Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Wolven in Polen
Myslajek, M. ; Nowak, S. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2013
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2013)100. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 29 - 31.
wolven - fauna - inventarisaties - polen - centraal-europa - wolves - fauna - inventories - poland - central europe
Het scheelde niet veel of de wolf was verdwenen uit Polen. Een door de overheid gestarte uitroeiingscampagne had tot gevolg dat er in 1975 nog slechts 250 wolven in het land leefden. Sindsdien is het aantal wolven weer gestaag toegenomen. De huidige populatie wordt geschat op 950-1000 dieren. Wettelijke bescherming lijkt de belangrijkste oorzaak van deze groei. En een toenemend besef onder de bevolking dat de wolf een belangrijke rol speelt in het ecosysteem. ‘Poolse’ wolven bewegen zich ook in Rusland, Litouwen, Wit-Rusland, Oekraïne, Duitsland en Slowakije. Jacht – legaal of illegaal – en sterfte in het verkeer in deze landen hebben een negatief effect op de groei en overleving van de populaties in Polen.
Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?
Frouz, J. ; Thébault, E. ; Pizl, V. ; Adl, S. ; Cajthaml, T. ; Baldrián, P. ; Hánel, L. ; Starý, J. ; Tajovský, K. ; Materna, J. ; Nováková, A. ; Ruiter, P.C. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 18 p.
northernmost record - middle eocene - miocene - oligocene - strenulagidae - ochotonidae - evolution - revision - deposits - poland
Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies) are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of homoplasies in cranial and dental structures that hamper phylogenetic analyses. The premolar foramen, an opening in the palate of lagomorphs, has been characterized as an important synapomorphy of one clade, Ochotonidae (pikas). Within Lagomorpha, however, its phylogenetic distribution is much wider, the foramen being present not only in all ochotonids but also in leporids and stem taxa; its morphology and incidence also varies considerably across the order, even intraspecifically. In this study, we provide a broad survey of the taxonomic distribution of the premolar foramen in extant and fossil Lagomorpha and describe in detail the morphological variation of this character within the group. Micro-computed tomography was used to examine the hard palate and infraorbital groove morphology in Poelagus (Leporidae) and Ochotona. Scans revealed the course and contacts of the canal behind the premolar foramen and structural differences between the two crown clades. We propose that the premolar foramen has evolved independently in several lineages of Lagomorpha, and we discuss development and function of this foramen in the lagomorph skull. This study shows the importance of comprehensive studies on phylogenetically informative non-dental characters in Lagomorpha.
State of the Art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture, Country data on energy consumption in different agroproduction sectors in the European countries
Visser, C.L.M. de; Buisonje, F.E. de; Ellen, H.H. ; Stanghellini, C. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2012
agrEE - 68
energiegebruik - landbouwproductie - dierlijke productie - gewasproductie - energie - efficiëntie - levenscyclusanalyse - finland - duitsland - griekenland - nederland - polen - portugal - energy consumption - agricultural production - animal production - crop production - energy - efficiency - life cycle assessment - finland - germany - greece - netherlands - poland - portugal
Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture, reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate change on a broad scale and local weather patterns, and farming management practices. There is not a single measure to describe, ensure, or improve energy efficiency. Instead, in the energy balance for a given production process, a variety of indicators may serve and support energy efficiency analysis. The results of this study are based on the specific input of primary energy per cultivation area (GJ ha-1) and on the specific input of primary energy per ton of agricultural product (GJ t-1). All the measures that are suitable to reduce the specific energy input, will improve energy efficiency (the energy efficiency measures). Improving energy efficiency of agricultural production contributes directly to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide.
Bias in estimating animal travel distance: the effect of sampling frequency
Rowcliffe, J.M. ; Carbone, C. ; Kays, R. ; Kranstauber, B. ; Jansen, P.A. - \ 2012
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3 (2012)4. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 653 - 662.
