Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Samenvatting: Gerecycled PET in nieuwe flessen : Het effect op migratie, verkleuring en flessterkte
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Alvarado, F. ; Brouwer, M.T. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 5 p.
    biobased economy - plastics - recycling - bottles
    Circulaire trajecten voor biobased plastics vragen meer samenwerking
    Hoes, A.C. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2019
    Agro&Chemie
    biobased economy - packaging materials - plastics - biobased materials
    WUR-onderzoek naar duurzame verpakkingen
    Bolck, C.H. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
    biobased economy - plastics - bioplastics - wrappings
    Wageningen University & Research doet onderzoek naar duurzame verpakkingen. Verpakkingsmaterialen worden ontwikkelt en getest in Wageningen. In deze video is te zien hoe dat in zijn werk gaat.
    Recyclebaarheid van verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt : Huishoudelijke kunststof verpakkingen in sorteerproducten onderzocht op recyclebaarheid en hoeveelheid
    Brouwer, M.T. ; Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1782) - ISBN 9789463438261 - 45
    recycling - kunststoffen - containers - afvalverwerking - gedrag van huishoudens - sorteren - recycling - plastics - containers - waste treatment - household behaviour - sorting
    describes the recyclability of Dutch post-consumer plastic packages. It focusses on the recyclability of the packages at the Dutch households and those present in the sorting products (mainly Mix and Sorting Residue). The objective of this study was to comprehend which packages are currently not being recycled in the Dutch recycling system of plastic packaging waste. The research question answered in this report is:What is the recyclability of the post-consumer plastic packages on the Dutch market, especially the plastic packages at the households and in the sorting residue and Mix sorting product?This study has been performed in the period of June until September 2017 by researchers of Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) and is commissioned and financed by the Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afval- en Reinigingsmanagement (NVRD). Other participants in the study were Midwaste, HVC and Omrin by delivering samples and additional information. The research has concisely been performed, making maximally use of an existing model of WFBR. The research was done objectively and independently.The main conclusion is that 56% of the packages on the Dutch market are recyclable. 6% of the packages can be recycled into utensils, but are not ideal as they disturb the recycling of other packages in more circular applications, such as coloured PET bottles and PP film. PET trays are not recyclable at the moment, but are potentially recyclable in the future. These packages are now being sorted in a separate sorting product and stored until a recycling process is available. The PET trays amount to 10% of the plastic packages. 28% of the packages on the Dutch market are not recyclable, these are mainly PS and PVC packages, laminated packages and blisters.There are still significant amounts of potentially well recyclable plastic packages present in the Mix sorting product, which would rather belong to the PE and PP sorting product. The sorting residue still contains some well recyclable packages, which gets lost via this route. Additionally, the sorting residue consist of large amounts of non-recyclable packaging, non-packages and residual waste, which are intentionally added to of the sorting residue.The Dutch recycling system for post-consumer plastic packages and their recyclability can be improved in three ways:- Better sorting; produce less Mix sorting product and sort more packages in the intended sorting category.- Design for recycling; packages that are non-recyclable can be changed or replaced by packages that are recyclable. For instance PS and PVC flasks can be replaced by PE or PP flasks. Design from recycling; packages that cannot be changed or replaced should be recycled by new or adjusted recycling technologies. For instance a part of the laminates and blisters.