Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Pachtnormen 2016 : berekening hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor los land, agrarische bedrijfsgebouwenen agrarische woningen
    Silvis, H.J. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-053) - 25
    pachtrecht - pachtstelsel - agrarische economie - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - landbouwondernemingen - landbouwgrond - grondprijzen - prijzen - nederland - landbouwbedrijven - boerderijen - tenants' rights - tenure systems - agricultural economics - farm buildings - farm enterprises - agricultural land - land prices - prices - netherlands - farms - farm dwellings
    In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft LEI Wageningen UR de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor 2016 berekend conform de uitgangspunten van het Pachtprijzenbesluit 2007. In de meeste pachtprijsgebieden gaan de pachtnormen vrij sterk omhoog ten opzichte van de pachtnormen 2015. Dit wordt verklaard doordat de gemiddelde grondbeloning in de periode 2010- 2014 beduidend hoger is dan de gemiddelde grondbeloning over de periode 2009-2013.
    The effect of ethanol policies on the vertical price transmission in corn and food markets
    Drabik, D. ; Ciaian, P. ; Pokrivcak, J. - \ 2016
    Energy Economics 55 (2016). - ISSN 0140-9883 - p. 189 - 199.
    price transmission - food supply chain - biofuels - policies - mandate - tax credit - prices
    This paper analyzes the impact of ethanol policies on price transmission along the food supply chain. We consider the US corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that ethanol is a source of imperfect price transmission in the food supply chain. Ethanol, however, alters price transmission only under a binding blender's tax credit and only from food to corn (not vice versa). Our results indicate that ethanol weakens the response of corn and food prices in terms of their level changes to shocks occurring in agricultural (corn and food) markets. The results are robust to different assumptions on the model parameters. Although market power has previously been identified as a source of imperfect price transmission in the food supply chain, our findings show that in the presence of ethanol, the imperfect price transmission may occur even if markets are perfectly competitive. This warrants careful evaluation of markets before any policy intervention.
    Farmland Protection and Agricultural Land Values at the Urban-Rural Fringe: British Columbia's Agricultural Land Reserve
    Eagle, A.J. ; Eagle, D.E. ; Stobbe, T.E. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2015
    American Journal of Agricultural Economics 97 (2015)1. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 282 - 298.
    spatial hedonic approach - preservation programs - property-values - real-estate - prices - models - markets - options
    Farmland conservation policies typically use zoning and differentiated taxes to prevent urban development of farmland, but little is known about the effectiveness of these policies. This study adds to current knowledge by examining the impact of British Columbia's Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR), established in 1973, which severely restricts subdivision and nonagricultural uses for more than 4.7 million hectares of farmland. To determine the extent to which the ALR preserves farmland by reducing or removing the development option, a multilevel hedonic pricing model is used to estimate the impact of land use, geographic, and zoning characteristics on farmland value near the capital city of Victoria on Vancouver Island. Using sales data from 1974 through 2008, the model demonstrates a changing ALR impact over time that varies considerably by improved and unimproved land types. In 2008, landowners paid 19% less for the typical improved farmland parcel within the ALR versus that outside it. This suggests that would-be developers expect permanency in the zoning law, and prefer non-ALR zoned land. However, ALR land that is unimproved has a premium of 55%, suggesting that this land is more valuable for agriculture than for development. Farmland located closer to the city or the commuting highway commands a premium if it has a residence on it, with a residence also explaining why smaller agricultural properties sell at higher prices. However, it appears that zoning by itself is insufficient to protect farmland; other policies likely need to be implemented in conjunction with zoning to protect agricultural land.
    Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?
    Troell, M. ; Naylor, R.L. ; Metian, M. ; Beveridge, M. ; Tyedmers, P.H. ; Folke, C. ; Arrow, K.J. ; Barrett, S. ; Crepin, A.S. ; Ehrlich, P. ; Gren, R. ; Kautsky, N. ; Levin, S.A. ; Nyborg, K. ; Osterblom, H. ; Polasky, S. ; Scheffer, M. ; Walker, B.H. ; Xepapadeas, T. ; Zeeuw, A. de - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)37. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 13257 - 13263.
    fish - nutrition - impacts - prices - era
    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (~4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.
