Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Opportunities for short rotation coppice production on free-range chicken farms in Flanders : Farmers' perceptions and cost-benefit analysis
    Stadig, Lisanne M. ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Verdonckt, Pieter ; Wauters, Erwin ; Borremans, Lieve ; Reubens, Bert - \ 2020
    Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 35 (2020)3. - ISSN 1742-1705 - p. 286 - 295.
    Economic analysis - farmer opinion - net present value - poultry - willow - wood chips

    This paper focuses on systems producing short rotation coppice willows (SRCW) in chickens' free-range areas. We aim to map chicken farmers' motivation to implement SRCW, and to assess the economic viability of these systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 free-range chicken farmers. Farmers agreed that chickens would prefer SRCW over grassland, which could benefit chicken welfare. They expected establishing an SRCW system would be labor intensive, and doubted if it would be a profitable investment. Some concerns of farmers might be taken away by exchanging information with farmers with SRCW experience. A partial budget analysis was performed to calculate the net present value (NPV) of six different scenarios, differing in the type of chickens, in whether the produced biomass was sold or valorized on-farm and in harvest pattern, all over a 23-yr period. The NPV was positive but low for all scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that changes in biomass yield, wood chip price, a price premium for poultry products and current fuel price were most likely to influence the NPV. A risk analysis revealed that NPVs were positive in the majority of the modeled cases. Scenarios in which biomass was used for on-farm heat production showed the highest risk of a negative NPV. A price premium for poultry products may be most effective at increasing profitability, but may only be feasible for farms selling directly to consumers. Establishing a solid market for biomass energy, including guaranteed demand and availability of appropriate machinery for cultivation, may mitigate farmers' concerns.

    Characterization of an Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger for Manure Belt Drying Ventilation in an Aviary Laying Hen House
    Goselink, Y.S.M. ; Ramirez, B.C. - \ 2019
    Journal of Applied Poultry Research 28 (2019)4. - ISSN 1056-6171 - p. 1359 - 1369.
    cage-free - heat exchanger - indoor environment - manure dry matter - poultry

    The environment inside laying hen houses has an important effect on hen productivity, health, and well-being. Heat exchangers (HE s) can recover waste heat in ventilation exhaust to reduce supplemental heating needs while maintaining a greater fresh air exchange rate. For laying hen houses, there is limited information on the effect of heat recovery ventilation (HRV). Thus, the objective was to evaluate an air-to-air HE for manure belt drying ventilation in aviary laying hen housing. Temperature (T), relative humidity, ammonia, and manure dry matter (DM) content were characterized during a 4-wk period in October 2018. In weeks 2 and 4, the HRV was shut down and compared to weeks 1 and 3 when the HRV was operational. Average (±SD) ambient T was 10.6°C ± 4.0°C, similar for the 4-wk period. Heat exchanger efficiency was 75.07% ± 9.4% with the average supply temperature increased by 10.0°C ± 3.4°C and an average of 93.94 ± 31 kW heat recovered. Average indoor T (23.1°C ± 0.5°C) was warmer as a function ambient T and daily average T range was lower with HRV (1.8°C ± 0.7°C) compared to without HRV (22.2°C ± 1.2°C; 3.1°C ± 1.1°C). Seven days after manure removal, final average manure DM was 40.6% ± 3.1% (without HRV) and 60.0% ± 3.3% (with HRV). Implementation of HRV positively influenced indoor thermal environment by maintaining less dynamic diurnal fluctuations and greater temporal T uniformity.