---Dit rapport is het resultaat van een studie naar de recyclebaarheid van kunststofverpakkingen, in het bijzonder de huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen. Hierbij is gekeken naar de recyclebaarheid van de verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt en in de sorteerproducten (specifiek de Mix en sorteerrest). Het doel van deze studie is inzicht krijgen welke verpakkingen nu nog niet worden gerecycleerd in het huidige recyclingsysteem in Nederland.De onderzoeksvraag die in dit rapport beantwoord is:Wat is de recyclebaarheid van huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt, in het bijzonder de kunststofverpakkingen aanwezig bij de huishoudens en in de sorteerrest en de mengkunststoffen (Mix)?Deze studie is uitgevoerd in de periode van juni tot en met september 2017 door onderzoekers van Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) in opdracht van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afval- en Reinigingsmanagement (NVRD), die tevens deze studie heeft gefinancierd. Daarnaast zijn Midwaste, HVC en Omrin participant geweest in de studie door het leveren van monsters en informatie. Het onderzoek is kort en krachtig uitgevoerd, waarbij gebruik is gemaakt van een bestaand basismodel ontwikkeld door WFBR. De onderzoekers hebben een objectief en onafhankelijk onderzoek uitgevoerd om deze vraag te beantwoorden.Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat 56% van de verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt goed recyclebaar zijn. 6% van de verpakkingen is in principe goed recyclebaar naar toepassingen als gebruiksartikelen, maar niet ideaal omdat deze verpakkingen de recycling van andere verpakkingen richting meer circulaire toepassingen kunnen verstoren, zoals gekleurde PET flessen en PP folie. PET trays zijn nu nog niet recyclebaar, maar mogelijk wel recyclebaar in de toekomst. Deze verpakkingen worden nu wel in een aparte categorie gesorteerd, maar er moet nog een recyclingroute voor deze verpakkingen worden ontwikkeld. De PET trays bedragen 10% van de kunststofverpakkingen. 28% van de verpakkingen zijn slecht recyclebaar, dit zijn voornamelijk PS en PVC verpakkingen, laminaten en doordrukstrips.In het Mix sorteerproduct is nog een hoog aandeel goed recyclebare verpakkingen aanwezig, dit betreft voornamelijk verpakkingen die eigenlijk in het PE of PP sorteerproduct thuishoren. De sorteerrest bevat nog een deel goed recyclebare verpakkingen, die via deze route verloren gaan. Daarnaast bevat de sorteerrest een groot aandeel slecht recyclebare verpakkingen, niet-verpakkingen en restafval, zoals de bedoeling is voor de sorteerrest.Het Nederlandse recyclingsysteem kan op het gebied van recyclebaarheid van verpakkingen op een drietal punten verbeterd worden: - Beter sorteren; minder Mix produceren en meer verpakkingen in de gewenste sorteercategorie sorteren.- Design for recycling; slecht recyclebare verpakkingen die goed vervangen of verbeterd kunnen worden voor een recyclebare verpakkingen. Bijvoorbeeld PS en PVC flacons vervangen voor een PE of PP flacon.- Design from recycling; voor verpakkingen die niet vervangen of verbeterd kunnen worden, bijvoorbeeld een deel van de laminaten en doordrukstrips, nieuwe of aangepaste recycling technologieën ontwikkelen
    Recyclingopties voor PET schalen
    Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research rapport 1761) - 19
    recycling - verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalverwijdering - platte bakken - huisvuilverwijdering - recycling - packaging materials - plastics - waste disposal - trays - municipal refuse disposal
    Voorkom plantschade door giftige dampen : Tuinen bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw
    Eveleens-Clark, Barbara - \ 2016
    greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - materials - plastics - toxic gases - toxicity - plant health - tests - fumes

