
aardappelen - herkomst - verspreiding - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - rassen (planten) - potatoes - provenance - dispersal - plant genetic resources - varieties
In vier eeuwen tijd is de aardappel uitgegroeid van een lokaal voedselgewas tot het op drie na grootste bulkvoedselgewas ter wereld. Nederland is in de laatste eeuw uitgegroeid tot 's werelds grootste exporteur van pootaardappelen. De aardappelteelt en -export liggen diep verankerd in onze landbouwgeschiedenis.
Bomen aan der einder : Onze bomen en bossen door de eeuwen heen (herziene versie)
Pistorius, R. ; Vries, S.M.G. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
bomen - soortendiversiteit - historische ecologie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - trees - species diversity - historical ecology - plant genetic resources
Pas in de laatste decennia hebben bossen hun voornaamste functie, houtproductie, verloren. Ons huidige, relatief weinig diverse, bosbestand getuigt nog van die verloren functie. Reden te meer het behoud van de biodiversiteit van onze bossen aandacht te geven. Deze brochure belicht ons nationaal bosbeheer door de eeuwen heen en staat stil bij de huidige bewaring van genetisch materiaal van autochtone bomen.
Data from: Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide
Khoury, C.K. ; Achicanoy, Harold A. ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Navarro-Racines, Carlos ; Guarino, Luigi ; Flores-Palacios, Ximena ; Engels, Johannes M.M. ; Wiersema, John H. ; Dempewolf, Hannes ; Sotelo, Steven ; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian ; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P. ; Fowler, Cary ; Jarvis, Andy ; Rieseberg, Loren H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
food security - crop diversity - crop origins - plant genetic resources - crop domestication - crop improvement
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.
Crop Wild Relatives (CWRs) in Nederland
Hoekstra, R. ; Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2016
wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - natuurgebieden - genenbanken - nederland - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - natural areas - gene banks - netherlands
Seeds as biosocial commons : an analysis of various practices in India
Patnaik, Archana - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578302 - 166
rice - seeds - plant genetic resources - plant genetics - seed production - seed storage - community development - gender - social environment - india - rural development - rijst - zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengenetica - zaadproductie - opslag van zaden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - sociaal milieu - india - plattelandsontwikkeling
This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities). Therefore, conservation and management of PGRs in the form of seeds are essential for plant breeding, agricultural production and to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. However, the changed use of PGRs through enclosures and appropriation of the Intellectual Property Rights creates underutilisation of these resources, risking their important societal role. Thus, this research aimed at analysing how the processes of commonisation of PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons emerge in the Indian context.
The research applied an in-depth qualitative research approach using case study method. It focused on four distinct issues of disconnection, collective resistance, strategies of repossession and ability of stakeholders to provide insights broadly into the processes of commonisation of PGRs. Describing the different cases it also establishes whether and how opportunities for commonisation of PGRs as biosocial commons emerge within these contexts. The research analysed four cases where one case reflected on the intellectual commons produced through institutionalisation of PGRs and the other three cases reflected on the bottom-up perspective of commons produced through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).
The research through its first case, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a public ex situ genebank, describes the disconnection of PGRs, while through the second case reflects on the collective activity of resistance through management of community seed banks (CSBs) by the Deccan Development Society (DDS). The third and fourth cases involved small, local initiatives; Loka Samabaya Pratisthan (LSP) and Sambhav that fostered collective action for repossession through in situ seed banks. The research used various techniques, such as interviews with respondents, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observation for primary sources of data, with published and unpublished documents, reports and official websites as secondary sources.
The second chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of disconnection and argues that storing seeds at genebanks disconnects the resources from their biosocial environment. Further, the evaluation of genetic traits within the stored seeds through the scientific intervention at the genebank creates the divide between the resources (seeds) and their informational content. Thus, this chapter concludes that disconnection of seeds from their biosocial environment leads to the creation of exclusive but positive intellectual commons.
The third chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of collective resistance and argues that disconnection of the community from their local food system can generate resistance and collective activity among the community. This chapter finds that the resistance and collective activity further brought in the interaction between the resource and the stakeholders through informal social relations and seed networks.
