Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter
    Honfo, G.F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; M.M. Soumanou, co-promotor(en): Anita Linnemann. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572737 - 237
    sheaboter - voedselbereiding - plantaardige vetten - warmtebehandeling - extractie - inheemse kennis - kwaliteit - achteruitgang (deterioration) - benin - vitellaria paradoxa - shea butter - food preparation - plant fats - heat treatment - extraction - indigenous knowledge - quality - deterioration - benin - vitellaria paradoxa

    Abstract

    The shea tree is an endogenous and multipurpose tree from the Savanah zone of Africa, mostly used for its fruits and the fat extracted from its kernels, commonly known as shea butter. The butter is used for cooking and medicinal purposes by local populations, and in cosmetic products as well as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate in others areas of Africa and at the international level. The butter is generally extracted by traditional methods, which vary throughout the production zones but involve some common processing operations viz. boiling of the fresh nuts, sun drying, shelling, crushing, roasting, milling, churning, and heating. This thesis investigated the influence of traditional processing of shea on quality attributes of shea kernels and butter.

    The results showed that 2 mains techniques (differing in the heat treatment applied to the fresh nuts) are used to process shea fruits after their collection: the boiling followed by sun drying technique and the smoking technique. Boiled and sundried kernels contained a higher fat content (48 % dw) and yielded more butter (30 % of kernel mass) than smoked kernels that had a fat content of 39 % dw. The butter extracted from the boiled kernels had a better quality than the butter from smoked kernels with respect to the unsaponifiable fraction (7 %), tocopherol compounds (125 mg/g), peroxide value (8 meq O2/kg), and FFA (2 %). Some processing operations, namely the storage of fresh nuts as related to their boiling time and the roasting of kernels, were optimized using the response surface method to design the experiments. The conditions to obtain an optimal quality of kernels are to store the nuts for 3 days and boil them for 28 ± 3 min. Subsequently, optimal roasting conditions for kernels were found to be 15 min at 171 ºC, which resulted in kernels with a fat content of 49 % dw, a butter yield of 32 %, and butter with a FFA of 1.2 %. The results also revealed that shea butter extracted from roasted kernels contained more volatile compounds (58) than that from unroasted kernels (27). Additionally, storage temperature and storage duration significantly affected some quality characteristics of shea butter, whereas the influence of local packaging materials was less pronounced

    Shea processors are advised to process shea fruits by integrating the optimal conditions of storage of fresh nuts, boiling and roasting found in this research, then pack the butter in clean and opaque plastic and store it in a relatively cool area to maintain the quality of the product during prolonged storage periods. Areas for future research were identified for further improvements of local shea processing.