    In de glastuinbouw worden tal van materialen gebruikt waarbij de kans bestaat dat deze giftige stoffen afgeven. Deze stoffen kunnen aanzienlijke schade aanrichten aan de planten in de kas. Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw beschikt over een testopstelling om materialen op voorhand te testen op fytotoxiteit van vrijkomende dampen.

    Impact of marine debris on Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff: diet dependent ingestion and entanglement : Preliminary results
    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
    Den Helder : IMARES - 7
    seals - plastics - ingestion - animal welfare - microplastics - water pollution - animal health - feeding - zeehonden - kunststoffen - inname - dierenwelzijn - microplastics - waterverontreiniging - diergezondheid - voedering
    For several decades it has been known that plastics in the marine environment can harm marine organisms, most visibly birds, turtles and mammals (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985). These animals can become entangled in this synthetic debris and can ingest macro- and micro-plastics. Recently, increased awareness of plastic fragmentation into small persistent particles (‘plastic soup’) and the potential chemical hazards from ingestion have heightened the concern regarding the chemical impact on the marine food chains and ultimately the consequences for humans as end consumers (UNEP, 2011). UNEP listed plastic debris in the oceans as one of the three main emerging issues of concern for the global environment. Within the framework of the Commission for the Convention of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) there has been attention to beached litter and seal entanglements, but little systematic work on the ingestion of plastic materials has been done.
    Handbook for sorting of plastic packaging waste concentrates : separation efficiencies of common plastic packaging objects in widely used separaion machines at existing sorting facilities with mixed postconsumer plastic packaging waste as input
    Jansen, M. ; Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Pretz, Th. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Reports of Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1604) - ISBN 9789462575295 - 30
    recycling - packaging materials - plastics - waste management - waste treatment - sorting - sorters - recycling - verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - sorteren - sorteermachines
    Hergebruik van huishoudelijk kunststofverpakkingsafval is een ingewikkelde keten die in het algemeen uit drie stappen bestaat; gescheiden inzameling bij de burgers of nascheiding uit het huisvuil, sorteren en opwerken tot gewassen maalgoed. Dit onderzoek analyseert de tweede stap, waarin of gescheiden ingezameld kunststofverpakkingsafval of nagescheiden kunststofconcentraat wordt gesorteerd in materiaalfracties die verhandeld kunnen worden met recyclingbedrijven.
    Primeur op congres: onderzoeksresultaten urban heat effect door kunstgras : WUR-onderzoeker bestudeert op verzoek van vakblad Fieldmanager
    Theeuwes, N.E. - \ 2015
    Fieldmanager 11 (2015)6. - ISSN 2212-4314 - p. 70 - 71.
    sportterreinen - grasveld - kunststoffen - natuurlijke graslanden - voetballen - omgevingstemperatuur - bodemtemperatuur - schaduw - sports grounds - grass sward - plastics - natural grasslands - soccer - environmental temperature - soil temperature - shade
    Er bestaat vermoedelijk een groot verschil tussen de temperatuur van kunstgras en die van natuurgras bij hitte. Als kunstgrasvelden hitte-eilandjes vormen, zou dit een groot effect hebben op het stadsklimaat. Natalie Theeuwes van de Wageningen Universiteit deed op verzoek van vakblad Fieldmanager wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar het urban heat effect door kunstgras en geeft de bezoekers van het Nationaal Sportvelden Congres de primeur van haar meetresultaten. Ook geeft zij advies over het minimaliseren van hittestress rónd de velden.
    Functionality and physico-chemical characteristics of wheat straw lignin, BioligninTM, derivatives formed in the oxypropylation process
    Arshanitsa, A. ; Vevere, L. ; Telysheva, G. ; Dizhbite, T. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Bikovens, O. ; Jablonski, A. - \ 2015
    Holzforschung 69 (2015)6. - ISSN 0018-3830 - p. 785 - 793.
    rigid polyurethane foams - kraft lignin - technical lignins - ensuing polyols - fractionation - plastics
    The new organosolv process of wheat straw fractionation elaborated by Compagnie Industrielle de la matiere Vegetale (France) corresponds to the biorefinery approach, which allows separating cellulose, hemicel -luloses, and lignin. The straw lignin (Biolignin) is an attractive product, for which new applications are sought. In the present work, straw lignin (L) was converted into liquid lignopolyols via a batch reaction with propylene oxide (PO). The effects of the lignin content (L%) in the initial reaction mixture (L/(L+PO) on the oxypropylation process and the properties of whole lignopolyols and L/PO copolymers were studied. Almost complete disappearance of L-OHphen and L-COOH groups in copolymers was accompanied by an increase in the L-OHaliph groups’ content therein. The polydispersity (Mw/Mn) of all copolymers obtained decreased essentially compared to the reference. The extent of PO grafting onto OH groups increased with decreasing lignin content in the initial reaction mixture. At a lignin content of 15–30% in the initial reaction mixture, the lignopolyols fulfil the requirements of polyol polyethers for rigid polyurethane foam production. The further increase in the lignin content leads to the appearance of the non-liquefied fraction and the undesirable increase in the viscosity of the liquefied part.
    Plastic uit het afval
    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline - \ 2014
    plastics - waste management - waste treatment - recycling - separation - bottles
    Monitoring plastic waste using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy
    Franeker, Jan Andries van - \ 2014
    water pollution - solid wastes - plastics - recycling - spectroscopy - marine areas - monitoring - waste treatment
    Synthesis of bio-based methacrylic acid by decarboxylation of itaconic acid and citric acid catalyzed by solid transition-metal catalysts
    Notre, J.E.L. le; Witte-van Dijk, S.C.M. ; Haveren, J. van; Scott, E.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
    ChemSusChem 7 (2014)9. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 2712 - 2720.
    renewable resources - supercritical water - reaction pathways - fatty-acids - chemicals - biomass - decarbonylation - deoxygenation - conversion - plastics
    Methacrylic acid, an important monomer for the plastics industry, was obtained in high selectivity (up to 84%) by the decarboxylation of itaconic acid using heterogeneous catalysts based on Pd, Pt and Ru. The reaction takes place in water at 200–2508C without any external added pressure, conditions significantly milder than those described previously for the same conversion with better yield and selectivity. A comprehensive study of the reaction parameters has been performed, and the isolation of methacrylic acid was achieved in 50% yield. The decarboxylation procedure is also applicable to citric acid, a more widely available bio-based feedstock, and leads to the production of methacrylic acid in one pot in 41% selectivity. Aconitic acid, the intermediate compound in the pathway from citric acid to itaconic acid was also used successfully as a substrate.
    Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste
    Bing, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst; Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570870 - 205
    logistiek - huishoudens - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - modelleren - transport - kosten - logistics - households - wastes - sustainability - plastics - modeling - transport - costs

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and processed for recycling.