bialowieza-primeval-forest - correlated random-walk - gps telemetry data - home ranges - movement data - body-size - behavior - models - poland - error
1. The distance travelled by animals is an important ecological variable that links behaviour, energetics and demography. It is usually measured by summing straight-line distances between intermittently sampled locations along continuous animal movement paths. The extent to which this approach underestimates travel distance remains a rarely addressed and unsolved problem, largely because true movement paths are rarely, if ever, available for comparison. Here, we use simulated movement paths parameterized with empirical movement data to study how estimates of distance travelled are affected by sampling frequency. 2. We used a novel method to obtain fine-scale characteristics of animal movement from camera trap videos for a set of tropical forest mammals and used these characteristics to generate detailed movement paths. We then sampled these paths at different frequencies, simulating telemetry studies, and quantified the accuracy of sampled travel distance estimation. 3. For our focal species, typical telemetry studies would underestimate distances travelled by 67–93%, and extremely high sampling frequencies (several fixes per minute) would be required to get tolerably accurate estimates. The form of the relationship between tortuosity, sample frequency, and distance travelled was such that absolute distance cannot accurately be estimated by the infrequent samples used in typical tracking studies. 4. We conclude that the underestimation of distance travelled is a serious but underappreciated problem. Currently, there is no reliable, widely applicable method to obtain approximately unbiased estimates of distance travelled by animals. Further research on this problem is needed.
Scherp maar schadevrij
Emous, R.A. van - \ 2011
De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)16. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 34 - 35.
pluimveehouderij - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - vleeskuikenouderdieren - verenpikken - polen - engeland - poultry farming - debeaking - animal welfare - broiler breeders - feather pecking - poland - england
In Polen en Engeland blijven ouderdieren onbehandeld aan de snavel. Een Nederlandse delegatie is gaan kijken hoe dat uitpakt.
Hergebruik grijswater in individuele zuiveringssystemen in Polen : thema Riolering
Blazejwski, R. ; Kujawa, K. - \ 2010
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 43 (2010)2. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 43 - 45.
regenwateropvang - neerslag - afvalwater - riolering - verdunning - concentratie - hergebruik van water - waterzuivering - polen - zuiveringsinstallaties - water harvesting - precipitation - waste water - sewerage - dilution - concentration - water reuse - water treatment - poland - purification plants
De doelmatigheid van de huidige rioleringssystemen, waarbij allerlei soorten afvalwater en regenwater worden gemengd en gezuiverd in een centrale zuiveringsinstallatie, komt steeds meer ter discussie te staan, niet alleen in Nederland, maar ook in andere EU-landen, zoals Polen. De huidige werkwijze leidt tot verdunning van zeer geconcentreerd afvalwater, tot vervuiling van dun afvalwater én verlies van bruikbare grondstoffen
Sturen op duurzame ontwikkeling van stadsranden : lessen uit 7 regio’s in Europa en China
Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Westerink - Petersen, J. ; Kolijn, B. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra - 60
stadsrandgebieden - regionale planning - zuid-holland - slovenië - duitsland - engeland - frankrijk - polen - china - urban hinterland - regional planning - zuid-holland - slovenia - germany - england - france - poland - china
In 2005 nam Alterra het initiatief tot een geïntegreerd Europees onderzoek naar stadsranden, PLUREL. Dit project onderzocht stadsrandgebieden van zes Europese regio's en een regio in China. Voor de Europese regio's zijn de strategieën en ruimtelijke planningen bekeken. Het gaat om de regio's Haaglanden, Leipzig-Halle, Koper, Greater Manchester, Montpellier, Warschau en voor China: Hangzhou
The Impact of Interfirm Relationships on Investment: Evidence from the Polish Dairy Sector
Dries, L.K.E. ; Swinnen, J. - \ 2010
Food Policy 35 (2010)2. - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 121 - 129.
foreign direct-investment - farm investment - eastern-europe - latin-america - trade credit - poland - transition - horticulture - supermarkets - enforcement
Financial constraints and credit market imperfections are a major constraint on investment, growth and poverty reduction in transition and developing countries. This paper analyses the impact on investments of financial assistance programs as part of interfirm relationships. Our empirical evidence is based on a two-stage survey methodology. Qualitative evidence on dairy companies' assistance programs was gathered in the first stage through in-depth interviews at the level of the dairy companies. Quantitative data on 290 milk producing rural households in Poland was collected through a random survey in the second stage. The empirical analysis shows that dairy companies have played an important role in financial assistance, in particular for dairy-specific investments. In addition, they had an important indirect impact on farm activities and investments through feed supply and loan guarantee programs
Samenwerking Nederland-Polen op gebied van water en natuur in de Biebrze-vallei
Querner, E.P. ; Mioduszewski, W. ; Slesicka, A. - \ 2009
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 2009 (2009)19. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 16 - 17.
