Elucidating the Ramularia eucalypti species complex
Videira, S.I.R. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Kolecka, A. ; Haren, L. van; Boekhout, T. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2015
Persoonia 34 (2015). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 50 - 64.
desorption ionization-time - flight mass-spectrometry - primer sets - identification - phylogeny - pathogens - fungi - dna - epidemiology - punctiformis
The genus Ramularia includes numerous phytopathogenic species, several of which are economically important. Ramularia eucalypti is currently the only species of this genus known to infect Eucalyptus by causing severe leaf-spotting symptoms on this host. However, several isolates identified as R. eucalypti based on morphology and on nrDNA sequence data of the ITS region have recently been isolated from other plant hosts, from environmental samples and also from human clinical specimens. Identification of closely related species based on morphology is often difficult and the ITS region has previously been shown to be unreliable for species level identification in several genera. In this study we aimed to resolve this species-complex by applying a polyphasic approach involving morphology, multi-gene phylogeny and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Six partial genes (ITS, ACT, TEF1-a, HIS3, GAPDH and RPB2) were amplified and sequenced for a total of 44 isolates representing R. eucalypti s.lat. and closely related species. A multi-gene Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and parsimony analysis were performed, and both the resulting trees showed significant support for separation of seven species in R. eucalypti s.lat., including two previously described (R. eucalypti and R. miae), four novel species here described (R. haroldporteri, R. glennii, R. mali and R. plurivora) and one undescribed Ramularia species (sterile). Additionally, Mycosphaerella nyssicola is newly combined in Ramularia as R. nyssicola. Main mass spectra (MSPs) of several R. eucalypti s.lat. strains were generated using MALDI-TOF MS and were compared through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) dendogram. The PCA dendrogram supported three clades containing R. plurivora, R. glenni/R. mali and R. eucalypti/R. miae. Although the dendrogram separation of species differed from the phylogenetic analysis, the clinically relevant strains were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS
The Colletotrichum gigasporum species complex
Liu, F. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. - \ 2014
Persoonia 33 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 83 - 97.
sp-nov - primer sets - endophytes - pathogens - china - gloeosporioides - anthracnose - diversity - sequences - acutatum
In a preliminary analysis, 21 Colletotrichum strains with large conidia preserved in the CBS culture collection clustered with a recently described species, C. gigasporum, forming a clade distinct from other currently known Colletotrichum species complexes. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) as well as each of the single-locus analyses resolved seven distinct species, one of them being C. gigasporum. Colletotrichum gigasporum and its close allies thus constitute a previously unknown species complex with shared morphological features. Five of the seven species accepted in the C. gigasporum species complex are described here as novel species, namely C. arxii, C. magnisporum, C. pseudomajus, C. radicis and C. vietnamense. A species represented by a single sterile strain, namely CBS 159.50, was not described as novel species, and is treated as Colletotrichum sp. CBS 159.50. Furthermore, C. thailandicum is reduced to synonymy with C. gigasporum.
Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Xu, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Studies in Mycology 79 (2014). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 121 - 186.
ribosomal dna-sequences - sp-nov - morphological characters - conidial structure - camellia-sinensis - natural-products - twig blight - primer sets - leaf-spot - disease
Species of Pestalotiopsis occur commonly as plant pathogens, and represent a fungal group known to produce a wide range of chemically novel, diverse metabolites. In the present study, we investigated 91 Pestalotiopsis isolates from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) culture collection. The phylogeny of the Amphisphaeriaceae was constructed based on analysis of 28S nrRNA gene (LSU) sequence data, and taxonomic changes are proposed to reflect more natural groupings. We combined morphological and DNA data, and segregated two novel genera from Pestalotiopsis, namely Neopestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis. The three genera are easily distinguishable on the basis of their conidiogenous cells and colour of their median conidial cells. We coupled morphological and combined sequence data of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial ß-tubulin (TUB) and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene regions, which revealed 30 clades in Neopestalotiopsis and 43 clades in Pestalotiopsis. Based on these data, 11 new species are introduced in Neopestalotiopsis, 24 in Pestalotiopsis, and two in Pseudopestalotiopsis. Several new combinations are proposed to emend monophyly of Neopestalotiopsis, Pestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis.