    Plastic waste has a complex composition and is polluted, thus requires a substantial technical effort to separate the plastics from the waste and to sort these into recyclable materials. There are several alternatives in the existing collection methods (curb-side and drop-off) and separation methods (source separation and post-separation). It is challenging to select a suitable combination of these methods and to design a network that is efficient and sustainable. It is necessary to build a suitable, efficient and sustainable recycling network from collection to the final processor in order to provide solutions for different future scenarios of plastics household waste recycling. Decision support is needed in order to redesign the plastic waste reverse logistics so that the plastic waste recycling supply chain can be improved towards a more sustainable direction. To improve the efficiency in the recycling of plastic packaging waste, insights are required into this complex system. Insights solely on a municipal level are not sufficient, as the processing and end market are important for a complete network configuration. Therefore, we have investigated the problem at three levels: municipal, regional, and global. Decision support systems are developed based on optimization techniques to explore the power of mathematical modelling to assist in the decision-making process.

    This thesis investigates plastic waste recycling from a sustainable reverse logistics angle. The aim is to analyse the collection, separation and treatments systems of plastic waste and to propose redesigns for the recycling system using quantitative decision support models.

    We started this research project by identifying research opportunities. This was done through a practical approach that aimed to find future research opportunities to solve existing problems (Chapter 2). We started from a review of current municipal solid waste recycling practices in various EU countries and identified the characteristics and key issues of waste recycling from waste management and reverse logistics point of view. This is followed by a literature review regarding the applications of operations research. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem and that research opportunities can be found by considering different decision levels simultaneously. While analyzing a reverse supply chain for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) recycling, a holistic view and considering characteristics of different waste types are necessary.

    Municipal Level

    In Chapter 3, we aim to redesign the collection routes of household plastic waste and compare the collection options at the municipal level using eco-efficiency as a performance indicator. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency, and collection points, etc. The results show that the source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection, assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner.

    In Chapter 4, we develop a comprehensive cost estimation model to further analyze the impacts of various taxation alternatives on the collection cost and environmental impact. This model is based on such variables as fixed and variable costs per vehicle, personnel cost, container or bag costs, as well as emission costs (using imaginary carbon taxes). The model can be used for decision support when strategic changes to the collection scheme of municipalities are considered. The model, which considers the characteristics of municipalities, including degree of urbanization and taxation schemes for household waste management, was applied to the Dutch case of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. The results showed that post-separation collection generally has the lowest costs. Curb-side collection in urban municipalities without residual waste collection taxing schemes has the highest cost. These results were supported by the conducted sensitivity analysis, which showed that higher source-separation responses are negatively related to curb-side collection costs.

    Regional Level

    Chapter 5 provides decision support for choosing the most suitable combination of separation methods in the Netherlands. Decision support is provided through an optimized reverse logistics network design that makes the overall recycling system more efficient and sustainable, while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders (municipalities, households, etc.). A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which minimizes both transportation cost and environmental impact, is used to design this network. The research follows the approach of a scenario study; the baseline scenario is the current situation and other scenarios are designed with various strategic alternatives. Comparing these scenarios, the results show that the current network settings of the baseline situation is efficient in terms of logistics, but has the potential to adapt to strategic changes, depending on the assumptions regarding availability of the required processing facilities to treat plastic waste. In some of the tested scenarios, a separate collection channel for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is cost-efficient and saves carbon emission. Although the figures differ depending on the choices in separation method made by municipalities, our modeling results of all the tested scenarios show a reduction in carbon emissions of more than 25 percent compared to the current network.

    Chapter 6 studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. The aim was to quantify the impact of multimodality in the network in order to provide decision support for the design of more sustainable plastic recycling networks in the future. A MILP model is developed in order to assess different plastic waste collection, treatment, and transportation scenarios. A baseline scenario represents the optimized current situation, while other scenarios allow multimodality options (barge and train) to be applied. With our input parameter settings, results show that transportation costs contribute to approximately 7 percent of the total costs, and multimodality can help reduce transportation costs by almost 20 percent (CO_2-eq emissions included). In our illustrative case with two plastic separation methods, the post-separation channel benefits more from a multimodality strategy than the source-separation channel. This relates to the locations and availability of intermediate facilities and the quantity of waste transported on each route.