    Proficiency test for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fats
    Elbers, I.J.W. ; Traag, W.A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (RIKILT-report 2013.017) - 113
    diervoeding - veevoeder - plantaardige vetten - dioxinen - polychloorbifenylen - voederveiligheid - tests - verontreinigende stoffen - toxische stoffen - voersamenstelling - animal nutrition - fodder - plant fats - dioxins - polychlorinated biphenyls - feed safety - tests - pollutants - toxic substances - feed formulation
    The test provides an evaluation of the methods applied for quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fat by the laboratories. The proficiency test was organised according to ISO 17043. For this test, four samples were prepared: - sunflower oil spiked with dioxins and PCBs; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated fish oil; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated chicken fat and spiked with 2,3,7,8-PCDF; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated chicken fat and spiked with non-dioxin like PCBs.
    Bijproducten biobrandstoffen
    Bondt, N. ; Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 3, Natuurlijke hulpbronnen en milieu ) - ISBN 9789086152032 - 43
    residuen - industrieel afval - afval - organisch afval - bijproducten - agrarische afvalstoffen - agro-industriële bijproducten - brandstoffen - vetten - technologie - plantaardige vetten - voedselindustrie - drankenindustrie - nederland - economische haalbaarheid - economische evaluatie - rentabiliteit - biobrandstoffen - bioethanol - biobased economy - residues - industrial wastes - wastes - organic wastes - byproducts - agricultural wastes - agroindustrial byproducts - fuels - fats - technology - plant fats - food industry - beverage industry - netherlands - economic viability - economic evaluation - profitability - biofuels - bioethanol - biobased economy
    Dit rapport beschrijft de markt van reststromen uit de Nederlandse voedings- en genotmiddelenindustrie, en de aantrekkelijkheid van deze reststromen voor de productie van bioethanol en biodiesel. De eerstegeneratietechnologie kan slechts 29% van de 7,5 miljoen ton reststromen goed omzetten in biobrandstoffen. Als bovendien rekening wordt gehouden met niet-technische criteria blijken er voor bio-ethanol niet of nauwelijks reststromen interessant te zijn. Voor biodiesel kan wel gebruik worden gemaakt van de plantaardige en dierlijke vetten. De economische gevolgen voor onder meer de diervoedersector zijn beperkt. This report examines the market for residues from the Dutch food and beverage industry, and the appeal of these residues for the production of bio-ethanol and biodiesel. The firstgeneration technology is readily suited to the conversion of no more than 29% of the 7.5 million tonnes of residues into biofuels. Moreover, when non-technological criteria are also taken into account virtually none of the residues are of interest for conversion into bioethanol, although vegetable and animal fats can be used to produce biodiesel. The economic consequences for sectors such as the animal-feed sector are limited.
    Plantaardig vetextract als alternatief voor AMGB's bij gespeende biggen
    Krimpen, M.M. van; Lierop, A.H.A.A.M. van; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 2003
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (Praktijkboek / Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij : Varkens 24) - 14
    biggen - spenen - plantaardige vetten - anti-infectieuze middelen - groeibevorderaars - voedertoevoegingen - varkensvoeding - diervoeding - piglets - weaning - plant fats - antiinfective agents - growth promoters - feed additives - pig feeding - animal nutrition
    In de veehouderij maakt men op dit moment veelvuldig gebruik gemaakt van antimicrobiële groeibevorderaars (AMGB's) in voeders voor landbouwhuisdieren. Het gebruik van AMGB's wordt vanaf 2005 wellicht volledig verboden, omdat het gebruik van antibiotica resistentie van bacteriepopulaties tot gevolg kan hebben. Met dit vooruitzicht is de mengvoersector bezig met het ontwikkelen van voerconcepten als alternatief voor AMGB's. In opdracht van Loders Croklaan is op het Praktijkcentrum Sterksel nagegaan wathet effect is van plantaardig vetextract als alternatief voor AMGB's op technische resultaten en gezondheid van gespeende biggen. In dit experiment zijn drie proefbehandelingen met elkaar vergeleken: voer zonder AMGB, voer met AMGB en voer met plantaardig vetextract. Op een leeftijd van gemiddeld 4 weken zijn de biggen gespeend en ingedeeld voor de proef. De biggen zijn vanaf spenen 34 dagen gevolgd. In totaal zijn 630 biggen gevolgd. De behandelingen zonder en met AMGB zijn elk 22 keer herhaald, de behandeling met plantaardig vetextract 19 keer.
    Geen problemen met biologisch afbreekbare olie
    Straelen, B.C.P.M. van - \ 1998
    Tuin en Park Techniek 5 (1998)3. - ISSN 1380-3212 - p. 22 - 23.
    green belts - public gardens - management - lubrication - lubricants - plant oils - plant fats - apparatus - cooling - cleaning - protection - cooling systems - sustainability - machines - groene zones - publieke tuinen - bedrijfsvoering - smering - smeermiddelen - plantaardige oliën - plantaardige vetten - apparatuur - koelen - schoonmaken - bescherming - koelsystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - machines
    IMAG-DLO heeft de gebruiksmogelijkheden van biologisch afbreekbare smeermiddelen voor hydraulische en gecombineerde transmissie en hydraulische olie in 4 trekkers onderzocht
    Mechanical properties of fats in relation to their crystallization
    Kloek, W. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P. Walstra; T. van Vliet. - S.l. : Kloek - ISBN 9789054859475 - 241
    plantaardige oliën - plantaardige vetten - kristallisatie - vloeistofmechanica - reologie - visco-elasticiteit - plant oils - plant fats - crystallization - fluid mechanics - rheology - viscoelasticity - cum laude