The fourth chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of strategies of repossession and argues that socio-political and ecological context play an important role in determining the strategy for repossession and commonisation of PGRs which further inhibits or facilitates the production of seeds as biosocial commons.
The fifth chapter of the thesis analyses the ability of stakeholders and finds that apart from institutional rights other factors like the social relations, ideology, negotiations and social identity of a stakeholder determines their ability in accessing the conserved resources.
The overall finding of the research suggests that the informal seed networks in the cases analysed stimulated in establishing the biosocial relations between the stakeholders and the resources. The biosocial relation further led seeds to function as biosocial commons. The research thus proposes that strengthening of these biosocial relations through informal seed networks can lead to the commonisation of the PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons in the Indian context.
Using genetic resources : Rules for international exchange
Crisson, L.J.R. ; Visser, L. - \ 2016
genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische bronnen - internationale verdragen - internationale samenwerking - eu regelingen - diversiteit - animal genetic resources - plant genetic resources - genetic resources - international agreements - international cooperation - eu regulations - diversity
International rules for the exchange and use of genetic resources have been agreed upon, and providers and users are obliged to follow these rules. This folder provides background information on the relevant international agreements, explains various terms that are often used, and provides basic guidance for users seeking access to genetic resources. This folder is relevant for all Dutch public institutes, companies and individuals using genetic resources for research and development.
Country Report for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture – The Netherlands : CGN Report 34
Brink, M. - \ 2015
biodiversity - food and agriculture organization - netherlands - food production - government policy - animal genetic resources - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - ecosystems - agricultural production systems - biodiversiteit - voedsel- en landbouworganisatie - nederland - voedselproductie - overheidsbeleid - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ecosystemen - agrarische productiesystemen
The Netherlands Country Report for The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture forms, together with country reports from other countries, thematic studies, reports from international organizations and inputs from other relevant stakeholders, the basis for the report on the State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (SoWBFA report). The structure of the Country report follows the FAO’s guidelines, to provide baseline information, highlight knowledge gaps and to facilitate the regional and global synthesis of the information from different countries. The report focuses on developments in the area of Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (BFA) observed in the last 10 years.
Approaches to the conservation of forest genetic resources in Europe in the context of climate change
Kelleher, Colin T. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Baliuckas, Virgilijus - \ 2015
Rome : Biodiversity International - ISBN 9789292550325 - 46
forest trees - genetic diversity - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forest resources - climatic change - forest policy - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbestanden - klimaatverandering - bosbeleid
In Europe, forests have been expanding in terms of area and timber stock over the past 50 years and subsequently they have acted as a carbon sink while they have been recovering from previous eras of deforestation. National adaptation strategies to climate change and other policies have been formulated in many European countries to harness the potential of forests and the forestry sector for mitigating climate change. However, the impacts of climate change on forests, and especially on their genetic diversity have not been given a proper consideration in these policies. For these reasons, the EUFORGEN Steering Committee established a working group on climate change and the conservation of forest genetic resources that made several recommendations for action presented in this report
Exploiting wild tomato genetic resources for resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus
Caro Rios, C.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Yuling Bai; Richard Kormelink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575936 - 187
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - disease resistance - tomato yellow leaf curl virus - gene mapping - solanum habrochaites - introgression - plant breeding - solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ziekteresistentie - tomatengeelkrulbladvirus - genkartering - solanum habrochaites - introgressie - plantenveredeling
Beroep op zadenbank op Spitsbergen
Visser, B. - \ 2015
zaden - opslag van zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - syrië - seeds - seed storage - plant genetic resources - syria
Voor het eerst sinds de opening in 2008 maakt een land aanspraak op zaden uit de Svalbard Global Seed Vault, de wereldwijde ondergrondse kluis voor landbouwzaden op Spitsbergen. Syrië heeft een deel van haar ingeleverde zaden nodig, omdat de eigen zadenbank bij Aleppo in de oorlog zwaar beschadigd is, en veel van de daar opgeslagen gewassen vervangen moeten worden. Bert Visser, directeur van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland, in deze uitzending.
