Records 1 - 20 / 339
Climate neutral tourism: is it possible? | WURcast
Kok, K. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
sustainable tourism - tourism - pollution - pollution by tourism
Predicting methane emission of dairy cows using milk composition
Gastelen, Sanne van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.H. Hendriks, co-promotor(en): J. Dijkstra; K.A. Hettinga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437097 - 266
dairy cows - dairy cattle - methane production - emission - milk composition - fatty acids - cattle feeding - fermentation - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - pollution - melkkoeien - melkvee - methaanproductie - emissie - melksamenstelling - vetzuren - rundveevoeding - fermentatie - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - verontreiniging
Enteric methane (CH4) is produced as a result of microbial fermentation of feed components in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant livestock. Methane has no nutritional value for the animal and is predominately released into the environment through eructation and breath. Therefore, CH4 not only represents a greenhouse gas contributing to global warming, but also an energy loss, making enteric CH4 production one of the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. Obviously, reduction of CH4 emission could be achieved by simply reducing livestock numbers. However, the global demand for dairy products has been growing rapidly and is expected to further grow in the future. Therefore, it is critical to minimize environmental impact to produce high-quality dairy products. The overall aim of this PhD research was, therefore, to develop a proxy for CH4 emission that can be measured in milk of dairy cows.
There are currently a number of potentially effective dietary CH4 mitigation practices available for the livestock sector. The results of Chapter 3 show that replacing fiber-rich grass silage with starch-rich corn silage in a common forage-based diet for dairy cattle offers an effective strategy to decrease enteric CH4 production without negatively affecting dairy cow performance, although a critical level of starch in the diet seems to be needed. Little is known whether host genetics may influence the CH4 emission response to changes in diet. Therefore, the interaction between host DGAT1 K232A polymorphism with dietary linseed oil supplementation was evaluated in Chapter 7. The results of Chapter 7 indicate that DGAT1 K232A polymorphism is associated with changes in milk composition, milk N efficiency, and diet metabolizability, but does not affect digestibility and enteric CH4 emission, whereas linseed oil reduces CH4 emission independent of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism.
Accurate and repeatable measurements of CH4 emission from individual dairy cows are required to assess the efficacy of possible mitigation strategies. There are several techniques to estimate or measure enteric CH4 production of dairy cows, including climate respiration chambers, but none of these techniques are suitable for large scale precise and accurate measurements. Therefore, the potential of various metabolites in milk, including milk fatty acids (MFA), as a proxy (i.e., indicators or animal traits that are correlated with enteric CH4 production) for CH4 emission of dairy cows gained interest. Until recently, gas chromatography was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but this technique is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for determination of the MFA profile. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the recent research that relates MFA with CH4 emission, and discusses the opportunities and limitations of using FTIR to estimate, indirectly via MFA or directly, CH4 emission of dairy cattle. The recent literature on the relationship between MFA and CH4 emission gives inconsistent results. Where some studies found a clear and strong relation, other studies consider MFA to be unreliable predictors for CH4 emitted by dairy cows. Even the studies that do find a clear relation between MFA and CH4 emissions do not describe similar prediction models using the same MFA. These discrepancies can be the result of many factors, including dietary composition and lactation stage. Additionally, literature showed that the major advantages of using FTIR to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application on a large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for the prediction of CH4 emission, and the moderate power of FTIR to directly predict CH4 emission. The latter was also demonstrated in Chapter 9, in which the CH4 prediction potential of MFA was compared with that of FTIR using data from 9 experiments (n = 218 individual cow observations) covering a broad range of roughage-based diets. The results indicate that MFA have a greater potential than FTIR spectra to estimate CH4 emissions, and that both techniques have potential to predict CH4 emission of dairy cows, but also limited current applicability in practice. Much focus has been placed on the relationship between MFA and CH4 emission, but milk also contains other metabolites, such as volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Currently, milk volatile metabolites have been used for tracing animal