Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Starch meets biotechnology : in planta modification of starch composition and functionalities
Xu, Xuan - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Luisa Trindade. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579200 - 169
starch - potato starch - potatoes - solanum tuberosum - plant biotechnology - biotechnology - genetic engineering - transgenic plants - modified starches - phosphate - arabidopsis thaliana - plant breeding - zetmeel - aardappelzetmeel - aardappelen - solanum tuberosum - plantenbiotechnologie - biotechnologie - genetische modificatie - transgene planten - gemodificeerd zetmeel - fosfaat - arabidopsis thaliana - plantenveredeling

Storage starch is an energy reservoir for plants and the major source of calories in the human diet. Starch is used in a broad range of industrial applications, as a cheap, abundant, renewable and biodegradable biopolymer. However, starch needs to be modified before it can fulfill the required properties for specific industrial applications. Genetic modification of starch, as a green technology with environmental and economic advantages, has attracted increasingly attention. Many achievements obtained from earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential of using this approach to produce starches with novel properties (Chapter 2).

The main objective of this research was to produce novel starches with enhanced functionalities through genetic modification, while gaining a better understanding of storage starch biosynthesis. A focus on potato was warranted as it represents a superior model system for storage starch biosynthesis studies and for the production of starches with novel properties. To this end, a number of enzymes from various sources have been expressed in potato tubers to modify starch phosphate content and polysaccharide structure, since these two characteristics have long been recognized as key features in starch properties.

To modify starch phosphate content and explore starch (de)phosphorylation, a human phosphatase enzyme named laforin, and modifications of it, were introduced into potato (Chapter 3). Interestingly, modified starches exhibited a significantly higher phosphate content rather than the expected lower phosphate content. Transcriptome analysis showed that the increase in phosphate content was a result of upregulation of starch phosphorylating genes, which revealed a compensatory response to the loss of phosphate content in potato starch. Furthermore, the increase of phosphate content in potato starch was reached to a threshold level. This was in line with the observations in the modified starches from overexpressed- Glucan water dikinase (GWD1) transgenic plants (Chapter 4). Furthermore, overexpression of two starch dikinases from Arabidopsis thaliana, glucan water dikinase 2 and 3 (AtGWD2 and AtGWD3), did not result in a significant increase in phosphate content of potato starch (Chapter 5). Taken together, these results indicated that phosphate content of potato starch is under strict control.

Morphological analysis of starch granules containing different levels of phosphate content confirmed the indispensible role of phosphate content in the normal formation of starch granules, since cracked granules were observed in the starches containing low phosphate content, while irregular bumpy shaped granules were observed in the tubers from plants containing high phosphate content. Interestingly, further analyses on the expression level of genes involved in starch metabolism and sugar-starch conversion suggested that starch phosphorylation might affect starch synthesis by controlling the carbon flux into starch while simultaneously modulating starch-synthesizing genes. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding (Chapter 4).

To produce starches with novel structures, an (engineered) 4, 6-α-glucanotransferase (GTFB) from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 was introduced into potato tubers (Chapter 6). The resulting starches showed severe changes in granule morphology, but not in starch fine structure. Transcriptome analysis revealed the existence of a self-repair mechanism to restore the regular packing of double helices in starch granules, which possibly resulted in the removal of novel glucose chains potentially introduced by the (engineered) GTFB.

This research successfully generated starches with various functionalities, including altered gelatinization characteristics (Chapter 3 and 4), improved freeze-thaw stability (Chapter 4) and higher digestibility (Chapter 6). The exploitation of relationships between starch characteristics and starch properties revealed that starch properties represent the outcome of the combined effect of many factors and are highly dependent on the genetic background in which the modification has been performed.

In conclusion, the research described in this thesis demonstrates the great potential of genetic modification in producing starches with novel properties. Meanwhile, these results revealed the presence of complex and exquisite molecular regulation mechanisms for starch biosynthesis in potato. In future research, these regulations need to be taken into account for the relational design of starch in planta. Certainly, a better understanding of the process of starch metabolism in storage organs would be a great step forward towards tailoring starch in an economically important crop such as potato.

Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Stappers, L.J.N. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1917 - 1927.
satiety-related hormones - adult female pigs - dietary fiber - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - energy-metabolism - physical-activity - appetite regulation - body-composition - potato starch
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs’ postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P
Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins
Huang, X. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Luisa Trindade. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858119 - 140
solanum tuberosum - zetmeelkorrels - aardappelzetmeel - bindende eiwitten - genexpressie - transformatie - transgene planten - moleculaire veredeling - in vivo experimenten - solanum tuberosum - starch granules - potato starch - binding proteins - gene expression - transformation - transgenic plants - molecular breeding - in vivo experimentation
Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the costs of the post-harvest starch modification. The starch binding domain (SBD) technology has been extensively explored in our lab for modifying starch in planta and producing so-called “tailored starches”. In this thesis, two different microbial enzymes, E. coli glycogen branching enzyme (GlgB) and Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase, were chosen and expressed in potato to modify starch composition or structure by fusing with an SBD. Expression of these different fusion proteins in potato resulted in starch granule morphology and structure alteration severely in different ways. Moreover, expression of SBD-amylosucrase fusion protein in the amylose-containing potato resulted in starch granules with a rough surface, a 2-fold increase in median granule size, and altered physico-chemical properties including higher end viscosity and higher enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, earlier produced MAT/SBD transformants were analyzed at the transcriptional level using the POCI array. It showed that although expression of MAT in potato resulted in amalgamated starch granules, it did not affect the transcript level of other genes in the starch biosynthetic pathway. Next to these experiments, a tandem CBM25 domain of amylase from Microbacterium aurum was introduced in potato and the results suggested that it can be used as a novel tool for targeting proteins to granules during starch biosynthesis without causing side-effects. All these studies in this thesis demonstrated that the feasibility of modification of starch in planta by expression of heterologous enzymes fused with SBD.
On the applicability of Flory-Huggins theory to ternary starch-water-solute systems
Habeych Narvaez, E.A. ; Guo, X. ; Soest, J.J.G. van; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2009
Carbohydrate Polymers 77 (2009)4. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 703 - 712.
differential scanning calorimetry - crystalline polymorph - thermoplastic starch - solvent interactions - phase-transitions - potato starch - wheat-starch - dry starch - gelatinization - glycerol
The effects of glucose and glycerol on gelatinization of highly concentrated starch mixtures were investigated with wide-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. The gelatinization/melting of starch was found to be a two step process. In the first step the granule swells at low temperatures (i.e., 30¿50 °C), which is followed by a solvent¿temperature cooperative step that induces loss of crystallinity. The results were interpreted with an extended form of the adapted Flory equation. The values of the model parameters (, ¿Hu, ¿12, ¿13, and ¿23) obtained were similar to the values reported in the literature. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed with melting lines representing fully gelatinized starch. The crystalline region of starch with glucose was larger than with glycerol. This could be understood from the differences in ¿13 (solute¿solvent interaction). The extended form of Flory¿Huggins model somewhat under predicts the experimental values of the gelatinization process. Comparing the Flory¿Huggins model with experiments led to the conclusion that Flory equation is a useful tool to interpret and predict the gelatinization and melting behaviour of ternary starch-based systems. But the experiments are complex, the systems are often not in true equilibrium and other disturbing effects are easily encountered. Therefore one should be cautious in the translation of experimental results to the thermodynamics of gelatinization in multicomponent systems
A stochastic model for predicting dextrose equivalent and saccharide composition during hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase
Besselink, T. ; Baks, T. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2008
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 100 (2008)4. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 684 - 697.
monte-carlo-simulation - bacillus-licheniformis - enzymatic-hydrolysis - soluble starch - kinetic-model - potato starch - amylopectin - amylolysis - enzymes - thermostability
A stochastic model was developed that was used to describe the formation and breakdown of all saccharides involved during -amylolytic starch hydrolysis in time. This model is based on the subsite maps found in literature for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens -amylase (BAA) and Bacillus licheniformis -amylase (BLA). Carbohydrate substrates were modeled in a relatively simple two-dimensional matrix. The predicted weight fractions of carbohydrates ranging from glucose to heptasaccharides and the predicted dextrose equivalent showed the same trend and order of magnitude as the corresponding experimental values. However, the absolute values were not the same. In case a well-defined substrate such as maltohexaose was used, comparable differences between the experimental and simulated data were observed indicating that the substrate model for starch does not cause these deviations. After changing the subsite map of BLA and the ratio between the time required for a productive and a non-productive attack for BAA, a better agreement between the model data and the experimental data was observed. Although the model input should be improved for more accurate predictions, the model can already be used to gain knowledge about the concentrations of all carbohydrates during hydrolysis with an -amylase. In addition, this model also seems to be applicable to other depolymerase-based systems
Effects of fermentable starch and straw-enriched housing on energy partitioning of growing pigs
Bolhuis, J.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Staals, S.T.M. ; Zandstra, T. ; Alferink, S.J.J. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2008
Animal 2 (2008)7. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1028 - 1036.