    Crystallization in bulk fats is always initiated by a heterogeneous nucleation process. Homogeneous nucleation conditions for fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) could be obtained by emulsifying the fat phase into very fine droplets and using sodium caseinate as an emulsifier. The crystallization kinetics of such a dispersion was determined by means of ultra-sound velocity measurements and could be modeled by a classical nucleation model. The temperature dependency of the kinetics yielded a surface free energy for nucleus formation of about 4mJ×m -2and almost the whole triglyceride molecule should be in the right conformation for incorporation in a nucleus.

    The isothermal crystallization kinetics of bulk solutions of HP in SF in theβ' polymorph could be described well by combination of a classical nucleation function and an empirical crystal growth rate equation taking into account the decrease of supersaturation during crystallization. This yielded a surface free energy for heterogeneous nucleus formation of 3.8 mJ×m -2and about 80 % of the triglyceride molecule to be in the right conformation for incorporation in a nucleus.

    Fat crystals in oil exhibit Brownian motion and attract each other due to van der Waals attraction that results in dispersions with fat crystal aggregates. The structure of the fat crystal aggregates could be described well by a fractal approach as was shown by light scattering and modeling of the viscosity as function of shear rate. Low volume fraction HP/SF dispersion yielded fractal dimensionalities of about 1.7 - 1.8 which is indicative for rapid diffusion limited aggregation and increased with increasing shear rate. Volume fraction of solids of about 0.005 appeared to be sufficient to form a weak gel built from aggregates with a dimensionality of about 1.7 - 1.8.

    Simultaneous crystallization and aggregation of high volume fraction HP/SF dispersion leads to compaction of aggregates after primary network formation. The elastic moduli of these dispersion can be described by higher apparent dimensionalities. Crystallization after gelation also makes the stress carrying strands less flexible and leads to sintering of the fat crystals. The latter occured more easily for fats having a broad fatty acid distribution. Sintering of fat crystals was shown by comparison of elastic moduli and loss tangents before and the development of moduli after mechanical treatment. From model calculations, it was shown that for dispersions in which van der Waals forces are the only interaction forces, crystals can easily bend on deformation of the crystal network.

    Application of shear during crystallization leads to more compact crystal aggregates as was shown by determination of elastic moduli in compression on dispersions that were crystallized in a surface scraping heat exchanger.

