Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?
Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J. ; Ripken, D. ; Hendriks, H.F. ; Masclee, A.A.M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 235 - 243.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - food-intake - hormone-release - energy-intake - antropyloroduodenal motility - gastrointestinal hormones - intestinal motility - duodenal glucose - plasma-levels - healthy-men
Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal infusion of sucrose and casein on food intake, release of GI peptides, gastric emptying rate and small-bowel transit time with safflower oil as positive control.Design:This randomized, single-blind, crossover study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26.4±2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8±0.4¿kg¿m-2) who were intubated with a naso-ileal catheter. Thirty minutes after the intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing control ((C) saline), safflower oil ((HL) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose casein ((LP) 17.2¿kcal) or high-dose casein ((HP) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose sucrose ((LC) 17.2¿kcal) and high-dose sucrose ((HC) 51.7¿kcal), over a period of 90¿min. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal. Visual analogue score questionnaires for hunger and satiety and blood samples were collected at regular intervals.Results:Ileal infusion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate resulted in a significant reduction in food intake compared with control (HL: 464.3±90.7¿kcal, P
EPIC-Heart: The cardiovascular component of a prospective study of nutritional, lifestyle and biological factors in 520,000 middle-aged participants from 10 European countries
Danesh, J. ; Saracci, R. ; Berglund, G. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Overvad, K. ; Panico, S. ; Thompson, S. ; Fournier, A. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Canonico, M. ; Kaaks, R. ; Linseisen, J. ; Boeing, H. ; Pischon, T. ; Weikert, C. ; Olsen, A. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Johnsen, S.P. ; Jensen, M.K. ; Quiros, J.R. ; Gonzalez-Svatetz, C.A. ; Sanchez-Perez, M.J. ; Larranaga, N. ; Navarro Sanchez, C. ; Moreno Iribas, C. ; Bingham, S. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Key, T. ; Roddam, A. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Benetou, V. ; Trichopoulous, D. ; Masala, G. ; Sieri, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Sacerdote, C. ; Mattiello, A. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Grobbee, D.E. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Melander, O. ; Hallmans, G. ; Wennberg, P. ; Lund, E. ; Kumle, M. ; Skeie, G. ; Ferrari, P. ; Slimani, N. ; Norat, T. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2007
European Journal of Epidemiology 22 (2007)2. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 129 - 141.
coronary-artery-disease - dietary assessment methods - high blood-pressure - fat distribution - norfolk cohort - plasma-levels - cancer - risk - women - population
EPIC-Heart is the cardiovascular component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between nutrition and major chronic disease outcomes. Its objective is to advance understanding about the separate and combined influences of lifestyle (especially dietary), environmental, metabolic and genetic factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases by making best possible use of the unusually informative database and biological samples in EPIC. Between 1992 and 2000, 519,978 participants (366,521 women and 153,457 men, mostly aged 35¿70 years) in 23 centres in 10 European countries commenced follow-up for cause- specific mortality, cancer incidence and major cardiovascular morbidity. Dietary information was collected with quantitative questionnaires or semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, including a 24-h dietary recall sub-study to help calibrate the dietary measurements. Information was collected on physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, occupational history, socio-economic status, and history of previous illnesses. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure recordings were made in the majority of participants. Blood samples were taken from 385,747 individuals, from which plasma, serum, red cells, and buffy coat fractions were separated and aliquoted for long-term storage. By 2004, an estimated 10,000 incident fatal and non-fatal coronary and stroke events had been recorded. The first cycle of EPIC-Heart analyses will assess associations of coronary mortality with several prominent dietary hypotheses and with established cardiovascular risk factors. Subsequent analyses will extend this approach to non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes¿and to further dietary, biochemical and genetic factors.