    Global Level

    After the regional network redesign, Chapter 7 shows a global network redesign. The aim of this chapter was to redesign a reverse supply chain from a global angle based on a case study conducted on household plastic waste distributed from Europe to China. Emissions trading restrictions are set on processing plants in both Europe and China. We used a mixed-integer programming model in the network optimization to decide on location reallocation of intermediate processing plants under such restrictions, with the objective of maximizing total profit under Emission Trading Schemes (ETS). Re-locating facilities globally can help reduce the total cost. Once carefully set, ETS can function well as incentive to control emissions in re-processors. Optimization results show that relocating re-processing centers to China reduces total costs and total transportation emissions. ETS applied to re-processors further helps to reduce emissions from both re-processors and the transportation sector. Carbon caps should be set carefully in order to be effective. These results give an insight in the feasibility of building a global reverse supply chain for household plastic waste recycling and demonstrate the impact of ETS on network design. The results also provide decision support for increasing the synergy between the policy for global shipping of waste material and the demand of recycled material.

    Conclusions

    Chapter 8 summarizes the findings from chapters 2 to 7 and provides brief answers to the research questions. Beyond that, the integrated findings combine the results from different decision levels and elaborate the impacts of various system characteristics and external factors on the decision making in order to achieve an improved sustainable performance. Main findings are:

    Regarding the impact of carbon cost, the results from different chapters are consistent in terms that emission cost is only a small part of the total cost, even when carbon cost is set at its historically highest figure. When carbon price is set to a different value, impact of carbon cost on the change of optimization results is higher on the upstream of the reverse supply chain for plastic waste than the downstream.In Emission Trading scheme (ETS), carbon cap has a larger impact on eco-efficiency performance of the global network than carbon price.On one decision level, models can help to find the ``best option". For example, in the collection phase, the average total collection costs per ton of plastic waste collected for source-separation municipalities are more than twice of the post-separation municipalities' collection costs due to the frequent stops made and idling time at each stop. From the regional network perspective, post-separation scenarios have higher costs and environmental impact than source separation due to the limited number of separation centers compared to the numerous cross-docking sites for source-separation. When combining decision levels, however, it is difficult to find one ``best option" that fits all, as there are contradictory results when looking at the same factor from different decision levels. Through decision support models, we provided clear insights into the trade-offs and helped to quantify the differences and identify key factors to determine the differences.Population density differences in various municipalities influence the performance of curbside collection more than drop-off collection.

    This information is valuable for decision makers to consider in the decision making process. Finally, managerial insights derived from sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste are summarized in conclusion section.