    Data from: Virus Shedding of Avian Influenza in Poultry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Germeraad, Evelien ; Sanders, Pim ; Gonzales Rojas, Jose - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    avian influenza - meta-analysis - poultry - systematic review - virus shedding
    These systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to summarize qualitative and quantitative information on virus shedding levels and duration for different AIV strains in experimentally infected poultry species.
    Susceptibility of Chickens to Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) Viruses of Wild Bird- and Poultry-Associated Subtypes
    Bergervoet, Saskia A. ; Germeraad, Evelien A. ; Alders, Marc ; Roose, Marit M. ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Heutink, Rene ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Beerens, Nancy - \ 2019
    Viruses 11 (2019)11. - ISSN 1999-4915
    avian influenza virus - chickens - innate immune response - low pathogenic avian influenza - poultry - shedding - wild birds

    Analysis of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses circulating in the Netherlands in a previous study revealed associations of specific hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes with wild bird or poultry hosts. In this study, we identified putative host associations in LPAI virus internal proteins. We show that LPAI viruses isolated from poultry more frequently carried the allele A variant of the nonstructural protein (NS) gene, compared to wild bird viruses. We determined the susceptibility of chickens to wild bird-associated subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 and poultry-associated subtypes H8N4 and H9N2, carrying either NS allele A or B, in an infection experiment. We observed variations in virus shedding and replication patterns, however, these did not correlate with the predicted wild bird- or poultry-associations of the viruses. The experiment demonstrated that LPAI viruses of wild bird-associated subtypes can replicate in chickens after experimental infection, despite their infrequent detection in poultry. Although the NS1 protein is known to play a role in immune modulation, no differences were detected in the limited innate immune response to LPAI virus infection. This study contributes to a better understanding of the infection dynamics of LPAI viruses in chickens.

    Uitvoeringsagenda Pluimveesector : Ambities en acties voor de periode tot en met 2025 en streefbeelden voor de langere termijn (2030)
    Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2019
    - 59 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing
    Associations between carcass weight uniformity and production measures on farm and at slaughter in commercial broiler flocks
    Vasdal, Guro ; Granquist, Erik Georg ; Skjerve, Eystein ; Jong, Ingrid C. de; Berg, Charlotte ; Michel, Virginie ; Moe, Randi Oppermann - \ 2019
    Poultry Science 98 (2019)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 4261 - 4268.
    chicken - health - indicator - poultry - welfare

    In poultry flocks, flock weight uniformity is often defined as the percent individuals within 10% of the mean body weight (BW) and the variability of this uniformity can be expressed as the CV of BW. Flock weight uniformity is a standardized and objective measured, and could potentially be used as a welfare indicator; however, little is known about the relationship between flock uniformity and other production measures on-farm or at slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between carcass weight uniformity (CV of BW) and production measures on-farm and at slaughter in Norwegian commercial broiler flocks. A total of 45 randomly selected mixed-sex Ross 308 broiler flocks were visited prior to slaughter at 28 to 30 D of age (average slaughter age 30.6 D). All flocks were raised under similar farm management systems. The Welfare Quality protocol for broilers was used to assess different animal welfare indicators in each flock. All production data from the slaughterhouse were collected for each flock, including carcass weight uniformity (%), mortality (%), growth rate (g), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and rejected birds (%) in different rejection categories. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between flock weight uniformity and production and welfare measures. The results showed that flock uniformity varied from 11% to 18% between flocks within the same hybrid, similar management standards, and similar slaughter age (day 29 to 32). Poorer uniformity (i.e., high CV) was associated with increased first week mortality (P < 0.004, r = 1.48, increased total mortality (P < 0.013, r = 0.01), increased FCR (i.e., less efficient growth) (P < 0.024, r = 0.06), reduced growth rate (P < 0.0012, r = -0.01), and a reduced rejection rate at slaughter (P < 0.006, r = -0.01). The results show that flock uniformity varies across broiler flocks, and is associated with several production measures.