The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security
Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): A. Jarvis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574427 - 302
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - germplasm - landbouwontwikkeling - klimaatadaptatie - wilde verwanten - ex-situ conservering - voedselzekerheid - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - germplasm - agricultural development - climate adaptation - wild relatives - ex situ conservation - food security - cum laude
Cum laude graduation
Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps are needed to improve the ability for researchers to access genetic resources critical for present and future crop improvement? This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge required to answer these questions through an exploration of the need for, potential of, challenges and constraints regarding, and necessary steps to enhance the conservation and use of crop genetic diversity.
Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone
Mokuwa, G.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Edwin Nuijten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574328 - 267
oryza glaberrima - oryza sativa - hybride rassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - zaden - voedselzekerheid - familiebedrijven, landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - west-afrika - sierra leone - oryza glaberrima - oryza sativa - hybrid varieties - plant genetic resources - seeds - food security - family farms - farm management - west africa - sierra leone
Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.
Mokuwa, G. A. (2015) Management of rice seed during insurgency: a case study in Sierra Leone. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, 267 pp.
In large parts of West Africa small scale farmers rely upon the cultivation of upland rice under low input conditions in a great diversity of micro-environments. It has been suggested that formal research should consider the context within which farmers address their food security issues. But these contexts need further clarification for poor and marginalized farm households facing many challenges, including dislocations associated with political and social unrest, and civil war. The research presented in this thesis builds on earlier findings concerning farmer management of rice genetic resources under farmer low-resource conditions. It starts with a regional focus, drawing on methods from the social and biological sciences, concerning the human, environmental and technical factors shaping the character and composition of rice varieties grown by small-scale farmers in coastal West Africa (seven countries from Senegal to Togo) and then focuses on specific in-depth field studies undertaken in Sierra Leone.
Findings show that farmer rice genetic resources were persistently and enduringly adapted to local agro-ecologies via strong selection processes and local adaptation strategies, and that these adaptive processes were largely unaffected by the temporary contingencies of civil war. It is also shown that even under extreme (war-time) conditions success indicators in farmers’ local seed channels remain robust. Farmers continue to select and adapt their seed types to local contingencies, and war served as yet one more stimulus to further adaptation. This persistent human selective activity continues to make a significant contribution to the food security of poor and marginalized farm households in the region.
The major finding of this thesis is that selection for robustness among varieties of the local staple, rice, helped to protect Sierra Leonean farmers against some of the worst effects of war-induced food insecurity. In this sense, therefore, war may have served to strengthen and prolong farmer preferences for robustness, but it was not the cause of this preference. The marked diversity farmers maintain in their rice varieties is understood to be part of a longer-term risk-spreading strategy that also facilitates successful and often serendipitous variety innovations. In a world facing major climatic changes this local capacity for seed selection and innovation ought to be a valued resource for technological change. The present study provides a starting point for thinking about the improved effectiveness of institutional innovation strategies for farmer participatory innovation activities.
On the sustainable use and conservation of plant genetic resources in Europe. Report from Work Package 5 “Engaging the user Community” of the
Frese, L. ; Palmé, A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2014
NordGen - 34
duurzame landbouw - plantenveredeling - landrassen - rassen (planten) - geografische verdeling - genetische diversiteit - gewassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - wilde verwanten - europa - sustainable agriculture - plant breeding - landraces - varieties - geographical distribution - genetic diversity - crops - plant genetic resources - wild relatives - europe
PGR Secure project , a collaborative project funded under the EU Seventh Framework Programme, THEME KBBE.2010.1.1-03, 'Characterization of biodiversity resources for wild crop relatives to improve crops by breeding', Grant agreement no. 266394."
Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes
Cadima Fuentes, X. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; Rob van Treuren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571686 - 229
solanum - bolivia - wilde verwanten - gewassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - genenbanken - biosystematiek - genetische diversiteit - verzamelmissies - solanum - bolivia - wild relatives - crops - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - gene banks - biosystematics - genetic diversity - collecting missions
Abstract thesis Ximena Cadima Fuentes (to be defended on 8 Dec 2014):
Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes
The wild relatives of potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota) form the genetic reservoir for the improvement of the cultivated potato. Bolivia harbours 39 wild taxa of these wild potatoes, 21 of which are endemic species. This study aimed to evaluate to what level the current ex situ and in situ management efforts have conserved the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potato species, and what recommendations can be formulated for improvement.