    Smeerolie en Milieu
    Straelen, B.C.P.M. van - \ 1996
    Landbouwmechanisatie 47 (1996)4. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 50 - 51.
    apparatuur - schoonmaken - koelen - koelsystemen - boerderij uitrusting - landbouwwerktuigen - smeermiddelen - smering - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - bescherming - machines - apparatus - cleaning - cooling - cooling systems - farm equipment - farm machinery - lubricants - lubrication - plant fats - plant oils - protection - machines
    In de Nederlandse landbouw gaat een flinke hoeveelheid aan smeermiddelen om. Uit een recent Duits onderzoek blijkt dat de helft van de olie die in de mobiele sector, waartoe de landbouw behoort, gebruikt wordt ongecontroleerd in het milieu terecht komt. Het is onwaarschijnlijk dat de situatie in Nederland een geheel ander beeld te zien geeft
    Nationaal olieprogramma : eindrapport 1990 - 1994
    Mulder, F. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 107
    olieleverende planten - plantaardige oliën - plantaardige vetten - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - nederland - oil plants - plant oils - plant fats - crops - acclimatization - domestication - netherlands
    Studies on the use of palm fats and mixtures of fats and oils in poultry nutrition
    Scheele, C.W. ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Zumbado, M. - \ 1995
    Beekbergen : ID-DLO, Branch Beekbergen (Spelderholt report no. 632) - ISBN 9789071463778
    costa rica - vetten - voer - kippen - voedingswaarde - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - pluimvee - costa rica - fats - feeds - fowls - nutritive value - plant fats - plant oils - poultry
    Chemisch onderzoek van broodsmeersels
    Kamp, H.J. van der - \ 1995
    Wageningen : RIKILT-DLO (Rapport / DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten 95.31) - 7
    margarine - dierlijk vet - plantaardige vetten - chemische samenstelling - spijsvetten - margarine - animal fat - plant fats - chemical composition - edible fats - food
    Dietary fatty acids and risk factors for coronary heart disease : controlled studies in healthy volunteers
    Zock, P.L. - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; M.B. Katan. - S.l. : Zock - ISBN 9789054853282 - 190
    vaatziekten - bloedstoornissen - hart- en vaatziekten - hart- en vaatstoornissen - vetzuren - voedselhygiëne - bloedvetten - lipoproteïnen - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - voeding - cholesterol - vascular diseases - blood disorders - cardiovascular diseases - cardiovascular disorders - fatty acids - food hygiene - blood lipids - lipoproteins - plant fats - plant oils - nutrition - cholesterol

    High levels of LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and Lp(a), and low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). This thesis describes the effects of dietary fatty acids on these risk factors. In each of three trials we fed diets with tailored fatty acid composition to about 60 healthy men and women. Each diet within a trial was supplied to every volunteer for 3 weeks.

    In the first study we compared the effects of monounsaturated trans fatty acids with those of linoleic acid, the fatty acid from which trans fatty acids are formed upon partial hydrogenation, and with those of stearic acid, a product of complete hydrogenation of linoleic acid. Relative to linoleic acid, both trans fatty acids and stearic acid raised LDL and lowered HDL cholesterol. Thus, partial as well as complete hydrogenation of linoleic acid produces fatty acids that unfavorably affect serum lipids relative to linoleic acid itself. Trans fatty acids and stearic acid did not influence blood pressure, but trans fatty acids modestly raised Lp(a).

    The second study addressed the relative cholesterol-raising potentials of two specific saturates, myristic and palmitic acid. Relative to oleic acid, myristic acid was about 1.5 times as cholesterol-raising a's palmitic acid, due to increases in both LDL and HDL cholesterol. The differences between myristic and palmitic acid were statistically significant. However, both saturates caused high LDL cholesterol levels and raise the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio.

    In the third study we examined the effect of the positional distribution of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides. Two diets had identical total fatty acid composition, but a major contrast in fatty acid configuration. Total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were the same on both diets. The position of the dietary fatty acids was partly reflected in fasting plasma lipids, but the fatty acid configuration had no important effect on lipoprotein levels.

    In conclusion, monounsaturated trans fatty acids and the saturates myristic and palmitic acid have adverse effects on the serum lipoprotein risk profile for CHID. People at high risk for CHD should replace the hard fats in their diets by carbohydrates or unsaturated oils.