    Virus Shedding of Avian Influenza in Poultry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Germeraad, Evelien A. ; Sanders, Pim ; Hagenaars, Thomas J. ; Jong, Mart C.M. de; Beerens, Nancy ; Gonzales, Jose L. - \ 2019
    Viruses 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 1999-4915
    avian influenza - meta-analysis - poultry - systematic review - virus shedding

    Understanding virus shedding patterns of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry is important for understanding host-pathogen interactions and developing effective control strategies. Many AIV strains were studied in challenge experiments in poultry, but no study has combined data from those studies to identify general AIV shedding patterns. These systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to summarize qualitative and quantitative information on virus shedding levels and duration for different AIV strains in experimentally infected poultry species. Methods were designed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Four electronic databases were used to collect literature. A total of 1155 abstract were screened, with 117 studies selected for the qualitative analysis and 71 studies for the meta-analysis. A large heterogeneity in experimental methods was observed and the quantitative analysis showed that experimental variables such as species, virus origin, age, inoculation route and dose, affect virus shedding (mean, peak and duration) for highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV), low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) or both. In conclusion, this study highlights the need to standardize experimental procedures, it provides a comprehensive summary of the shedding patterns of AIV strains by infected poultry and identifies the variables that influence the level and duration of AIV shedding.

    Competition between Escherichia coli Populations with and without Plasmids Carrying a Gene Encoding Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase in the Broiler Chicken Gut
    Fischer, Egil A.J. ; Dierikx, Cindy M. ; Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda van; Mevius, Dik ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Velkers, Francisca C. ; Klinkenberg, Don - \ 2019
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 85 (2019)17. - ISSN 0099-2240
    antibiotic resistance - Bayesian model - challenge - conjugation - experiment - poultry

    Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains are widely found in E. coli isolates from broiler feces, largely due to the presence of the blaCTX-M-1 gene on IncI1 plasmids. Plasmid carriage is theorized to cause fitness loss and thus should decrease under conditions of reduced antibiotic use. However, in vitro studies showed plasmid carriage to increase in the absence of antimicrobials, due to plasmid conjugation. We investigated whether this translates to increased levels of plasmid in the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, where conjugation rates may be different and subtle differences in growth rates may have a larger impact on colonization. Eight groups of five chickens were orally inoculated at 4 days of age with a 0.5-ml volume containing 106 CFU/ml E. coli cells, of which 0%, 0.1%, 10%, or 100% carried the IncI1 plasmid with the gene blaCTX-M-1 At 13 time points during 41 days, fecal samples were taken from each chicken. E. coli strains with and without plasmids were quantified. Trends in E. coli subpopulations were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models, and population dynamics were studied by fitting to a mechanistic model. Trends in E. coli subpopulations were different between groups rather than between individual chickens, suggesting substantial levels of E. coli exchange between chickens in a group. The IncI1 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-1 was transferred with conjugation coefficients at levels higher than those observed in vitro Across groups, the plasmids disappeared or were established independently of the initial fraction of plasmid-carrying E. coli, but no major increase occurred as observed in vitro Differences in growth rates were observed, but competitive exclusion of plasmid-carrying variants was counteracted by conjugation.IMPORTANCE Bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are resistant to an important class of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine. Reduction in antibiotic use is expected to decrease the prevalence of resistance. However, resistance genes often lie on plasmids which can be copied and transferred to other bacteria by conjugation, so in vitro resistance was observed to increase in the absence of antimicrobials. We sought to determine whether this also occurs in the chicken gut and if competitive exclusion by similar E. coli variants without the resistance occurred. We studied the excretion of E. coli carrying IncI1 plasmids with the blaCTX-M-1 resistance gene in small groups of broiler chickens, after inoculating the chickens with E. coli suspensions containing different fractions of plasmid-carrying cells. Our results showed little variation between chickens within groups but large differences between groups that were independent of the ratio of variants with and without the plasmid and with persistence or extinction of the plasmid. However, there was no major plasmid increase as observed in vitro We conclude that in vivo studies with sufficient independent replications are important for intervention studies on plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance.