feeding systems and milk non-volatile metabolites were shown to be related to the health status of cows. In Chapter 4, the relationship between CH4 emission and both volatile and non-volatile metabolites was investigated, using data and milk samples obtained in the study described in Chapter 3. In general, the non-volatile metabolites were more closely related to CH4 emissions than the volatile metabolites. More specifically, the results indicate that CH4 intensity (g/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM) may be related to lactose synthesis and energy metabolism in the mammary gland, as reflected by the milk non-volatile metabolites uridine diphosphate-hexose B and citrate. Methane yield (g/kg dry matter intake) on the other hand, may be related to glucogenic nutrient supply, as reflected by the milk non-volatile acetone. Based on the metabolic interpretations of these relationships, it was hypothesized that the addition of both volatile and non-volatile metabolites in a prediction model with only MFA would enhance its predictive power and, thus, leads to a better proxy in milk for enteric CH4 production of dairy cows. This was investigated in Chapter 5, again using data and milk samples described in Chapter 3. The results indicate that MFA alone have moderate to good potential to estimate CH4 emission. Furthermore, including volatile metabolites (CH4 intensity only) and non-volatile metabolites increases the CH4 emission prediction potential.
The work presented in Chapters 3, 4 and 5, was based upon a small range of diets (i.e., four roughage-based diets in which grass silage was replaced partly or fully by corn silage) of one experiment. Therefore, in Chapter 6, the relationship between CH4 emission and the milk metabolome in dairy cattle was further quantified. Data (n = 123 individual cow observations) were used encompassing a large of roughage-based diets, with different qualities and proportions of grass, grass silage and corn silage. The results show that changes in individual milk metabolite concentrations can be related to the ruminal CH4 production pathways. These relationships are most likely the result from changes in dietary composition that affect not only enteric CH4 production, but also the profile of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk. Overall, the results indicate that both volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk might provide useful information and increase our understanding of CH4 emission of dairy cows. However, the development of CH4 prediction models revealed that both volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk hold little potential to predict CH4 emissions despite the significant relationships found between individual non-volatile metabolites and CH4 emissions. Additionally, combining MFA with milk volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites does not improve the CH4 prediction potential relative to MFA alone. Hence, it is concluded that it is not worthwhile to determine the volatile and non-volatile metabolites in milk in order to estimate CH4 emission of dairy cows.
Overall, in comparison with FTIR, volatile and non-volatile metabolites, the MFA are the most accurate and precise proxy in milk for CH4 emission of dairy cows. However, most of MFA-based models to predict CH4 emission tend to be accurate only for the production system and the environmental conditions under which they were developed. In Chapter 8 it was demonstrated that previously developed MFA-based prediction equations did not predict CH4 emission satisfactory of dairy cows with different DGAT1 genotypes or fed diets with or without linseed oil. Therefore, the greatest shortcoming today of MFA-based CH4 prediction models is their lack of robustness. Additionally, MFA have restricted practical application, meaning that most MFA retained in the current CH4 prediction models cannot be determined routinely because of the use of gas chromatography. The MFA that can be determined with the use of infrared spectroscopy are however no promising predictors for CH4 emission. Furthermore, MFA have only a moderate CH4 prediction potential. This together suggests that it might not be the best option to focus in the future on MFA alone as a proxy for CH4 emission of dairy cows.
The FTIR technique has a low to moderate CH4 prediction potential. However, FTIR has a great potential for practical high throughput application, facilitating repeated measurements of the same cow potentially reducing random noise. Results of this thesis also demonstrated that FTIR spectra do not have the potential to detect differences in CH4 emission between diets which are, in terms of forage level and quality, commonly fed in practice. Moreover, the robustness of FTIR spectra is currently unknown. Hence, it remains to be investigated whether FTIR spectra can predict CH4 emissions from dairy cows housed under different conditions from those under which the FTIR-based prediction equations were developed. It is therefore concluded that the accuracy and precision to predict CH4 emission using FTIR needs to increase, and the capacity of FTIR to evaluate the differences in CH4 emission between dairy cows and different types of diets needs to improve, in order to actually be a valuable proxy for CH4 emission of dairy cows.