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - moerasgronden - herstellen - internationale samenwerking - polen - nederland - rivierengebied - natuurgebieden - catchment hydrology - swamp soils - reconditioning - international cooperation - poland - netherlands - rivierengebied - natural areas
Om de verdroging in delen van de Biebrza-vallei (moerasgebied in het noordoosten van Polen) tegen te gaan, is met steun van de Nederlandse overheid een langjarige samenwerking op touw gezet tussen onderzoeksinstituten en universiteiten in Nederland en Polen. Het onderzoek moest de effecten van herstelmaatregelen in kaart kunnen brengen. Met behulp van hydrologische modellen zijn maatregelen, zoals het afdammen van kanalen of dempen van slootjes, geëvalueerd
Impact of the invasive species Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. on vegetation in Pontic desert steppe zone (Southern Ukraine)
Sudnik-Wojcikowska, B. ; Moysiyenko, I. ; Slim, P.A. ; Moraczewski, I.R. - \ 2009
Polish Journal of Ecology 57 (2009)2. - ISSN 1505-2249 - p. 269 - 281.
shelterbelt - management - poland - field - flora - area
The Irano-Turanian species – Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) – is one of most commonly planted tree in the shelterbelts in southern Ukraine. The consequences of introduction of the species from windbreaks, into areas of different land use in west and central Pontic desert steppe zone are evaluated. The above steppe is unique on a European scale and exists only in some parts of the Black and Azovian Sea coasts. In recent years, the socio-economical crisis in Ukraine (less intensively cultivation, as well as limited grazing) has been responsible for the intensification of the spread of alien tree species outside the windbreaks. Studies were conducted in Kherson Region, in the immediate vicinity of the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve, where the presence of aliens is undesirable. The analysis of phytosociological material (48 relevés with and without Russian olive) collected from areas of different land use type and limited human pressure (as abandoned field, former intensively grazed solonetz and extensively grazed desert steppe vegetation) show that E. angustifolia can impede the regeneration of the desert steppe. The species creates favourable conditions for the growth of geographically and ecologically alien nithrophilous weeds.
Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia
Duyne, C. van; Ras, E. ; Vos, A.E.W. de; Boer, W.F. de; Henkens, R.J.H.G. ; Usukhjargal, D. - \ 2009
Journal of Wildlife Management 73 (2009)6. - ISSN 0022-541X - p. 836 - 843.
wolves canis-lupus - habitat selection - domestic-animals - prey - livestock - forest - diet - europe - region - poland
Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors that characterize prey choices of wolves. Diet of wolves in HNP was comprised of >50% of livestock. Diet composition varied during the year, with more livestock taken in winter. Wildlife species were selected over livestock species. From available livestock species domestic horses were predated most, whereas red deer (Cervus elaphus) and marmot (Marmota sibirica) were the preferred wildlife species. Our spatial analyses showed an unexpected significant positive relation between number of domestic horses killed and distance to the park, as well as a significant negative relation with number of gers (tents) in the area. Compared to randomly selected comparison sites (n = 36), we found Przewalski foal kills (n = 36) at sites that were closer to the forest, at higher altitudes, with lower shrub cover, higher forest cover, and higher red deer density. If the negative trend of deer numbers continues and if herdsmen protect their livestock more vigorously, depredation of wild Przewalski horses by wolves will rise. Therefore, a large red deer population could be pivotal in improving the conservation status of Przewalski horses
Exploring Farm investment Behaviour in Transition: The Case of Russian Agriculture
Bokusheva, R. ; Bezlepkina, I. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural Economics 60 (2009)2. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 436 - 464.
soft budget constraints - panel-data - financing constraints - flow sensitivities - market-economy - models - impact - poland - inefficiency - firms
This paper analyses the investment behaviour of Russian farms during the period of economic stabilisation that followed Russia's financial crisis of 1998, and is the first to apply the error-correction investment model to describe farms' investment behaviour in the transitional context. Additionally, the paper employs the error-correction and the adjustment-cost model to test for differences in the investment behaviour between various farm categories. The results show that in general Russian farms exhibited an error-correcting behaviour in the period under investigation. From 1999 to 2005 the output¿capital gap was closed by an average rate of 10% per year. Estimates of the adjustment-cost model show that Russian farm investments are very sensitive to the sales¿capital ratio, suggesting that Russian farms exhibit increasing returns to scale and positive expectations about future revenues. Yet, such farm characteristics as ownership structure, access to input markets and also regional specifics were found to be decisive for farm investment not only in the short but long term too. Finally, the results show that the adjustment-cost model is adequate for the evaluation of differences in short-term investment behaviour, whereas it is noticeably less powerful for investigating differences in the farms' long-term investment behaviour
Blueprint for EUROSCAPE 2020 : reframing the Future of the European Landscape : policy visions and research report
Wascher, D.M. ; Pedroli, B. - \ 2008
[S.l.] : JRC European Commission [etc.] - 48
landschap - regionale planning - portugal - polen - italië - landen van de europese unie - landschapsplanning - landscape - regional planning - portugal - poland - italy - european union countries - landscape planning
This Blueprint for EUROSCAPE 2020 proposes to undertake a radically new strategic operational approach for the European Union when defining targets for its territorial policies. The key principles are: (1) to establish a policy monitoring for rural development on the basis of a landscape functions; (2) introduce new spatial planning instruments to support Polycentric Regions and Vital Bridges; and (3) develop new forms of governance involving local and regional authorities, people and decision-makers.