    Genetic analysis identifies potential transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses between poultry farms
    Bergervoet, Saskia A. ; Heutink, Rene ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Beerens, Nancy - \ 2019
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 66 (2019)4. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 1653 - 1664.
    avian influenza virus - between-farm transmission - genetic analysis - low pathogenic avian influenza - poultry

    Poultry can become infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses via (in)direct contact with infected wild birds or by transmission of the virus between farms. This study combines routinely collected surveillance data with genetic analysis to assess the contribution of between-farm transmission to the overall incidence of LPAI virus infections in poultry. Over a 10-year surveillance period, we identified 35 potential cases of between-farm transmission in the Netherlands, of which 10 formed geographical clusters. A total of 21 LPAI viruses were isolated from nine potential between-farm transmission cases, which were further studied by genetic and epidemiological analysis. Whole genome sequence analysis identified close genetic links between infected farms in seven cases. The presence of identical deletions in the neuraminidase stalk region and minority variants provided additional indications of between-farm transmission. Spatiotemporal analysis demonstrated that genetically closely related viruses were detected within a median time interval of 8 days, and the median distance between the infected farms was significantly shorter compared to farms infected with genetically distinct viruses (6.3 versus 69.0 km; p < 0.05). The results further suggest that between-farm transmission was not restricted to holdings of the same poultry type and not related to the housing system. Although separate introductions from the wild bird reservoir cannot be excluded, our study indicates that between-farm transmission occurred in seven of nine virologically analysed cases. Based on these findings, it is likely that between-farm transmission contributes considerably to the incidence of LPAI virus infections in poultry.

    Kruiden voor landbouwhuisdieren
    Groot, M.J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
    animal welfare - animal production - goats - turkeys - rabbits - dairy cattle - poultry - sheep - pigs - veal calves - animal nutrition - animal health
    Poultry husbandry, water, sanitation, and hygiene practices, and child anthropometry in rural Burkina Faso
    Gelli, Aulo ; Headey, Derek ; Becquey, Elodie ; Ganaba, Rasmane ; Huybregts, Lieven ; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye ; Santacroce, Marco ; Verhoef, Hans - \ 2019
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1740-8695
    hygiene - nutrition - poultry

    Poultry production in low income countries provides households with nutrient-rich meat and egg products, as well as cash income. However, traditional production systems present potential health and nutrition risks because poultry scavenging around household compounds may increase children's exposure to livestock-related pathogens. Data from a cross-sectional survey were analysed to examine associations between poultry, water, sanitation, and hygiene practices, and anthropometric indicators in children (6–59 months; n = 3,230) in Burkina Faso. Multilevel regression was used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children 6–24 months was 19% and 17%, respectively, compared with a prevalence of 26% and 6%, respectively, in children 25–60 months. Over 90% of households owned poultry, and chicken faeces were visible in 70% of compounds. Caregivers reported that 3% of children consumed eggs during a 24-hr recall. The presence of poultry faeces was associated with poultry flock size, poultry-husbandry and household hygiene practices. Having an improved water source and a child visibly clean was associated with higher height-for-age z scores (HAZ). The presence of chicken faeces was associated with lower weight-for-height z scores, and no associations were found with HAZ. Low levels of poultry flock size and poultry consumption in Burkina Faso suggest there is scope to expand production and improve diets in children, including increasing chicken and egg consumption. However, to minimize potential child health risks associated with expanding informal poultry production, research is required to understand the mechanisms through which cohabitation with poultry adversely affects child health and design interventions to minimize these risks.

    Keuzedeel Landbouwhuisdieren (MBO)
    Ruis, M.A.W. ; Vorderman, Evert ; Dijk, Nienke van; Fokkema, R. ; Visser, Annewies ; Hessel, Huub ; Hoorweg, Fleur ; Groffen, H. ; Korsten, C. ; Goot, L. van der; Hoop, O. de - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
    animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal health - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - education
    Lameness and its relationship with health and production measures in broiler chickens
    Granquist, E.G. ; Vasdal, G. ; Jong, I.C. De; Moe, R.O. - \ 2019
    Animal 13 (2019)10. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2365 - 2372.
    condemnation - dermatitis - gait - poultry - welfare