Bioplastic : feiten en fictie
Bolck, Christiaan - \ 2017
bioplastics - biodegradation - pollution - wastes - environmental impact - biobased materials - biobased economy
Aan bioplastics kleeft een ‘groen’ imago. In werkelijkheid zijn ze echter geen wondermiddel tegen zwerfafval en milieuproblematiek. De waarheid ligt – als altijd – genuanceerder, blijkt uit een feitenoverzicht dat Wageningse onderzoekers maakten.
Oil slick fate in 3D : predicting the influence of (natural and chemical) dispersion on oil slick fate
Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tinka Murk, co-promotor(en): W. Koops. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579279 - 174
oil spills - pollution - adverse effects - oils - dispersion - models - thickness - olieverontreinigingen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - oliën - dispersie - modellen - dikte
In certain conditions, (part of) an oil spill can disappear from the water surface through a process called natural dispersion. One available oil spill response option is to enhance this process by addition of dispersants (chemical dispersion). An informed decision for such response requires insight in the oil slick size WITH and WITHOUT treatment. This thesis aims to enable such assessment of net effectiveness, by providing a strategy for modelling the dispersion process.
A plunging jet test was developed for investigating entrainment and droplet breakup. Using this set up the relevance of oil layer thickness was proven and an algorithm to model droplet sizes of dispersed oil was defined. The findings were applied in a model simulating dispersion and resurfacing as well as the wind-driven differential transport between the floating slick and suspended droplets. The simulation outputs help assess the added value (or not) of dispersant application in reducing the surface oil slick size for different oil types and conditions.
Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
Monitoring landbouwkundige risico’s bij actief bodembeheer in Krimpenerwaard : monitoringsplan en nulmeting
Groenenberg, J.E. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2726) - 27
sloten - stortterreinen - vuilnisbelten - verontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - monitoring - afdeklagen - bodembeheer - krimpenerwaard - ditches - landfills - refuse tips - pollution - soil pollution - monitoring - coatings - soil management - krimpenerwaard
In de Krimpenerwaard liggen circa 6500 slootdempingen en vuilstorten. Het dempingsmateriaal bevat regelmatig verontreinigingen, zodat voor de hele regio sprake is van een geval van ernstige bodemverontreiniging. Het gebiedsgerichte bodembeheerplan voorziet in het afdekken van de verontreinigde slootdempingen met gebiedseigen schone grond. De effectiviteit van de sanering wordt geëvalueerd op basis van monitoring van ecologische en landbouwkundige risico’s. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de monitoring in het kader van de landbouwkundige risico’s. Er zijn metingen verricht aan het dempingsmateriaal, de afdeklaag en het gras, zowel voorafgaand aan als na het afdekken. Het gras dat groeide op de demping had verhoogde gehalten aan met name zink. De kwaliteit van het gras op de afgedekte dempingen wijkt niet af van de referentielocaties zonder dempingsmateriaal. De zeer lage PCB-concentraties in de afdeklaag en de hoge concentraties in de demping op de monitoringslocaties maken het in principe mogelijk om eventueel optredende veranderingen als gevolg van bioturbatie te monitoren.
Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Penny, Christian ; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Schets, Franciska M. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Duim, Birgitta ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Boer, Albert de; Cauchie, Henry-Michel ; Mossong, Joel ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van - \ 2016
Water Research 101 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 36 - 45.
campylobacter - surface water - water quality - pollution - water pollution - microbiology - wild birds - poultry - campylobacter jejuni - campylobacter coli - netherlands - luxembourg - campylobacter - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - microbiologie - wilde vogels - pluimvee - campylobacter jejuni - campylobacter coli - nederland - luxemburg
Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44–50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions.
Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens
Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; Willem Jan de Kogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577510 - 206
apis mellifera - honey bees - honey bee colonies - biological indicators - sampling - instruments - pollution - pollutants - heavy metals - plant pathogenic bacteria - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytical methods - apis mellifera - honingbijen - honingbijkolonies - biologische indicatoren - bemonsteren - instrumenten (meters) - verontreiniging - verontreinigende stoffen - zware metalen - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytische methoden
Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, pollen, water and honeydew from the flowers or on the leaves, other matter (in bio-indication terms: target matter) and accumulating this in the colony. Collected target matter, in this thesis heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH, is collected from the colony by subsampling. Subsampling the honeybee colony is done by taking and killing bees from the hive (sacrificial) or by collecting target matter from the bee’s exterior without killing the bee (non-sacrificial). In environmental technology terms the application of the honeybee colony is a Passive Sampling Method (PSM). In this thesis the possibilities and restrictions of the PSM honeybee colony are explored.
Bio-indication is a broad research field with one common factor: a living organism (bio) is applied to record an alteration of the environment (indication). The environment may be small such as a laboratory or big such as an ecosystem. Alterations in the organism may vary from detecting substances foreign to the body to mortality of the organism. In environmental technology the concept Source-Path-Receptor (SPR) is applied to map the route of a pollutant. It describes where in the environment the pollution is, how it moves through the environment and where it ends. This environment is the same environment of all living organisms, ergo also honeybees. Honeybees depend on flowers for their food. In the SPR concept, a flower can be a source, path or receptor. Along with collecting pollen, nectar, water and honeydew, target matter is collected by honeybees. Each honeybee functions as a micro-sampler of target matter in the environment, in this case the flower. Each honeybee is part of a honeybee colony and in fact the honeybee colony is the bio-sampler. The honeybee colony is a superorganism. The well-being of the colony prevails over the individual honeybee. Food collection is directed by the colony’s need. Foragers are directed to the most profitable food sources by the bee dance and food exchange (trophallaxis). The result of this feature is that mainly profitable sources are exploited and poor food sources less or not at all. During the active foraging period hundreds to thousands of flowers are visited daily. The nectar, pollen, water and honeydew plus the unintentionally collected target matter is accumulated in the honeybee colony. In order to obtain target matter the colony must be subsampled. This is done by picking bees from the hive-entrance (hive-entering bees) or inside the hive (in-hive bees) and processing them for analysis (sacrificial). This is the most commonly applied method. However, it is possible to subsample the colony without picking and processing the bees by collecting target matter from the hive-entering bee’s exterior (non-sacrificial). For non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony the Beehold device with the sampling part Beehold tube has been developed. The results of bio-indication with honeybee colonies are qualitative and indicative for follow up study (Chapter 1).
