Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Life cycle assessment of ethanol production from miscanthus : A comparison of production pathways at two European sites
Lask, Jan ; Wagner, Moritz ; Trindade, Luisa M. ; Lewandowski, Iris - \ 2019
Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 269 - 288.
biofuel - environmental performance - life cycle assessment - lignocellulosic ethanol - marginal land - miscanthus - perennial crop - pretreatment

Lignocellulosic ethanol represents a renewable alternative to petrol. Miscanthus, a perennial plant that grows on marginal land, is characterized by efficient use of resources and is considered a promising source of lignocellulosic biomass. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to determine the environmental impacts of ethanol production from miscanthus grown on marginal land in Great Britain (Aberystwyth) and an average-yield site in Germany (Stuttgart; functional unit: 1 GJ). As the conversion process has substantial influence on the overall environmental performance, the comparison examined three pretreatment options for miscanthus. Overall, results indicate lower impacts for the production in Stuttgart in comparison with the corresponding pathways in Aberystwyth across the analysed categories. Disparities between the sites were mainly attributed to differences in biomass yield. When comparing the conversion options, liquid hot water treatment resulted in the lowest impacts, followed by dilute sulphuric acid. Dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment represented the least favourable option. Site-dependent variation in biomass composition and degradability did not have substantial influence on the environmental performance of the analysed pathways. Additionally, implications of replacing petrol with miscanthus ethanol were examined. Ethanol derived from miscanthus resulted in lower impacts with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil resource depletion, natural land transformation and ozone depletion. However, for other categories, including toxicity, eutrophication and agricultural land occupation, net scores were substantially higher than for the fossil reference. Nevertheless, the results indicate that miscanthus ethanol produced via dilute acid and liquid hot water treatment at the site in Stuttgart has the potential to comply with the requirements of the European Renewable energy directive for greenhouse gas emission reduction. For ethanol production at the marginal site, carbon sequestration needs to be considered in order to meet the requirements for greenhouse gas mitigation.

Effect Molares® op biogas opbrengst bij co-vergisting
Durksz, Durk - \ 2017
Lelystad : ACRRES - Wageningen UR (Rapport / WPR 738) - 25
bio-energie - co-vergisting - biogas - fermentatie - installatieontwerp - voorbehandeling - malen - gasproductie - bioenergy - co-fermentation - fermentation - plant design - pretreatment - grinding - gas production
Belo Molares presentation film English
Durksz, Durk - \ 2017
pretreatment - biomass - fermentation - gas production - machines - biobased economy
The assessment of advanced pre-treatment chains. TO2 Advanced pre-treatment of biomass; Task A3
Meesters, K.P.H. ; Annevelink, E. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789462577213 - 23
value chain analysis - supply chain management - biomass - biobased materials - biobased economy - bioenergy - biorefinery - modeling - pretreatment - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - biomassa - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bio-energie - bioraffinage - modelleren - voorbehandeling
The overall objective of the TO2 project ‘Advanced pre-treatment of biomass’ was to design optimal energy-driven refinery chains for the susta inable valorization of non-woody biomass to biobased commodities. Therefore optimal combination s need to be found of upstream biorefining and the production of high-quality (sol id) energy carriers from a broad spectrum of non-woody biomass streams. Task A3. within this TO2 project focused on modelling chains and performing an economic evaluation of these chains. Three cases of biomass chains were modelled and evaluated in this report.
Alkaline pretreatments of lignin-rich by-products and their implications for enzymatic degradation
Murciano-Martinez, P. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Mirjam Kabel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576629 - 156
degradation - enzymes - pretreatment - byproducts - lignin - food chemistry - delignification - sugarcane bagasse - degradatie - enzymen - voorbehandeling - bijproducten - lignine - voedselchemie - delignificatie - suikerrietbagasse

The increasing interest in plant biomass based biofuels and chemicals arouses mainly from the increased awareness of a possible finiteness of fuels. The current main challenge to produce such biofuels and biochemicals is economic efficiency, but also knowledge concerning type and effectiveness of both thermally assisted chemical and enzymatic treatments, needed to generate fermentable sugars, is lacking. The subject of this thesis is to gain understanding of the effect of both sulphuric acid and NaOH catalysed pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches on subsequent enzymatic saccharification, with a focus on the NaOH catalysed pretreatments. The fate of the main polymers present, lignin, cellulose and xylan, was studied and also single-activity xylan degrading enzymes, all from Rasamsonia emersonii, were studied for their mode-of-action.

Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock
Pol, E.C. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Eggink, co-promotor(en): Ruud Weusthuis. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462576735 - 167
lignocellulose - biomass - biobased chemicals - sugarcane bagasse - lactic acid - sugars - byproducts - inhibitors - pretreatment - bacillus coagulans - furfural - saccharification - fermentation - quantitative techniques - production processes - lignocellulose - biomassa - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - suikerrietbagasse - melkzuur - suikers - bijproducten - remmers - voorbehandeling - bacillus coagulans - furfural - versuikering - fermentatie - kwantitatieve technieken - productieprocessen

The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse.

In this PhD thesis, lignocellulose is chemically and enzymatically pretreated to depolymerise sugars present in this structure. The released sugar monomers are fermented by micro-organisms to lactic acid, which is a precursor for the bioplastic PLA. In this thesis, it is shown that it is possible to produce lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass with high yields and high productivities.

Impact of the water matrix on the effect and the side effect of MP UV/H2O2 treatment for the removal of organic micropollutants in drinking water production
Martijn, A.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens, co-promotor(en): J.P. Malley; J.C. Kruithof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575882 - 172
water treatment - pollutants - toxins - pretreatment - drinking water - pressure treatment - ultraviolet radiation - hydrogen peroxide - effects - waterzuivering - verontreinigende stoffen - toxinen - voorbehandeling - drinkwater - drukbehandeling - ultraviolette straling - waterstofperoxide - effecten
Methaanproductie van dikke mestfracties: met en zonder voorbehandeling
Timmerman, M. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 838) - 33
methaanproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - voorbehandeling - mestvergisting - biogas - co-vergisting - landbouw en milieu - gasproductie - biobased economy - methane production - animal manures - pretreatment - manure fermentation - co-fermentation - agriculture and environment - gas production
This report presents the international knowledge about the methane yields of solid manure fractions and the possibilities to increase the methane yields by pre-treatment. The methane yields of solids fractions in batch tests were globally in the range of 40 to 60 m3 per tonne. Promising pre-treatment technologies to increase the methane yield are: thermal treatment, two-stage digestion, steam explosion and thermochemical pre-treatment. Most research of pre-treatment technologies only looked at the increase in methane yield, but not at the increased consumption of electricity and chemicals nor at the economic return.
Effects of diet composition and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in feces of rainbow trout
Meriac, A. ; Tilburg, T. van; Eding, E.H. ; Kamstra, A. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2015
Aquacultural Engineering 65 (2015). - ISSN 0144-8609 - p. 10 - 16.
recirculating aquaculture systems - activated-sludge - anaerobic-digestion - waste-water - feed - fish - denitrification - digestibility - pretreatment - sonication
The effect of a high and low non-starch polysaccharide diet (HNSP and LNSP diet) and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in fecal waste of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) was studied. Feces were collected from four flow-through fish tanks, two tanks fed the HNSP diet and two the LNSP diet. The collected feces were sonicated (disintegrated) in duplicate with high-intensity (0.6 W/ml), low-frequency (f = 20 Hz) ultrasound at five different energy levels (0.6 W/ml for 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 16 min). The particle size distribution of the treated feces samples was measured by wet sieving (1000, 500, 200, 100, 63, 36, 1.2 µm screen size) and total suspended solids (TSS) measurement. Carbon bioavailability in sonicated fecal waste samples was determined with oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests. The results showed that: (1) feces from the HNSP diet contained significant more particulate material and bigger particles; (2) carbon bioavailability was almost three times higher in untreated LNSP feces when compared with HNSP feces; (3) almost 50% of HNSP feces could have been recovered on a microscreen of 36 µm after wet sieving, whereas it was only 10% for LNSP feces; (4) the production of small particles (1.2–36 µm), which could pass a drum filter screen and potentially accumulate in RAS, was approximately 50 g/kg feed, showing no significant differences between diets; (5) sonication increased fecal dry matter below 36 µm (p = 0.015), but it had no significant effect on the median particle size; (6) sonication increased carbon bioavailability with 7–10% for the HNSP feces (p = 0.037); (7) fecal particles withstood up to 16 min sonication at an intensity of 0.6 W/ml and a frequency of 20 Hz corresponding to specific energy input of 20,000 kJ/kg DM without major changes in particle size distribution. The results of this study indicate that the applied ultrasound treatment of fecal waste is not an effective method to increase short-term carbon bioavailability.
Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process
Snelders, J. ; Dornez, E. ; Benjelloun-Mlayah, B. ; Huijgen, W.J.J. ; Wild, P.J. de; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Gerritsma, J. ; Courtin, C.M. - \ 2014
Bioresource Technology 156 (2014). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 275 - 282.
xylan-degrading enzymes - enzymatic-hydrolysis - lignocellulosic biomass - pretreatment - lignin - fermentation - residues - hemicellulose - bioethanol - cellulose
To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing.
Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries
Wild, P.J. de; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Huijgen, W.J.J. - \ 2014
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 8 (2014)5. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 645 - 657.
wheat-straw - organosolv lignin - biomass - phenols - separation - valorization - pretreatment - hydrolysis - conversion - chemicals
Bio-based industries (pulp and paper and biorefineries) produce > 50 Mt/yr of lignin that results from fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is world's second biopolymer and a major potential source for production of performance materials and aromatic chemicals. Lignin valorization is a key-issue for enhanced profitability of sustainable bio-based industries. Despite a myriad of potential applications for lignin and decades of research, its heterogeneity and recalcitrance still preclude commercial value-added applications. Most lignin is utilized for heat and power. Unconventional solutions are needed to better exploit lignin's potential. Organosolv lignins are especially suitable as feedstock for high-value chemicals. At ECN, a lignin biorefinery approach (LIBRA) has been developed, involving a dedicated lignin pyrolysis protocol that is robust, continuous, and capable of processing different lignins. Typical product yields are 20% gas, 35% char, and 45% oil. The oil contains approximately 45% oligomeric phenolic substances, 23% monomeric phenols, and 33% water. The future perspective is scale-up of the process to produce larger lignin pyrolysis oil samples for separation, purification, and industrial application tests. Presently, small lignin pyrolysis oil samples are investigated as feedstock for extracting high-value chemicals, as a substitute for phenol in several applications, and as a feedstock for hydrotreating. The biochar is tested as growth enhancer and as substitute for carbon-black in rubber. Regarding the large lignin side streams from (future) bio-based industries, the LIBRA pyrolysis technology has ample potential to increase the profitability of lignocellulosic biorefineries provided that for both the liquid product and the solid char value-added applications are developed.
Characteristics of Wheat Straw Lignins from Ethanol-based Organosolv Treatment
Huijgen, W.J.J. ; Telysheva, G. ; Arshanitsa, A. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Wild, P.J. de - \ 2014
Industrial Crops and Products 59 (2014). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 85 - 95.
industrial applications - enzymatic-hydrolysis - technical lignins - kraft lignin - fractionation - pretreatment - biomass - chemicals - bagasse
Non-purified lignins resulting from ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw were characterized for the presence of impurities (carbohydrates and ash), functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl), phenyl-propanoid structural moieties, molar mass distribution and thermal behavior. In accordance with its herbaceous nature, the syringyl/guaiacyl-ratio of the wheat straw lignins was substantially lower than of Alcell lignin. In addition, the content of p-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups is substantially higher for the wheat straw lignins. The non-purified organosolv lignins had a high purity with 0.4–5.2% carbohydrate impurities, both originating from lignin to carbohydrate complexes and residual organosolv liquor. The use of H2SO4 in the organosolv process improved the lignin yield, but at low acid doses increased the carbohydrate impurities. For applications where a low amount of carbohydrates is important, lignin from a high-temperature autocatalytic organosolv process was found to be preferred. The highest content of total hydroxyl groups was determined when lignins were produced using 30 mM H2SO4 as catalyst or 50% w/w aqueous ethanol as solvent for the organosolv process. Aliphatic hydroxyl groups, the most predominant type of hydroxyl groups present originating for a substantial part from residual carbohydrates, were found to decrease with reaction time and ethanol proportion of the organosolv solvent. The correlations between organosolv process conditions and lignin characteristics determined can facilitate the use of organosolv lignins in value-added applications such as in polymers and resins and as a feedstock for bio-based aromatics.
Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater
Beyer, F. ; Rietman, B.M. ; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Brink, P. van den; Vrouwenvelder, J.S. ; Jarzembowska, M. ; Laurinonyte, J. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Plugge, C.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Membrane Science 468 (2014). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 339 - 348.
surface-water treatment - reverse-osmosis - membrane systems - pretreatment - ro - realization - innovation - diagnosis
Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretreatment was limited to 10 µm pore size cartridge filtration and antiscalant dosage (2–2.5 mg L-1) only. Membrane performance parameters normalized pressure drop (NPD), normalized specific water permeability (Kw) and salt retention generally were found stable over extended periods of operation (>6 months). Standard acid–base cleanings (once per year or less) were found to be sufficient to maintain satisfying operation during direct NF of the described iron rich (=8.4 mg L-1) anoxic groundwaters. Extensive autopsies of eight NF membrane elements, which had been in service since the plant startup (6–10 years), were performed to characterize and quantify the material accumulated in the membrane elements. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements revealed a complex mixture of organic, biological and inorganic materials. The fouling layers that developed during half to one year of operation without chemical cleaning were very thin (
Purification, Characterization, and Prebiotic Properties of Pectic Oligosaccharides from Orange Peel Wastes
Gómez, B. ; Gullón, B. ; Remoroza, C.A. ; Schols, H.A. ; Parajó, J.C. ; Alonso, J.L. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)40. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 9769 - 9782.
in-vitro fermentation - butyrate-producing bacteria - human fecal microbiota - human gut - polysaccharides - fermentability - pretreatment - hydrolysis - product - acid
Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3–21), GalOS (DP 5–12), and OGalA (DP 2–12, with variable DM) were identified in POS mixtures, but long-chain products were also present. The prebiotic potential of the concentrate was assessed by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inocula. For comparative purposes, similar experiments were performed using orange pectin and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as substrates for fermentation. The dynamics of selected microbial populations was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gas generation, pH, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were also measured. Under the tested conditions, all of the considered substrates were utilized by the microbiota, and fermentation resulted in increased numbers of all the bacterial groups, but the final profile of the microbial population depended on the considered carbon source. POS boosted particularly the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, so that the ratio between the joint counts of both genera and the total cell number increased from 17% in the inocula to 27% upon fermentation. SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation.
Het verhogen van de biogasopbrengst door middel van thermische drukhydrolyse van de voeding van de vergister; verwachte toename van opbrengst aan biogas t.o.v. toename van proceskosten
Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
Lelystad : ACRRES - 24
biogas - gasproductie - bio-energie - voorbehandeling - warmtebehandeling - drukbehandeling - co-vergisting - kosten-batenanalyse - biobased economy - gas production - bioenergy - pretreatment - heat treatment - pressure treatment - co-fermentation - cost benefit analysis
Deze studie is opgezet om na te gaan of de extra opbrengst aan biogas opweegt tegen de extra kosten die moeten worden gemaakt om een Thermische Druk Hydrolyse (TDH) proces te koppelen aan een vergister. Er is berekend hoe hoog de te verwachten extra investeringskosten en operationele kosten zijn, en ook hoe hoog de te verwachten extra baten zijn. Bij de baten zijn verschillende scenario’s doorgerekend, uitgaande van verschillende niveaus van extra gasopbrengst, waarde van het geproduceerde methaan en warmteterugwinning. Van de beoogde scenario’s wordt alleen in het uiterste geval een klein positief resultaat behaald. De conclusie is dat het THD proces onder de bestudeerde omstandigheden als niet-rendabel moet worden beoordeeld. Hoewel de hoge operationele kosten (35%) zeker niet onbelangrijk zijn, zijn met name de kapitaalskosten te hoog.
Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides
Neumüller, K.G. ; Streekstra, H. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 60 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 88 - 97.
talaromyces-emersonii - wheat-straw - hydrolysis - pretreatment - ethanol - plant - lignocellulose - fermentation - efficiency - conversion
Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan substitution for WUS, ErCS and AFR, being most pronounced regarding acetic acid, glucuronic acid- and arabinose content. By screening for enzymatic degradation of WUS, ErCS and AFR, enzyme preparations exhibiting high conversion rates were identified. Furthermore significant synergistic effects were detected by blending Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii culture filtrates with various enzymes. These findings clearly highlight a necessity for a combinatorial use of enzyme preparations towards substrates with high recalcitrance characteristics to reach high degrees of degradation. Enzyme blends were identified, outperforming the individual commercial preparations. These enzyme preparations provide a basis for new, designed enzyme mixtures for corn polysaccharide degradation as a source of necessary, accessory enzyme activities.
Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Broccoli Interpreted with the Flory-Huggins Free Volume Theory
Jin, X. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Maanen, J.F.C. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Straten, G. van; Boom, R.M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2014
Food Biophysics 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1557-1858 - p. 1 - 9.
water activity - glassy-polymers - drying methods - carrot slices - tissue-damage - quality - vegetables - mixtures - heat - pretreatment
In this work, the Flory Huggins Free Volume theory is used to interpret the sorption isotherms of broccoli from its composition and using physical properties of the components. This theory considers the mixing properties of water, biopolymers and solutes and has the potential to describe the sorption isotherms for varying product moisture content, composition and temperature. The required physical properties of the pure components in food became available in recent years and allow now the prediction of the sorption isotherms with this theory. Sorption isotherm experiments have been performed for broccoli florets and stalks, at two temperatures. Experimental data shows that the Flory Huggins Free Volume (FHFV) theory represents the sorption isotherm of fresh and blanched broccoli samples accurately. The results also show that blanching affects the sorption isotherm due to the change of composition via leaching solutes and the change of interaction parameter due to protein denaturation
Biobased Economy
Broek, Ben van den - \ 2013
biobased economy - biobased materials - biomass conversion - pretreatment - biorefinery - bioplastics
Pretreatment of lignocellulose for biotechnological production of lactic acid
Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen UR FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1384, public version) - ISBN 9789461736079 - 104
voorbehandeling - biomassaconversie - lignocellulose - melkzuur - bioproceskunde - technologie - suikerriet - kosten - kostenanalyse - biobased economy - pretreatment - biomass conversion - lignocellulose - lactic acid - bioprocess engineering - technology - sugarcane - costs - cost analysis - biobased economy
The breakdown of biomass in pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by disrupting cell wall structures, driving lignin into solution or modification of the lignin structure, and reducing cellulose crystallinity and chain length, while preventing hydrolysis of cellulose. In an ideal situation the pretreatment leads to high yields of fermentable sugars with a limited formation of degradation products that inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to lactic acid, while remaining cost effective. This review deals with these challenges by providing information on available pretreatment technologies in general (chapter 3), and more specific on pretreatment of the model feedstock sugarcane bagasse (chapter 4). Techno economic studies are described in chapter 5 with the NREL study from 2011 as benchmark. This review starts with characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass in relation to compostion and formation of inhibitors.
Enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp for the production of galacturonic acid and arabinose; a study on the impact of the formation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides
Leijdekkers, A.G.M. ; Bink, J.P.M. ; Geutjes, S. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2013
Bioresource Technology 128 (2013). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 518 - 525.
rhamnogalacturonan regions - ethanol-production - pectin - fermentation - hydrolysis - polysaccharides - pretreatment - cellulose - enzymes
Enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp was optimized on kg-scale to release the maximum amounts of monomeric galacturonic acid and arabinose with limited concomitant degradation of cellulose, using conditions that are feasible for industrial upscaling. A selected mixture of pectinases released 79% of the galacturonic acid and 82% of the arabinose as monomers from sugar beet pulp while simultaneously degrading only 17% of the cellulose. The recalcitrant structures that were obtained after hydrolysis were characterized using mass spectrometry. The most abundant structures had an average degree of polymerization of 4–5. They were identified as partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides, mostly containing a terminal galacturonosyl residue on both reducing and non-reducing end, partially methyl esterified/acetylated homogalacturonan-oligosaccharides, mostly containing methyl and acetyl esters at contiguous galacturonosyl residues and arabinan-oligosaccharides, hypothesized to be mainly branched. It could be concluded that especially rhamnogalacturonan-galacturonohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and pectin acetylesterase are lacking for further degradation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides
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