    Let's try to get the best out of it” understanding land transactions during land use change
    Holtslag-Broekhof, S.M. ; Beunen, R. ; Marwijk, R.B.M. van; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2014
    Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 561 - 570.
    personal relationships - agricultural land - institutions - prices - market - redevelopment - conservation - economics - agents
    This article investigates land transactions in relation to intended land use change from a micro-scale perspective. A better understanding of land transactions is important for understanding and influencing how land is used. The aim is to explore how the different aspects and their interrelations influence landowner behaviour during land transactions initiated by the government. The study draws on 42 explorative interviews with land purchasers, land policy experts, planning professionals and local farmers. The study shows that uncertainty, and feelings of justice are pivotal aspects during land transactions. Moreover, land transactions are co-evolving with the planning process. Landowners exhibit strategic behaviour based on their personal situation and their expectations on uncertain aspects. The strategies are strongly interrelated with the evolution of land use change. Land use changes are both input on which actors base their strategies, as well as the outcome of those strategies. The aspects found in this study were strongly interrelated and changed over time. Some aspects were context dependent, while others are expected to influence land transactions in general. In this light, the strength of a successful planner is twofold: on the one hand a planner needs to be a good communicator; on the other hand a planner should be able to deal with uncertainty and expectations during plan processes.
    Shocks in economic growth=shocking effects for food security?
    Kavallari, A. ; Fellmann, T. ; Hubertus Gay, H. - \ 2014
    Food Security 6 (2014)4. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 567 - 583.
    prices - impacts
    The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one hand and a replication of the recent economic downturn on the other hand. The empirical analysis uses AGLINK-COSIMO, a recursive-dynamic, partial equilibrium, supply–demand model. Simulation results demonstrate that higher economic growth influences demand more than supply, resulting in higher world market prices for agricultural commodities. Emerging economies tend to import more and to stock less in order to cover their demand needs, while the rest of the world increases its exports. The modelled faster economic growth also helps developing countries to improve their trade balance, but does not necessarily give them the incentive to address domestic food security concerns by boosting domestic consumption. A replication of an economic downturn leads to lower world prices, and while the magnitude of the effects decreases over time, markets do not regain their baseline levels within a 5-year period. Due to the lower world market prices, developing countries import more and increase their per capita food calorie intake. However, as developing countries become more import dependent, this also implies that they become more vulnerable to disruptions in agricultural world markets.
    Leghennenhouderij in diep dal
    Horne, P.L.M. van; Wisman, J.H. - \ 2014
    Agri-monitor 2014 (2014)june. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - eieren - prijzen - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rendement - poultry farming - hens - eggs - prices - farm results - returns
    De leghennenhouders ontvangen nu al twee jaar eierprijzen fors onder de kostprijs. Vooral scharrelhennenhouders hebben moeite het hoofd boven water te houden. Het perspectief voor het komende halfjaar is niet gunstig.
    Agrimatie : informatie over de agrosector
    Fernhout, C.Y. ; LEI, - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR
    landbouwsector - statistiek - overheidsbeleid - prijzen - informatiesystemen - economische indicatoren - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - agricultural sector - statistics - government policy - prices - information systems - economic indicators - sustainability indicators
    Deze website toont diverse onderzoeksresultaten die LEI Wageningen UR in het kader van Wettelijke onderzoekstaken publiceert voor het Ministerie van Economische Zaken.
    CAP and EU Trade Policy Reform : Assessing impact on developing countries
    Meijerink, G.W. ; Achterbosch, T.J. - \ 2013
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156320 - 109
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - internationale handel - europese unie - ontwikkelingslanden - import - export - markten - subsidies - economische impact - prijzen - vruchtgroenten - suiker - cap - agricultural policy - international trade - european union - developing countries - imports - exports - markets - subsidies - economic impact - prices - fruit vegetables - sugar
    Concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse eiersector
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086155996 - 74
    dierlijke producten - eieren - pluimvee - markten - statistiek - prijzen - economische productie - productiekosten - marktconcurrentie - animal products - eggs - poultry - markets - statistics - prices - economic production - production costs - market competition
    Het LEI heeft op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) en het Productschap Pluimvee en Eieren (PPE) een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse eiersector. Centrale vraag daarbij is of de Nederlandse eierketen concurrerend is. Belangrijk onderdeel van de studie is een vergelijking van de huidige en toekomstige positie van de Nederlandse eierketen ten opzichte van de belangrijkste concurrerende productielanden. In deze studie zijn de productiekosten van eieren in Nederland vergeleken met de productiekosten in het belangrijke afzetgebied Duitsland en met die van enkele concurrerende landen in Noordwest Europa. Ook is een vergelijking gemaakt van productiekosten van eieren met enkele landen buiten Europa.
    Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965
    Frankema, E.H.P. ; Waijenburg, M. van - \ 2012
    Journal of Economic History 72 (2012)4. - ISSN 0022-0507 - p. 895 - 926.
    economic-development - great divergence - latin-america - inequality - geography - prices - revenue - origins - europe - labor
    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 1940, mission schools, mainly run by African converts, provided the bulk of education at extremely low costs. Given the limited financial capacity of missionary societies, the Africanization of the mission was a prerequisite for rising enrolment rates and this only occurred in areas where the demand for Western education was high. The British happened to control most of these “fertile” areas
    Competitiveness of the EU egg industry
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report : Markets & chains ) - ISBN 9789086155989 - 51
    eieren - eipoeder - import - heffingen - invoerrechten - landbouwprijzen - prijzen - europese unie - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - hennen - dierenwelzijn - handel - markten - eggs - dried egg - imports - levies - import levies - agricultural prices - prices - european union - poultry - animal production - hens - animal welfare - trade - markets
    Egg producers in the EU have to comply with legislation dealing with environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. From 1 January 2012 keeping hens in conventional cages was prohibited and egg producers had to change to either enriched cages or alternative housing systems. The result of all this legislation is an increase in the cost of producing eggs. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. These multi- or bilateral negotiations are designed to further liberalise trade by either further reducing import tariffs or removing them altogether. In this report the impact of lowering import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg industry is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2012 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg industry.
    An innovation systems approach to institutional change: Smallholder development in West Africa
    Hounkonnou, D. ; Kossou, D. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Nederlof, S. ; Roling, N. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Traoré, M. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2012
    Agricultural Systems 108 (2012). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 74 - 83.
    agricultural-research - perspective - intensification - environment - management - prices - costs - corn
    Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming is a serious option for satisfying 2050 global cereal requirements and alleviating persistent poverty. That option seems far off for Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) where technology-driven productivity growth has largely failed. The article revisits this issue from a number of angles: current approaches to enlisting SSA smallholders in agricultural development; the history of the phenomenal productivity growth in the USA, The Netherlands and Green Revolution Asia; and the current framework conditions for SSA productivity growth. This analysis shows that (1) the development of an enabling institutional context was a necessary condition that preceded the phenomenal productivity growth in industrial and Green Revolution countries; and that (2) such a context is also present for successful SSA export crop production, but that (3) the context is pervasively biased against SSA’s smallholder food production. The article traces the origins of technology supply push (TSP) as a dominant paradigm that hinders recognition of the role of enabling institutions. The article then reviews the literature on institutional change and zooms in on Innovation Platforms (IPs) as a promising innovation system approach to such change. We describe the concrete experience with IP in the Sub-Sahara Challenge Program (SSA-CP) and in the Convergence of Sciences: Strengthening Innovation Systems (CoS-SIS) Program. The former has demonstrated proof of concept. The latter is designed to trace causal mechanisms. We describe its institutional experimentation and research methodology, including causal process tracing. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Productie groene grondstoffen; van biomassa tot PLA
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2011
    Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1249) - 44
    biopolymeren - polymelkzuur - productiekosten - prijzen - biomassaconversie - melkzuur - productieprocessen - biobased economy - biopolymers - polylactic acid - production costs - prices - biomass conversion - lactic acid - production processes - biobased economy
    De studie beschreven in dit rapport heeft tot doel om de melkzuurketen meer in detail uit te werken, waarbij de productieketen bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: conversie biomassa tot fermenteerbare suikers; conversie fermenteerbare suikers tot melkzuur; polymerisatie van melkzuur tot PLA. De prijzen van fermenteerbare suikers uit in Nederland beschikbare gewassen of producten zijn beschreven in hoofdstuk 2. Zowel suikerrijke-, zetmeelrijke- als lignocellulose gewassen zijn geanalyseerd. Daarnaast is een vergelijking gemaakt met suikerriet en suikerrietmelasse uit Brazilië. De conversie van fermenteerbare suikers tot melkzuur en uiteindelijk tot het polymeer PLA is beschreven in hoofdstuk 3. In hoofdstuk 4 is de case van melkzuur uit lignocellulose in meer detail beschreven en het rapport wordt afgesloten met algemene conclusies in hoofdstuk 5.
    Farmland Preservation Verdicts - Rezoning Agricultural Land in British Columbia
    Stobbe, T. ; Eagle, A.J. ; Cotteleer, G. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2011
    Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 59 (2011)4. - ISSN 0008-3976 - p. 555 - 572.
    values - prices - conservation - rights - space
    The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development option value by applying for exclusion from the ALR. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a binary choice (logit) model, this study examines factors that impact the acceptance of ALR exclusion applications. With data from two regions in southwestern BC, we find that applications are more likely to be approved when the land is closer to the major highway, has a smaller parcel size, consists of a smaller portion of the total parcel area, or has poorer quality soils. Therefore, as intended by public policy, agricultural capability is a key determinant in exclusion decisions, retaining properties of greater agricultural value in the ALR. Even though public opinion has suggested otherwise, the political party in power at the time of the decision was only a weak factor, mostly moderated by the number of applications in a given year. A spatial-effects model found no evidence of spatial autocorrelation, supporting the conclusions drawn from the nonspatial model estimations.