    Technisch haalbare sorteerrendementen met gescheiden ingezamelde kunststofverpakkingen van Nederlandse huishoudens
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1495) - 24
    kunststoffen - verpakkingsmaterialen - sorteren - afvalhergebruik - recycling - afvalverwerking - nederland - plastics - packaging materials - sorting - waste utilization - recycling - waste treatment - netherlands
    De sorteerresultaten van een fictieve, ideale sorteerinstallatie en bestaande sorteerinstallaties zijn ingeschat met een berekeningsmodel. Dit model wordt gevoed door de gemiddelde samenstelling van Nederlands gescheiden ingezamelde kunststofverpakkingen en de verdelingen van verpakkingsvormen over de sorteerproducten van verschillende sorteerinstallaties. Deze laatste verdelingen zijn weer afgeleid van de samenstellingsanalyses van de gesorteerde producten van deze sorteerinstallaties. Dit model werkt goed voor de waarde-kunststoffen, leidt tot een geringe overschatting van de hoeveelheid mengkunststof en een geringe onderschatting van de hoeveelheid sorteerrest. Sorteerresultaten worden uitgedrukt in een R-verhouding, wat de verhouding is van de waarde-kunststoffen over alle kunststofproducten. Voor een fictieve, ideale sorteerinstallatie is de R-factor begrenst tot zo’n 59%. Deze R-factor is afhankelijk van de herkomst van het kunststofverpakkingsafval en varieert tussen de 46 en de 65% voor ideale sortering van materiaal van verschillende inzamelgebieden. De samenstelling van het Nederlandse kunststofverpakkingsafval is dusdanig dat hogere R-verhoudingen niet mogelijk zijn. R-verhoudingen van bestaande sorteerbedrijven komen op zo’n 45- 50%. In het geval het ingaande materiaal niet optimaal is, kan deze verhouding dalen naar zo’n 30%.
    Samenstelling van gescheiden ingezamelde kunststof-verpakkingen
    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1487) - ISBN 9789462570559 - 18
    verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalverwerking - afvalverwijdering - afvalhergebruik - gemeenten - huisvuilverwijdering - nederland - packaging materials - plastics - waste treatment - waste disposal - waste utilization - municipalities - municipal refuse disposal - netherlands
    The composition of Dutch separately collected post-consumer plastic packaging waste has been determined for 23 different municipalities during the time period of 2010-2013. In this report weighted averages are presented based on the previously analysed samples. The most important packaging types present are in order of relevance: PE film, PET rigid packages (mostly trays and thermoformed trays), PP rigid packages (mostly butter tubs, yoghurt pots), PE flasks and PET bottles. The variance in the presented data is, however, large due to regional variance and seasonal influences. The reported weight-average compositional values should therefore only be used as indicate values.
    Haalbaarheidsstudie bio-afbreekbare plastic draagtasjes : technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties
    Oever, M.J.A. van den; Bolck, C.H. ; Bos, H.L. ; Molenveld, K. ; Zee, M. van der; Schennink, G.G.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1465) - 38
    bioplastics - kunststoffen - wegwerpmateriaal - haalbaarheidsstudies - polyethyleen - zakken - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - economische haalbaarheid - economische aspecten - bioplastics - plastics - disposables - feasibility studies - polyethylene - bags - biobased materials - biobased economy - economic viability - economic aspects
    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een haalbaarheidsstudie naar de technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties van een verbod op dunne plastic draagtasjes in Nederland, met een eventuele uitzondering voor bioplastic draagtassen. In deze korte studie staan bioplastic draagtassen centraal. Het gaat hierbij om alle bioplastics, dus om zowel de biologisch afbreekbare plastics als om niet-biologisch afbreekbaar bioplastic zoals biobased polyetheen (bio-PE). Het is technisch haalbaar om conventioneel fossiele PE plastic draagtassen te vervangen door bioplastic draagtassen. Bio-PE heeft dezelfde eigenschappen als fossiel PE en kan derhalve 1 op 1 als vervanging dienen. Biologisch afbreekbare plastic draagtassen voldoen eveneens; ze zijn vooralsnog dikker en zwaarder dan PE draagtassen om aan de gebruikerseisen te voldoen. Een specifieke antwoord op de economische en technische effecten is niet te geven omdat de exacte beleidsmaatregel en met name daaraan ten grondslag liggende beoogde effecten nog niet duidelijk is. In dit rapport worden daarom verschillende elementen besproken die onderdeel kunnen worden van een eventuele beleidsmaatregel.
    Eerste inschatting van vrijkomen van plastics als gevolg van slijtage van Mosselzaad-Invangsystemen (MZI's)
    Hartog, E. ; Brink, A.M. van den; Kamermans, P. - \ 2014
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C188/13) - 23
    ecotoxicologie - kunststoffen - mariene gebieden - mosselteelt - aquatische ecologie - inventarisaties - oosterschelde - voordelta - waddenzee - ecotoxicology - plastics - marine areas - mussel culture - aquatic ecology - inventories - eastern scheldt - voordelta - wadden sea
    IMARES heeft onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het ontstaan en de aanwezigheid van microplastic zwerfvuil afkomstig van mosselzaad invangsystemen (hierna MZI’s genoemd). Deze studie is onderdeel van een opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I, om de ecologische effecten van opschaling van MZI’s in de Oosterschelde en Westelijke Waddenzee te onderzoeken. De MZI’s, die gebruikt worden in de Oosterschelde, Voordelta en Waddenzee, bestaan onder andere uit Polypropyleen touw en Nylon netwerk. Deze touwen en netten worden tijdens de oogst geborsteld waardoor plastic deeltjes in het water terecht kunnen komen. Deeltjes kleiner dan 5 mm zijn daarbij gedefinieerd als microplastics. Over de aanwezigheid van microplastics afkomstig van MZI’s en uit andere bronnen is nog weinig bekend.
    Biobakkie koffie?
    Potting, Jose - \ 2013
    cups - plastics - bioplastics - sustainability - disposables - feasibility studies - biobased materials - biobased economy - environmental impact
    Plastics and Biocomosites
    Broek, Ben van den - \ 2013
    bioplastics - plastics - composite materials - natural fibres - biobased materials - biobased economy
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