The current conservation status of Bolivian endemic wild potato species was assessed using both the globally accepted IUCN criteria and a methodology developed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF-Crop Wild Relative Project (CWR Project). These two methods led to different estimates of threat status for some of the species. Spatial analysis allowed to distinguish eight priority areas for in situ conservation of the 21 Bolivian endemic wild potato species. These areas represent a high concentration of endemic species and have a relatively low level of threat, but only one of them has a conservation status. This is a first step to direct the conservation efforts for wild potato species.
The genetic stability and diversity of material from different species under ex situ management was evaluated using microsatellite markers. The analysis was performed on accessions that went through a process of seed regeneration and multiplication during ex situ conservation. Genetic changes between different generations of ex situ germplasm were observed for the majority, but not all, of the investigated species. Potential causes of these changes include genetic drift and contamination resulting from human error during regeneration. The populations generated under ex situ conditions were also compared with re-collected in situ populations from the same location or area as the original collection. The results showed highly significant differences in all cases. Potential causes for these differences are changes during ex situ maintenance, sampling effects during collecting and in situ genetic change over time.
The integrated conservation of Bolivian wild potatoes requires a combination of in situ and ex situ activities. The principle recommendation for the in situ conservation is to move from a passive to an active approach, where conservation areas are prioritized, conservation plans are designed according to the type of area (protected area or agro-ecosystem) and local stake holders are involved. To make sure that ex situ material provides a good representation of the in situ genetic variability, regular re-collecting of species with few accessions (and therefore less variability), endangered in situ, and with known or potential favorable traits is necessary. Gene bank management procedures should follow the FAO gene bank standards and this should be monitored by a national body responsible for genetic resources. And finally, periodic monitoring of the genetic integrity should be implemented as part of good practices during regeneration procedures in order to detect possible changes and to help combat human errors.
ABS Focal Point
Visser, L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - internationale verdragen - eu regelingen - nederland - onderzoek - ontwikkeling - animal genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forest trees - genetic diversity - international agreements - eu regulations - netherlands - research - development
This website of the ABS Focal Point of the Netherlands contains information that is relevant to all public institutes, companies and individuals using genetic resources for research and development. It provides basic guidance for Dutch and foreign users seeking access to genetic resources as well as background information on the relevant international agreements, and explains various terms that are often used.
EU regulation implementing the Nagoya Protocol in the Union : user obligations
Visser, Bert - \ 2014
animal genetic resources - plant genetic resources - eu regulations - netherlands
Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security
Khoury, C.K. ; Bjorkman, A.D. ; Dempewolf, H. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Guarino, L. ; Jarvis, A. ; Rieseberg, L.H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)11. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4001 - 4006.
voedselzekerheid - soortendiversiteit - diversiteit - voedselvoorziening - gewassen - basisproducten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - food security - species diversity - diversity - food supply - crops - commodities - plant genetic resources - plant genetic-resources - climate-change - ecosystem services - farming systems - biodiversity - productivity - nutrition - policy - world
The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.
De strijd om het zaad
Visser, Bert - \ 2013
gene banks - seed exchange - seeds - propagation materials - plant genetic resources - agro-biodiversity - food security - patents
Doelgroepen inventarisatie Nagoya Protocol
Brink, M. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Visser, L. - \ 2013
Wageningen : CGN - 42
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische bronnen - plant genetic resources - animal genetic resources - genetic resources
Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS) betreft de regulering van de toegang tot en het gebruik van genetische bronnen, en het delen van de voordelen voortkomend uit dit gebruik tussen leveranciers en gebruikes. Er zijn internationale ABS regels overeengekomen, vastgelegd in de Convention on Biological Diversity, het Nagoya Protocol en de International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Omdat de Europese Unie een Verordening in voorbereiding heeft waarin de plichten van gebruikers en overheden van lidstaten worden geformuleerd, is een inventarisatie gemaakt van gebruikers van genetische bronnen.