    The aim of this study was to explore lameness and the associations between lameness and health/production measures of animal welfare in commercial broiler production, using the Welfare Quality ® protocol for broilers. A total of 50 flocks were included in the sample and farm visits were conducted for lameness scoring at a mean age of 28.9 days. The percentage of animals (n=7500) in the six different gait score (GS) categories were GS0: 2.53%, GS1: 44.19%, GS2: 33.84%, GS3: 16.32%, GS4: 2.36% and GS5: 0.53%. Production and other welfare data were collected for each flock after slaughter. Higher gait scores were associated with increased hock burn score (P<0.02), increased footpad dermatitis score (P<0.01), reduced bird cleanliness score (P<0.01) and peat litter (P<0.01). Although not statistically significant, there was a tendency for increased flock gait score being associated with wet litter (P=0.07). In addition, condemnations at postmortem inspection were associated with increasing gait scores (P<0.05), indicating that at least a portion of the lameness cases display pathological changes on the carcasses. In conclusion, 19%of the birds showed moderate-to-severe lameness, which was associated with several production or health and welfare observations including feather cleanliness and condemnations as unfit for human consumption at slaughter. Although stocking density and growth rate are already known key factors for lameness, associations of lameness with hock burns, footpad dermatitis and cleanliness of the birds suggest that a suboptimal physical environment (e.g. litter- and air quality) may be detrimental to leg health. Further studies are needed to explore these associations in more detail.

    Interactions between broiler chickens, soil parameters and short rotation coppice willow in a free-range system
    Stadig, Lisanne M. ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Vandecasteele, Bart ; Ampe, Bart ; Reubens, Bert - \ 2019
    Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 43 (2019)9. - ISSN 2168-3565 - p. 1009 - 1030.
    agroforestry - biomass - carbon storage - nitrogen loss - poultry - Willow

    Planting short rotation coppice willows (SRCW) in chickens’ free-range areas could have several advantages for the chickens, environment and farmer. Our aim was to test the effects of combining SRCW and chickens on free-range use, soil conditions and SRCW growth. A free-range chicken area was partially planted with a grass/clover mixture, and partially with SRCW. Chickens preferred to range in SRCW compared to grassland. No effects of periodical chicken presence on SRCW growth were observed. Total mineral N (Nmin) was affected by interactions between vegetation type, location, and soil depth; it was generally higher in SRCW than in grassland and in areas close to the chicken houses. Nmin did not appear to accumulate in the soil over the years, but there were strong indications for higher risk of N leaching to deeper soil layers and possibly to groundwater close to the houses and in SRCW. SRCW was beneficial for the chickens, but the combination needs to be studied further with a focus on strategies for preventing nutrient leaching to groundwater.

    Hoe verduurzamen we onze landbouw? En welke rol hebben ondernemers en overheid?
    Verstegen, J.A.A.M. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - 8 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - poultry - pigs - animal housing
    Eén van de grote opgaven waar de landbouwsector voor staat anno 2018 is 'verduurzaming'. Nu is 'duurzaamheid' een containerbegrip, waar van alles onder kan vallen. Hetzelfde geldt voor 'duurzame landbouw'. Want is een duurzame landbouw een landbouw die de groeiende wereldbevolking voedt, de ontbossing van het oerwoud en de opwarming van de aarde tegengaat, een redelijk inkomen biedt voor boeren en tuinders, de integriteit en het welzijn van dieren respecteert, het organischstofgehalte in de bodem op peil houdt, of goede arbeidsomstandigheden biedt aan medewerkers in de land- en tuinbouw? Of is het dit allemaal samen? En hoe ziet dat er dan uit? En waarom lukt het de ene agrarische ondernemer wel om daar vorm aan te geven en de andere niet? En wat kan de overheid hieraan bijdragen?
    Gezond drinkwater voor vleeskuikens
    Ellen, H.H. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - drinking water - animal nutrition
    TerraSea energiezuinig stalconcept voor vleeskuikens
    Ellen, H.H. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - climate - energy - animal health
    Verbetering brandveiligheid oudere veestallen
    Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition
    Insecten als voer en voedsel
    Veldkamp, T. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - pigs - fish - animal nutrition
    Broiler welfare under scrutiny
    Jong, I.C. de - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition
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