    Landbouw moet veel meer denken in winstmargefluctuaties
    Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2011
    Boerderij 96 (2011)46. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 18 - 20.
    landbouw - landbouw als bedrijfstak - landbouwsector - economische samenwerking - prijsvorming - prijzen - agriculture - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural sector - economic cooperation - price formation - prices
    De hele landbouwketen moet nog meer samenwerken en veel beter nadenken over de afzet, vooral ook op de langere termijn, stelt hoogleraar Joost Pennings, vakgroep Marktkunde en Consumentengedrag, Wageningen Universiteit.
    Mededinging en transparantie : randvoorwaarden voor concurentie en duurzaamheid
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Logatcheva, K. ; Georgiev, E.S. - \ 2011
    LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086155286 - 176
    voedselketens - prijsvorming - prijzen - voedingsmiddelen - kartels - onvolledige mededinging - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - transparantie - marktconcurrentie - food chains - price formation - prices - foods - cartels - imperfect competition - sustainability - transparency - market competition
    Er is volop informatie over prijzen in de Nederlandse voedselketen, bij het bedrijfsleven zelf en bij marktinformatiebureaus. Het mededingingsrecht staat veel duurzaamheidsinitiatieven toe. Hard core kartelafspraken zijn zonder meer verboden, maar is er ook een grijs gebied waarbij de toelaatbaarheid van duurzaamheidsinitiatieven afhangt van een economische analyse door de NMa. Dit creëert onzekerheid en kosten, wat initiatieven af kan remmen.
    Mineralenconcentraten uit mest; Economische analyse en gebruikerservaringen uit de pilots mestverwerking in 2009 en 2010
    Hoop, J.G. de; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Tomson, N.C. - \ 2011
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - ISBN 9789086155170 - 68
    mestverwerking - economische haalbaarheid - mesttechnologie - concentraten - prijzen - drijfmest - akkerbouw - intensieve veehouderij - manure treatment - economic viability - fertilizer technology - concentrates - prices - slurries - arable farming - intensive livestock farming
    De haalbaarheid van de installaties voor verwerking van dierlijke mest met omgekeerde osmose staat of valt met de hoogte van de mestprijzen, zowel de aanvoerprijs van ruwe drijfmest als de afvoerprijzen van de eindproducten en concurrerende mestproducten en meststoffen. Ten tijde van het onderzoek waren de installaties om mineralenconcentraat te produceren gemiddeld rendabel bij een mestaanvoerprijs van 11 tot 13 euro per ton, waarbij de mestleverancier transport, wegen en bemonsteren betaalt.
    Kostprijs melk 2009 en verwachting voor 2010
    Blokland, P.W. - \ 2011
    Agri-monitor 2011 (2011)feb. - ISSN 1383-6455 - p. 1 - 3.
    geschatte kosten - kostenanalyse - melk - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - prijzen - estimated costs - cost analysis - milk - farm management - prices
    In 2009 bedraagt de kostprijs van melk gemiddeld bijna 47 euro per 100 kg melk. Grotere bedrijven realiseren een lagere kostprijs dan middelgrote en kleinere bedrijven. De verschillen in de kostprijs tussen de bedrijven zijn onverminderd groot en lopen uiteen van ongeveer 30 euro tot meer dan 80 euro per 100 kg melk.
    Bayesian Model Averaging in the Context of Spatial Hedonic Pricing: An Application to Farmland Values
    Cotteleer, G. ; Stobbe, T. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2011
    Journal of Regional Science 51 (2011)3. - ISSN 0022-4146 - p. 540 - 557.
    urban influences - prices - specification - asterisk - markets - weights - issues - choice - gis
    Specification uncertainty arises in spatial hedonic pricing models because economic theory provides no guide in choosing the spatial weighting matrix and explanatory variables. Our objective in this paper is to investigate whether we can resolve uncertainty in the application of a spatial hedonic pricing model. We employ Bayesian Model Averaging in combination with Markov Chain, Monte Carlo Model Composition. The proposed methodology provides inclusion probabilities for explanatory variables and weighting matrices. These probabilities provide a clear indication of which explanatory variables and weighting matrices are most relevant, but they are case specific.
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