different coping characteristics - resistant starch - physical-activity - dietary fiber - nonstarch polysaccharides - gastrointestinal-tract - potato starch - environmental enrichment - blood-glucose - fatty-acids
Both dietary fermentable carbohydrates and the availability of straw bedding potentially affect activity patterns and energy utilisation in pigs. The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of straw bedding and fermentable carbohydrates (native potato starch) on energy partitioning in growing pigs. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 groups of 12 pigs (approximately 25 kg) were assigned to either barren housing or housing on straw bedding, and to native or pregelatinised potato starch included in the diet. Pigs were fed at approximately 2.5 times maintenance. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-day experimental period, which was preceded by a 30-day adaptation period. Heat production and physical activity were measured during 9-min intervals. The availability of straw bedding increased both metabolisable energy (ME) intake and total heat production (P <0.001). Housing conditions did not affect total energy retention, but pigs on straw bedding retained more energy as protein (P <0.01) and less as fat (P <0.05) than barren-housed pigs. Average daily gain (P <0.001), ME intake (P <0.001) and energy retention (P <0.01) were lower in pigs on the native potato starch diet compared to those on the pregelatinised potato starch diet. Pigs on the pregelatinised potato starch diet showed larger fluctuations in heat production and respiration quotient over the 24-h cycle than pigs on the native potato starch diet, and a higher activity-related energy expenditure. The effect of dietary starch type on activity-related heat production depended, however, on housing type (P <0.05). In barren housing, activity-related heat production was less affected by starch type (16.1% and 13.7% of total heat production on the pregelatinised and native potato starch diet, respectively) than in straw-enriched housing (21.1% and 15.0% of the total heat production on the pregelatinised and native potato starch diet, respectively). In conclusion, the present study shows that the availability both of straw bedding and of dietary starch type, fermentable or digestible, affects energy utilisation and physical activity of pigs. The effects of housing condition on protein and fat deposition suggest that environmental enrichment with long straw may result in leaner pigs. The lower energy expenditure on the physical activity of pigs on the native potato starch diet, which was the most obvious in straw-housed pigs, likely reflects a decrease in foraging behaviour related to a more gradual supply of energy from fermentation processes.
Aardappelzetmeelproductie opgewassen tegen veranderingen Europees beleid?
Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Prins, H. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2007
Agri-monitor 2007 (2007)november. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
landbouwbeleid - eu regelingen - aardappelen - aardappelzetmeel - productie - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - economische ontwikkeling - fabrieksaardappelen - agricultural policy - eu regulations - potatoes - potato starch - production - starch industry - economic development - starch potatoes
Met een productieaandeel van ongeveer 20% in de EU is Nederland een belangrijke producent van aardappelzetmeel. Veranderingen in het Europese beleid kunnen voor de Nederlandse aardappelzetmeelproductie grote gevolgen hebben. Afhankelijk van een aantal factoren zijn naast het behoud van de huidige productieomvang, een verkleining van het productievolume dan wel een volledige afbouw van de productie mogelijke uitkomsten.
Zetmeelaardappelen en herziening van het EU-beleid
Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Blokland, P.W. ; Prins, H. ; Roza, P. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086151837 - 77
landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwhervorming - verandering - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - aardappelzetmeel - boeren - nederland - fabrieksaardappelen - agricultural policy - cap - agrarian reform - change - starch industry - potato starch - farmers - netherlands - starch potatoes
Dit rapport analyseert de gevolgen van een volledige ontkoppeling van de Europese premie voor zetmeelaardappelen en van de afbouw van het EU-zetmeelbeleid voor de betreffende sector in Nederland. Deze gevolgen kunnen, afhankelijk van de omstandigheden en de reacties van de telers, uiteenlopen. Naast voorzetting van de productie in de huidige omvang is een daling met ongeveer 30% mogelijk. Ook een volledige afbouw van de teelt en verwerking kan niet worden uitgesloten. Gezien de gevoeligheid van de sector voor de beleidsveranderingen wordt een fasegewijze introductie met toepassing van flankerende maatregelen aanbevolen.