What do Polish and Dutch consumers think about dried fruit and products with them - creaiwe group discussions as a means of recognittion consumers'perception
Jesionkowska, K. ; Konopacka, D. ; P¿ocharski, W. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 2007
Polish Journal of Natural Sciences 2007 (2007)Suppl.4. - ISSN 1643-9953 - p. 169 - 175.
houding van consumenten - fruitproducten - gedroogd fruit - consumenten - polen - nederland - consumer attitudes - fruit products - dried fruit - consumers - poland - netherlands
The main aim of the study was to get insight into consumers' perception towards dried fruit and products with them, thus the exploratory study designed as a group discussion took place. While group discussions association (as one of the projective technique) and Kelly repertory grid were used to make the discussions more creative and lively. The discussions were held in Poland and in the Netherlands. It was found that Polish consumers perceive dried fruits mainly as convenient product while according to Dutch consumers dried fruit are old - fashioned. If it comes to the products with dried fruits, Polish consumers seem appreciate the presence of fruits in the product as the source of better taste and diversity. Both Polish and Dutch consumers seem pay attention to the nutritional value of the products but they are not convinced whether information on the package is true
Headquarters-subsidiary relationship governance in emerging markets of Central Eastern Europe : a study in Poland
Gusc, J.S. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047582 - 215
management - multinational corporations - investment - trade relations - transition economies - investment policy - entrepreneurship - businesses - administration - poland - central europe - corporate governance - bedrijfsvoering - multinationale corporaties - investering - handelsrelaties - overgangseconomieën - investeringsbeleid - ondernemerschap - bedrijven - bestuur - polen - centraal-europa - deugdelijk ondernemingsbestuur
Multinational enterprises often seem to be on a ‘roller coaster’ when managing their operations in transition economies, especially because of the volatile business and political environment. The study analyses the subtle equilibrium between formal control and day-to-day coordination in the Headquarters-Subsidiary (HQ-S) relationship of more than 70 subsidiaries of large multinational companies in Poland, taking the cultural differences between the headquarters and subsidiary country into account. It is concluded that in the best performing multinationals, strategic and operational control mechanisms are tightly organised, building a platform on which intensive coordination and attuning occurs to deal with the day-to-day management challenges. Interestingly, also for entering new markets, a prospector strategy focusing on innovation shows better results than copying of competitors. However, it also reveals that there is no simple and uniform recipe for managing subsidiaries. The road from governance to performance is not a one-way street, creating flexibility and learning capabilities at the subsidiary level clearly contribute to the success of international operations.
EUREP-GAP in the European Union : quality management and food safety in apple and onion chains in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and The Netherlands
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Baricicova, V. ; Dandar, M. ; Grzegorzewska, M. ; Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Szabo, C. ; Zmarlicki, K. - \ 2007
Lelystad : PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegroententeelt (EU access report / Applied Plant Research, Research Unit Arable Farming and Vegetable Production 07) - 46
appels - malus - uien - allium cepa - voedselveiligheid - hongarije - polen - slowakije - kwaliteitszorg - apples - malus - onions - allium cepa - food safety - hungary - poland - slovakia - quality management
This project is financed by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, nature and Food Quality and is part of the research programme 'Sustainable and competetive agriculture supply chains in pre- and post-European Union accession countries (EU access)'
Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary
Tonini, A. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Roel Jongeneel. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045908 - 206
overgangslandbouw - overgangseconomieën - melkveehouderij - centraal-europa - hongarije - polen - landbouw - productiviteit - efficiëntie - micro-economie - economische theorie - melkproductie - prestatieniveau - modellen - transitional farming - transition economies - dairy farming - central europe - hungary - poland - agriculture - productivity - efficiency - performance - microeconomics - economic theory - models - milk production
Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.