Six bio-indication studies with honeybee colonies for bio-indication of heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH are presented. Chapter 2 describes how the concentration of eighteen heavy metals in honeybees fluctuate throughout the period of July, August and September (temporal) at the study sites: the city of Maastricht, the urban location with an electricity power plant in Buggenum and along the Nieuwe Waterweg at Hoek van Holland (spatial). A number of the metals have not been previously analysed in honeybees. To study whether honeybees can be used for bio-indication of air pollution, the concentrations of cadmium, vanadium and lead were compared to concentrations found in honeybees. The honeybee colonies were placed next to the air samplers. Only significant differences of metal concentrations in the ambient air also show in honeybees. This was the case with vanadium in ambient air and honeybees. The spatial and temporal differences of cadmium and lead were too futile to demonstrate a correspondence (Chapter 3). In a national surveillance study in 2008 the concentration of eighteen metals in honeybees has been analysed. The results showed a distinct regional pattern. Honeybees in the East of the Netherlands have higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the bees in the West. Besides regional differences local differences were also recorded. An approximate description of the land use around 148 apiaries (> 50% agriculture, > 50% wooded area, > 50% urban area and mixed use) indicated the impact of land use on metal concentrations in honeybees. In areas with > 50% wood significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were detected (Chapter 4). Subsampling of the honeybee colonies in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 was done sacrificially. In the studies presented in Chapter 5, 6, and 7 the honeybee colonies were subsampled non-sacrificially or simultaneously non-sacrificially and sacrificially. The plant pathogen E. pyrifoliae causes a flower infection in the strawberry cultivation in greenhouses. In greenhouse strawberry cultivation honeybees are applied for pollination. In Chapter 5 the combination pollination / bio-indication by honeybee colonies is studied. This proved to be a match. E. pyrifoliae could be detected on in-hive bees prior to any symptom of the infection in the flowers. In the Beehold tube, the bacterium was detected at the same time as the first tiny symptoms of the infection. In Chapter 5 the principles on which the Beehold tube is based are presented and discussed. The plant pathogen E. amylovora causes fireblight in orchards. The combination pollination / bio-indication has also been applied in this study performed in Austria in 2013. It is known that E. amylovora can be detected on honeybees prior to any symptom in the flower or on the fruit tree. A fireblight outbreak depends on flowering period, humidity and temperature. In 2013 no fireblight infection emerged in the orchards where the study was performed. Therefore, the bacterium could not be detected on the honeybees. γ-HCH (Lindane) is one of the soil pollutants in the Bitterfeld region in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. It is the result of dumping industrial waste around the production locations. Although γ-HCH is bound to soil particles there is a flux to groundwater and surface water. Consequently, the pollution may end up in the sediments of the streambed and flood plains. The study objective was to investigate the hypothetic route of γ-HCH from polluted soil (source), via soil erosion and atmospheric deposition (route) to the receptor (flowering flowers) by detecting γ-HCH in the Beehold tube. Although on average over 17000 honeybees passed through the Beehold tube daily for a maximal period of 28 days, no γ-HCH has been detected. The pollen pattern in the Beehold tube revealed where the bees collected the food (Chapter 7).
The application of the honeybee colony has pros and cons. Distinctive pros are many micro samplers, the extensive collection of matter (both food and target matter) and the accumulation in the colony. For successful bio-indication with honeybee colonies, determining factors are: the target matter, location of the target matter, distance between target matter and the honeybee colony, individual or pooled subsampling, the minimal sampling frequency and sample size, and sacrificial or non-sacrificial subsampling applied solely or in combination. Taking bees from a colony impacts upon the colony’s performance and consequently the passive sampling method. Based on a long-years’ experience and inter-collegial discussion it is stated that 3% of the forager bees (hive-entering) and 1.5% of the in-hive bees can be sampled safely without impacting upon the colony. This restriction does not apply when carrying out non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony (Chapter 8).
Performing bio-indication with honeybee colonies has more applications than have been exploited so far. Further research can make a change. In particular I mention here the combination of pollination and bio-indication and the application of non-sacrificial subsampling solely or in combination with sacrificial subsampling.
Everywhere Apiculture is practiced (all over the world except the polar areas) bio-indication with honeybee colonies can be applied in a simple, practical and low cost way.