    Vergelijking en verloop (tijdens de afrijping) van de zaad- en carvonopbrengst van (zomer)karwij en dille = Comparison and development (during the ripening phase) of the seed and carvone yield of (summer) caraway and dill
    Mheen, H.J. van der - \ 1994
    Lelystad : PAGV (Verslag / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond nr. 184) - 105
    anethum - karwij - carum carvi - dille - vruchtzetten - vruchtdragend - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - zaadcontrole - zaden - anethum - caraway - carum carvi - dill - fruit set - fruiting - plant fats - plant oils - seed testing - seeds
    Workshop NOP [Nationaal Olieprogramma] : samenvattingen
    Wallenburg, S.C. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 45
    gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - olieleverende planten - plantaardige oliën - plantaardige vetten - nederland - crops - acclimatization - domestication - oil plants - plant oils - plant fats - netherlands
    Vergelijkende opbrengstproeven met winterkarwij : de serie HT9101, 1991 - 1992 : verslag van de zaadopbrengst, de gehalten en de carvon opbrengst
    Toxopeus, H. ; Lubberts, J.H. ; Groenbroek, J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 7
    karwij - carum carvi - plantenveredeling - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - productiviteit - opbrengsten - caraway - carum carvi - plant breeding - plant fats - plant oils - productivity - yields
    Jaaroverzicht 1980 van het margarine/halvarine onderzoek
    Frijns, L.M.H. ; Muuse, B.G. - \ 1981
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 81.42)
    margarine - vetarme smeersels - plantaardige oliën - plantaardige vetten - dierlijk vet - dierlijke oliën - vochtgehalte - vetgehalte - vitaminen - kwaliteitsnormen - erucazuur - margarine - low fat spreads - plant oils - plant fats - animal fat - animal oils - moisture content - fat content - vitamins - quality standards - erucic acid
    Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de gevonden gehaltes aan: vocht, vet, vitamine A, docoseenzuur, de verhouding van plantaardige en dierlijke oliën en vetten en het nettogewicht, ingedeeld per fabriek.
    Enige literatuur over de produktie en verwerking van palmolie
    Anonymous, - \ 1980
    Wageningen : Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4366)
    bibliografieën - elaeis guineensis - oliepalmen - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - bibliographies - elaeis guineensis - oil palms - plant fats - plant oils
    Bepaling epoxygetal in dierlijke en plantaardige oliën en vetten
    Essers, M.L. ; Muuse, B.G. - \ 1980
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 80.45) - 3
    standaardisering - plantaardige oliën - dierlijke oliën - plantaardige vetten - vetten - analytische methoden - standardization - plant oils - animal oils - plant fats - fats - analytical methods
    In ringtest monsters van de KvW-Nijmegen werd het epoxygetal bepaald volgens doc 370.02/80/14 4e concept NEN 6345 .
    The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans
    Folstar, P. - \ 1976
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): W. Pilnik, co-promotor(en): H.C. van der Plas. - Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022006139 - 65
    coffea - koffie - plantensamenstelling - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - coffea - coffee - plant composition - plant fats - plant oils
    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column chromatography. The chemical composition of the fractions was studied by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The results include qualitative and quantitative data on (1) the total fatty acid composition as well as the composition of the fatty acids in triglycerides and diterpene alcohol esters, (2) the positional distribution of the fatty acids in the triglycerides, (3) the unsaponifiable matter and (4) -alkanoyl-5-hydroxy-tryptamines (C-5-HT) and other C-5-HT-like phenolic compounds.

    The unsaponifiable matter (3) was fractionated into diterpene alcohols, sterols and hydrocarbons (including squalene and n -alkanes from C 16 to C 31 ). Moreover the presence of α-tocopherol and (β+ γ)-tocopherol in green coffee beans was described for the first time.

    In view of the results of this study the removal of coffee wax by industrial processes, which are claimed to have a beneficial effect on the digestibility of coffee, was discussed. The current literature on the lipids of green coffee beans was extensively reviewed.

    Knoflook : opslag en - olie
    Anonymous, - \ 1975
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3754)
    allium sativum - bibliografieën - knoflook - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - allium sativum - bibliographies - garlic - plant fats - plant oils
    Uien : opslag en - olie
    Anonymous, - \ 1975
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3755)
    allium cepa - bibliografieën - uien - plantaardige vetten - plantaardige oliën - allium cepa - bibliographies - onions - plant fats - plant oils
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