This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market economy. By using microeconomic theory, available data and elaborated econometric methods, the thesis shows that this joint effort leads to sensible results. The first part deals with sectoral economic analysis for Central Eastern European Countries (CEECs) that signed agreement for the European Union (EU) accession in 1998. The second part is focused on two countries (Poland and Hungary) and the dairy sector. Analytical methods used are: stochastic frontier, distance function, profit function, and Markov chain. The data were sourced from Eurostat, FAO, OECD and national statistical offices. The observations related to the former socialist regime were discarded removing the possibility of relying on traditional estimation techniques. Easier applicability was exchanged for more relevance. Maximum Entropy, which is a non-conventional estimation technique suitable for dealing with "ill-posed", and/or "ill-conditioned" problems, was largely used. By reconciling sample information and non-sample information in a rigorous and transparent manner this thesis sought to make the best estimates possible from the available information. Results of the first part indicate that despite the decrease in output, total factor productivity growth rates were positive across all CEECs analysed during the post socialist period. Countries which during the socialist regime were characterised by large-scale operators were more technologically efficient compared with the other countries analysed. This supports the view that large-scale farming performs better than small-scale farming in the period following transition when there were missing markets and uncertain economic conditions. The agricultural output mix was largely influenced by transition. Results indicate that it is going to be difficult to increase chicken meat getting rid of the other agricultural products. Adjustment costs were greater and increasing over time for Hungary as compared to Poland. The mode! detected overspecialization for sugar beet production. In the second half of the 1990s the degree of complementarity and substitutability is increased.
Second the thesis analyzed the primary dairy production of Hungary and Poland modelling their dairy and beef supplies as well as their dairy farm structures. The developed supply model showed an original and empirically based way for satisfying theoretical consistency as well as plausibility. Final supply elasticities estimates were not so different from those found for EU-15 countries in the pre-quota period. This confirms that dairy operations rely on a similar production technology and that the calibrated elasticities used in the literature are not far from reality. The dairy farm size projections showed that the number of dairy farms will continue to decline in the coming decade, although with an increase in the number of farms of medium and large size. The exit from the sector of the subsistence dairy farms is predicted to proceed more slowly in Poland than in Hungary. The findings suggest a convergence to a dairy farm structure similar to the one encountered in the former EU-15 members with a predominance of medium size farms. The degree of convergence will largely depend on the mediating role of a we!l-defmed and functioning land market.
Characterisation of pristine Polish river systems and their use as reference conditions for Dutch river systems
Nijboer, R.C. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Piechocki, A. ; Tonczyk, G. ; Klukowska, M. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1367) - 221
rivieren - ecologie - waterlopen - meren - waterinvertebraten - biodiversiteit - polen - nederland - kwaliteitsnormen - rivers - ecology - streams - lakes - aquatic invertebrates - biodiversity - quality standards - poland - netherlands
A central feature of the European Water Framework Directive are the reference conditions. The ecological quality status is determined by calculating the distance between the present situation and the reference conditions. To describe reference conditions the natural variation of biota in pristine water bodies should be measured. Because pristine water bodies are not present in the Netherlands anymore, water bodies (springs, streams, rivers and oxbow lakes) in central Poland were investigated. Macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were sampled and environmental variables were measured. The water bodies appeared to have a high biodiversity and a good ecological quality. They contain a high number of rare macroinvertebrate species. There are only few species that can not occur in the Netherlands, but their abundances were low. The Polish water bodies are suitable to describe reference conditions for similar Dutch water types. The data resulting from this project can be used to update the descriptions of reference conditions in the `Handboek Natuurdoeltypen¿or to develop the descriptions for the Water Framework Directive types.
Economics of multifunctional biomass systems
Ignaciuk, A. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Arjan Ruijs. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044901 - 159
ecologie - klimaatverandering - broeikaseffect - energiebronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - energie - productie - energiebeleid - biomassa - biomassa productie - brandstofgewassen - brandstoffen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - polen - milieueconomie - ecology - climatic change - greenhouse effect - energy sources - sustainability - environmental policy - energy - production - energy policy - biomass - biomass production - fuel crops - fuels - renewable resources - poland - environmental economics