Verkenning doorvaren passieve vistuigen
Jak, R.G. - \ 2016
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C014/16) - 20
vistuig - visserij - vuilnis - vismethoden - verontreiniging - nederland - fishing gear - fisheries - refuse - fishing methods - pollution - netherlands
In deze studie is op basis van gesprekken met Nederlandse staandwantvissers en sleepnetvissers verkend in hoeverre het doorvaren van staandwantnetten kan leiden tot het ontstaan van zwerfvuil. Volgens de Nederlandse staandwantvissers zijn de problemen uit voorgaande decennia voorbij door de goede communicatie tussen staandwantvisssers enerzijds en sleepnetvissers anderzijds. Netten worden tegenwoordig nog doorvaren indien niet goed bekend is dat bepaalde activiteiten, zoals baggeren, gaan plaatsvinden. Doorvaren netten worden door de staandwantvissers zoveel mogelijk weer verzameld en eindigen dan niet als zwerfvuil. Door sleepnetvissers wordt aangegeven dat netten van Deense staandwantvissers regelmatig doorvaren worden, vooral gedurende de zomerperiode en binnen de 12-mijlzone. Deze netten worden losgesneden en dan òf als afval meegenomen naar wal, òf achtergelaten indien de netten zijn verankerd. Het is dan onduidelijk of de stukgesneden netten achterblijven als zwerfvuil. Op basis van de bevindingen wordt aanbevolen een betere communicatie te faciliteren tussen staandwantvissers en andere gebruikers van de kustzone.
Maatregelen ter vermindering van de ammoniakemissie uit de melkveehouderij: indicatieve beoordelingen van vloer- en keldermaatregelen
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Mosquera Losada, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 915) - 31
melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - vloeren - kelders - dierlijke meststoffen - verontreiniging - huisvesting van rundvee - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - floors - cellars - animal manures - pollution - cattle housing - farm buildings
Ammonia emission reducing housing systems are listed in the ‘Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav)’. Beside these list of around 30 housing systems a divers pallet of additional technical options to further reduce ammonia emission from housing is available. To allocate limited resources for research the ministry of economic affair asked for an assessment and selection of these available additional housing measures. As recommendation for further development toward implementation in practice the following measures are prioritized: • Adjusted slatted floor and the effectiveness on the long term of valves preventing air exchange between pits and rest of the housing. • Optimized scraper and the effect on scraping frequency and the use of other materials • Use of water for dilution and cleaning of the floor.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Langenkamp-Niens in 2014/2015
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 936) - 42
melkvee - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - samenstelling - stikstofverliezen - vervluchtiging - verontreiniging - dierlijke productie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - composition - nitrogen losses - volatilization - pollution - animal production
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2014
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES C123/15) - 55
marine environment - water pollution - pollution - wastes - monitoring - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - verontreiniging - afval - monitoring
Status and trends of St. Eustatius Coral reef ecosystem and fisheries: 2015 report card
Graaf, M. de; Piontek, S. ; Miller, D.C.M. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C167/15) - 41
coral reefs - ecosystems - fisheries - algae - fishery management - pollution - habitat degradation - nature conservation - sint eustatius - koraalriffen - ecosystemen - visserij - algen - visserijbeheer - verontreiniging - habitatdegradatie - natuurbescherming - sint eustatius
Manure management in the (Sub-)Tropics : training manual for extension workers
Teenstra, E.D. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de; Ndambi, A. ; Pelster, D. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 919) - 41
dierlijke meststoffen - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding - voorlichters - veehouderij - verontreiniging - duurzame ontwikkeling - subtropen - handboeken - animal manures - management - training - extension agents - livestock farming - pollution - sustainable development - subtropics - handbooks
Having identified a general lack of knowledge about the value of livestock manure and integrated manure management at multiple levels in government and society, a concerted action led to the compilation of a training manual for extension workers on manure management in the (sub-)tropics. Covering the whole manure chain, from animal excretion to the final application, the manual describes the basic principles of integrated manure management. Although much information originates from more temperate regions, the manual focusses on farm practices in the tropics and subtropics.