Vergisting van Beukergist en primair aardappelzetmeel met varkensmest
Timmerman, M. - \ 2005
V-focus 2 (2005)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 34 - 34.
varkenshouderij - dierlijke meststoffen - biogas - gistingstanken - fermentatie - zetmeelproducten - veevoederindustrie - aardappelzetmeel - mestverwerking - biobased economy - pig farming - animal manures - digesters - fermentation - starch products - feed industry - potato starch - manure treatment
In het kort meetresultaten van de vergisting van Beukergist tezamen met varkensmest en van de vergisting van aardappelzetmeel met varkensmest in de biogasinstallatie van Praktijkcentrum Sterksel. Beukergist ontstaat bij de winning van alcohol uit vloeibaar tarwezetmeel en werd geleverd door Beuker Vochtrijke Diervoeders; primair aardappelzetmeel is ingedikt snijzetmeel uit proceswater, dat ontstaat bij de verwerking van aardappelen tot frites.
Interaction between dry starch and plasticisers glycerol or ethylene glycol, measured by differential scanning calorimetry and solid state NMR spectroscopy
Smits, A.L.M. ; Kruiskamp, P.H. ; Soest, J.J.G. van; Vliegenthart, J.F.G. - \ 2003
Carbohydrate Polymers 53 (2003)4. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 409 - 416.
potato starch - molecular-organization - thermoplastic starch - glass-transition - retrogradation - saccharides - mixtures - barley - bread - phase
The interaction of crystalline amylose and of crystalline and amorphous amylopectin with the plasticisers glycerol or ethylene glycol in the absence of water was studied, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Upon heating starch freshly mixed with plasticisers, a strong exothermal interaction enthalpy of ¿H¿35 J/g was detected by DSC. At room temperature glycerol interacts mainly with the amorphous starch regions, the interaction taking 8 days to reach equilibrium. For ethylene glycol the interaction is faster, taking four days to reach equilibrium, and the rate is not affected by crystallinity. Ethylene glycol interacts in a more ordered manner with amorphous than with crystalline material, resulting in a narrower ethylene glycol cross-polarisation magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) signal when equilibrium is reached at room temperature. Upon heating, more glycerol or ethylene glycol is immobilised, but in a less ordered manner than upon storage at room temperature. This results in a more intense, but broader plasticiser CP/MAS signal upon heating. Interaction in a more ordered manner probably implies interaction with more of the hydroxy groups of the plasticiser. The polysaccharide mobility is increased more when the plasticiser interacts in a more ordered manner, as observed by small starch signals in HP/DEC spectra.
Gevolgen van invoering van de Mid Term Review voor de akkerbouw in Noordoost-Nederland
Smit, A.B. ; Prins, H. - \ 2003
Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9052427968 - 44
agrarische economie - economisch beleid - economische impact - akkerbouw - melkveebedrijven - aardappelen - aardappelzetmeel - prijsbeleid - landbouwprijzen - agrarische structuur - nederland - inkomensbeleid - agricultural economics - economic policy - economic impact - arable farming - dairy farms - potatoes - potato starch - price policy - agricultural prices - agricultural structure - netherlands - income policy
In dit rapport worden de gevolgen geschetst van de Mid Term Review voor Noordoost- Nederland in het algemeen en de zetmeelaardappelteelt in het bijzonder. Volledige loskoppeling van de EU-ondersteuning en de daadwerkelijke productie kan leiden tot een halvering van de productie van zetmeelaardappelen in Nederland. Bij gedeeltelijke ontkoppeling zijn de gevolgen minder groot.
Understanding molecular weight reduction of starch during heating-shearing processes
Einde, R.M. van den; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2003
Journal of Food Science 68 (2003)8. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. 2396 - 2404.
twin-screw extruder - plasticized wheat-starch - waxy-maize starch - extrusion-cooking - corn meal - in-line - extensional viscosity - functional-properties - rheological behavior - potato starch
Recent understanding of the mechanisms underlying the changes in molecular weight of starch as a function of process parameters during thermomechanical treatment, for example extrusion, holds promise towards more effective optimization of thermomechanical processes according to the desired modification of molecular weight. This paper summarizes recent advances in theoretical understanding and experimental methods. Empirical observations from extruder experiments can be better understood on this basis. The current status in this field has opened up potential for developing new equipment in which the main process parameters, which normally occur simultaneously, can be separated and optimized. This will create a much wider window for product-oriented process design and for new products.
Experimenten 2001 : AGROBIOKON deelproject 'Innovatie aardappelzetmeelteelt' : projecten gewasgroeimodellen en micronutriënten
Begeman, J.R. ; Haren, R.J.F. van; Zwart, K.B. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 116) - 25
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - zetmeelgewassen - aardappelzetmeel - opbrengsten - plantenvoeding - stress - fotosynthese - fabrieksaardappelen - potatoes - starch crops - potato starch - yields - plant nutrition - photosynthesis - starch potatoes
Invloed van stikstofbemesting op de landbouwkundige en industriële kwaliteit van verschillende zetmeelaardappelrassen : verslag van de veldproeven KB 1121 en KP 415 : werkdocument over het eerste proefjaar 1998
Steenhuizen, J.W. ; Haren, R.J.F. van; Begeman, J.R. ; Wijnholds, K.H. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 110) - 68
solanum tuberosum - rassenproeven - cultivars - stikstofmeststoffen - aardappelzetmeel - kwaliteit - nederland - fabrieksaardappelen - variety trials - nitrogen fertilizers - potato starch - quality - netherlands - starch potatoes
Bepaling van de effectiviteit van fertigatie met HydroTerra, CalciNit en Krista-K in aardappelen (pootgoed en consumptie) geteeld op zandgrond
Booij, R. ; Smid, H. ; Wijnholds, K. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 5) - 26
druppelbevloeiing - fertigatie - bevruchting - vloeibare kunstmeststoffen - aardappelen - aardappelzetmeel - zandgronden - experimenteel veldonderzoek - trickle irrigation - fertigation - fertilization - liquid fertilizers - potatoes - potato starch - sandy soils - field experimentation
Experimenten 2000: AGROBIOKON deelproject "Innovatie aardappelzetmeelteelt". Projecten gewasgroeimodellen en micronutrienten
Haren, R.J.F. van; Zwart, K. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 35
aardappelzetmeel - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - plantenvoeding - opbrengsten - beschadigingen door droogte - stress - fotosynthese - kwaliteit - potato starch - yield increases - yield losses - plant nutrition - yields - drought injury - photosynthesis - quality
Mogelijkheden van "yield mapping" op basis van gewasreflectiemetingen
Meurs, E.J.J. ; Grashoff, C. ; Booij, R. - \ 1999
Wageningen : AB-DLO (Nota / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 199) - 11
cartografie - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - aardappelzetmeel - aardappelen - fabrieksaardappelen - mapping - yield increases - yield losses - potato starch - potatoes - starch potatoes
Cursussen voor de aardappelverwerkende industrie
Uitslag, H. - \ 1999
Aardappelwereld (1999)6. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 18 - 19.
aardappelen - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - aardappelzetmeel - productie - bedrijfsvoering - kwaliteitscontroles - productiecontroles - lerarenopleidingen - scholingscursussen - potatoes - starch industry - potato starch - production - management - quality controls - production controls - educational courses - training courses
De druk op het personeel om binnen korte tijd belangrijke beslissingen te nemen is veelal groot. Om die reden verzorgt ATO-DLO cursussen om een beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de achterliggende oorzaak van bepaalde problemen die men tegenkomt in de praktijk
Development of a database model and implementation of a crop growth model for precision agriculture in starch potatoes
Bergeijk, J. van; Verhagen, J. ; Booltink, H. ; Kruise, A. ; Booij, R. - \ 1999
Wageningen : AB-DLO - 30
databanken - modellen - groei - aardappelzetmeel - aardappelen - grondvermogen - bodemgeschiktheid - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - precisielandbouw - databases - models - growth - potato starch - potatoes - land capability - soil suitability - yield increases - yield losses - precision agriculture
Microbieel verzuren van vleesvarkensmest door toevoeging van aardappelzetmeel
Hendriks, J.G.L. ; Vrielink, M.G.M. - \ 1997
Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P4.19) - 8
luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - dierlijke meststoffen - drijfmest - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - aardappelzetmeel - zuren - varkens - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - animal manures - slurries - starch industry - potato starch - acids - pigs
Uit eerder onderzoek is gebleken dat de ammoniakemissie bij vleesvarkens tot 1,32 kg ammoniak per dierplaats per jaar kan worden gereduceerd door toepassing van microbieel verzuren van de varkensmest. Hierbij werden eenmalig melkzuurbacteriën aan de mest toegevoegd, die wekelijks werden gevoed met gemalen tarwe.
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