TBT - gehalten en effecten bij de gewone Alikruik, de Gevlochten Fuikhoorn en de Purperslak langs de Nederlandse kust in 2015
Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van; Jol, J.G. ; Kaag, N.H.B.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C147/15) - 33
littorina littorea - littorina - organo-tinverbindingen - genitaliën - afwijkingen - verontreiniging - zeeland - littorina littorea - littorina - organotin compounds - genitalia - abnormalities - pollution - zeeland
Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation
Butkovskyi, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): L. Hernández Leal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574168 - 189
verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - afvalwater - stedelijk afvalwater - volksgezondheidsbevordering - waterzuivering - verwijdering - geneesmiddelen - farmaceutische producten - antibioticumresiduen - residuen - pollutants - pollution - water pollution - waste water - municipal wastewater - sanitation - water treatment - removal - drugs - pharmaceutical products - antibiotic residues - residues
Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse of liquid and solid products of source separated sanitation, the quality of these materials has to meet (future) standards, i.e. for micropollutant concentrations. Therefore the objectives of this thesis included assessment of micropollutant content of source separated sanitation products intended for resource recovery and examination of post-treatment technologies for micropollutant mitigation within source separated sanitation
Environmental Risk Assessment expertise at Alterra Wageningen UR
Alterra - Centrum Landschap, - \ 2015
aquatic ecosystems - pollution - pollution control - risk assessment - ecological assessment - university research - pesticides - environmental assessment - environmental protection
Gehaltes aan zware metalen in biota op stort- en referentielocaties in de Oosterschelde & Westerschelde : data rapport 2014
Jansen, H.M. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Tangelder, M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C079/15) - 91
oeverbescherming van rivieren - zware metalen - sintels - metalen - verontreiniging - oosterschelde - westerschelde - monitoring - aquatische ecologie - ecotoxicologie - riverbank protection - heavy metals - slags - metals - pollution - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - monitoring - aquatic ecology - ecotoxicology
Om erosie van de oevers en geulwanden tegen te gaan, is er in 2008 (pilot) en 2009 (structureel) begonnen om ‘bestortingen’ uit te voeren om de oevers te beschermen. Deze bestortingen zijn uitgevoerd met staalslakken (SS) en breukstenen (BS). Om met zekerheid vast te kunnen stellen dat als gevolg van deze bestortingen geen negatieve effecten optreden op het mariene milieu is een monitoringsprogramma ingevoerd om inzicht te krijgen in gehalten aan zware metalen in aanwezige biota meerdere jaren na het aanbrengen van vooroeververdediging. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de metaalanalyses in biota bemonsterd op verschillende locaties in de Oosterschelde en Westerschelde.
Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth
Geffen, K.G. van; Eck, E. van; Boer, R. de; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Salis, F. ; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2015
Insect Conservation and Diversity 8 (2015)3. - ISSN 1752-458X - p. 282 - 287.
winter moth - lepidoptera-noctuidae - british moths - sex-pheromone - pollution - world - bats
1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development, reproduction and inter/intra-specific interactions. 2.Here, we present results of a field-based experiment where we tested effects of various types of artificial lighting on mating in the winter moth (Operophtera brumata, Lepidoptera: Geometridae). We illuminated trunks of oak trees with green, white, red or no artificial LED light at night, and caught female O. brumata on these trunks using funnel traps. The females were dissected to check for the presence of a spermatophore, a sperm package that is delivered by males to females during mating. 3.We found a strong reduction in the number of females on the illuminated trunks, indicating artificial light inhibition of activity. Furthermore, artificial light inhibited mating: 53% of females caught on non-illuminated trunks had mated, whereas only 13%, 16% and 28% of the females that were caught on green, white and red light illuminated trunks had mated respectively. 4.A second experiment showed that artificial night lighting reduced the number of males that were attracted to a synthetic O. brumata pheromone lure. This effect was strongest under red light and mildest under green light. 5.This study provides, for the first time, field-based evidence that artificial night lighting disrupts reproductive behaviour of moths, and that reducing short wavelength radiation only partly mitigates these negative effects.
Experimental illumination of natural habitat - an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition
Spoelstra, K. ; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Donners, M. ; Huijgens, T. ; Slaterus, R. ; Berendse, F. ; Visser, M.E. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2015
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 370 (2015). - ISSN 0962-8436 - 8 p.
predation risk - beach mice - bats - night - ultraviolet - wavelength - pollution - responses - vision - time
Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level—thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time.