The Colletotrichum destructivum species complex - hemibiotrophic pathogens of forage and field crops
Damm, U. ; O'Connell, R.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Studies in Mycology 79 (2014). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 49 - 84.
random insertional mutagenesis - cowpea vigna-unguiculata - infection process - 1st report - host-specificity - anthracnose disease - glomerella-truncata - nicotiana-tabacum - sequence-analysis - primer sets
Colletotrichum destructivum is an important plant pathogen, mainly of forage and grain legumes including clover, alfalfa, cowpea and lentil, but has also been reported as an anthracnose pathogen of many other plants worldwide. Several Colletotrichum isolates, previously reported as closely related to C. destructivum, are known to establish hemibiotrophic infections in different hosts. The inconsistent application of names to those isolates based on outdated species concepts has caused much taxonomic confusion, particularly in the plant pathology literature. A multilocus DNA sequence analysis (ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, TUB2) of 83 isolates of C. destructivum and related species revealed 16 clades that are recognised as separate species in the C. destructivum complex, which includes C. destructivum, C. fuscum, C. higginsianum, C. lini and C. tabacum. Each of these species is lecto-, epi- or neotypified in this study. Additionally, eight species, namely C. americae-borealis, C. antirrhinicola, C. bryoniicola, C. lentis, C. ocimi, C. pisicola, C. utrechtense and C. vignae are newly described.
Species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex associated with anthracnose diseases of Proteaceae
Liu, F. ; Damm, U. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
Fungal Diversity 61 (2013)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 89 - 105.
yunnan provinces - fungal pathogens - primer sets - sp-nov - china - guizhou - hosts
Anthracnose disease of Proteaceae has in the past chiefly been attributed to infections by C. acutatum, C. boninense and C. gloeosporioides. In the present study, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) revealed that strains of the C. gloeosporioides complex associated with Proteaceae belong to at least six species. These include C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. kahawae (subsp. ciggaro), C. siamense, and two new taxa, C. proteae and C. grevilleae. The most economically important pathogen of Proteaceae seems to be C. alienum, and not C. gloeosporioides as previously reported. All taxa associated with Proteaceae are morphologically described on different media in culture, except strains of C. siamense, which proved to be sterile. Furthermore, C. populi is synonymised with C. aenigma.
The Colletotrichum orbiculare species complex: Important pathogens of field crops and weeds
Damm, U. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Liu, F. ; Barreto, R.W. ; Guatimosim, E. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
Fungal Diversity 61 (2013)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 29 - 59.
f-sp malvae - round-leaved mallow - protein-kinase - xanthium-spinosum - anthracnose fungus - sequence-analysis - infection process - parasitic fungi - north india - primer sets
Colletotrichum orbiculare causes anthracnose of Cucurbitaceae and is phylogenetically closely related to pathogens of several other herbaceous hosts belonging to the Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Malvaceae. Most of them are known for their hemibiotrophic infection strategy and as destructive pathogens either of field crops or weeds. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these fungi, a multilocus analysis (ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, TUB2, GS) of 42 strains of C. orbiculare and related species was conducted. The analysis resulted in nine clades that confirmed the four species previously known as belonging to this species complex, C. lindemuthianum, C. malvarum, C. orbiculare and C. trifolii, and recognised four new species from weeds, namely C. bidentis, C. sidae, C. spinosum and C. tebeestii. The name C. orbiculare itself is widely used in plant pathology and science, but is invalid according to current nomenclatural rules. Therefore we described a new species with the same epithet and a type specimen that agrees with our current understanding of this species, and is linked to a living culture. Following the recent epitypification of C. lindemuthianum, we chose appropriate specimens with associated strains to serve as epitypes of C. malvarum and C. trifolii, and selected an authentic specimen of C. trifolii as lectotype.
Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum
Liu, F. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. - \ 2013
Mycologia 105 (2013)4. - ISSN 0027-5514 - p. 844 - 860.
molecular diversity - differential cultivars - genetic-variability - sequence-analysis - host-specificity - primer sets - sp-nov - glomerella - resistance - identification
The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these important pathogens, we conducted a multigene analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) of strains previously identified as C. lindemuthianum, C. coccodes and other related species, as well as representative species of the major Colletotrichum species complexes. Strains of C. lindemuthianum belonged to a single clade; we selected an authentic specimen as lectotype, and an appropriate specimen and culture from the CBS collection to serve as epitype. Two clades were resolved within C. coccodes s. lat. One clade included the ex-neotype strain of C. coccodes on Solanum, while an epitype was selected for C. nigrum, which represents the oldest name of the second clade, which occurs on Capsicum, Solanum, as well as several other host plants. Furthermore, we recognized C. lycopersici as a synonym of C. nigrum, and C. biologicum as a synonym of C. coccodes.
Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses
Groenewald, J.Z. ; Nakashima, C. ; Nishikawa, J. ; Shin, H.D. ; Park, J.H. ; Jama, A.N. ; Groenewald, M. ; Braun, U. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
Studies in Mycology 75 (2013). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 115 - 170.
leaf-spot - water hyacinth - phylogenetic analysis - sequence-analysis - ribosomal dna - primer sets - new-zealand - sugar-beet - mycosphaerella - beticola
The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study.
A multi-locus backbone tree for Pestalotiopsis, with a polyphasic characterization of 14 new species
Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Guo, L.D. ; Cai, L. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Wu, W.P. ; Sun, X. ; Crous, P.W. ; Bhat, D.J. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Bahkali, A.H. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2012
Fungal Diversity 56 (2012)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 95 - 129.
dna-sequence database - rna-polymerase-ii - endophytic fungus - beta-tubulin - antifungal metabolites - primer sets - sp-nov - phylogeny - diversity - plant
Pestalotiopsis is a taxonomically confused, pathogenic and chemically creative genus requiring a critical re-examination using a multi-gene phylogeny based on ex-type and ex-epitype cultures. In this study 40 isolates of Pestalotiopsis, comprised of 28 strains collected from living and dead plant material of various host plants from China were studied by means of morphology and analysis of ITS, ß–tubulin and tef1 gene sequence data. Based on molecular and morphological data we describe 14 new species (Pestalotiopsis asiatica, P. chinensis, P. chrysea, P. clavata, P. diversiseta, P. ellipsospora, P. inflexa, P. intermedia, P. linearis, P. rosea, P. saprophyta, P. umberspora, P. unicolor and P. verruculosa) and three species are epitypified (P. adusta, P. clavispora and P. foedans). Of the 10 gene regions (ACT, ß-tubulin, CAL, GPDH, GS, ITS, LSU, RPB 1, SSU and tef1) utilized to resolve cryptic Pestalotiopsis species, ITS, ß–tubulin and tef1 proved to be the better markers. The other gene regions were less useful due to poor success in PCR amplification and/or in their ability to resolve species boundaries. As a single gene tef1 met the requirements for an ideal candidate and functions well for species delimitation due to its better species resolution and PCR success. Although ß-tubulin showed fairly good differences among species, a combination of ITS, ß-tubulin and tef1 gene data gave the best resolution as compared to single gene analysis. This work provides a backbone tree for 22 ex-type/epitypified species of Pestalotiopsis and can be used in future studies of the genus.
A multi-locus phylogenetic evaluation of Diaporthe (Phomopsis)
Udayanga, D. ; Liu, X. ; Crous, P.W. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2012
Fungal Diversity 56 (2012)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 157 - 171.
multiple sequence alignment - plant-pathogenic fungi - species concepts - south-africa - primer sets - genes - phaseolorum - longicolla - pcr - phylogeography
The genus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) includes important plant pathogenic fungi with wide host ranges and geographic distributions. In the present study, phylogenetic species recognition in Diaporthe is re-evaluated using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, and partial sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a (EF 1-a), ß tubulin (TUB) and calmodulin (CAL) molecular markers. DNA sequences of available ex-type cultures have been included, providing a multi-locus backbone tree for future studies on Diaporthe. Four utilizable loci were analyzed individually and in combination, and ITS, EF 1-a and multi-locus phylogenetic trees are presented. The phylogenetic tree inferred by combined analysis of four loci provided the best resolution for species as compared to single gene analysis. Notes are provided for nine species previously known in Phomopsis that are transferred to Diaporthe in the present study. The unraveling of cryptic species complexes of Diaporthe based on Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) is emphasized.
The Colletotrichum boninense species complex
Damm, U. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Weir, B.S. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2012
Studies in Mycology 73 (2012). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 36.
1st report - glomerella-acutata - primer sets - sp-nov - anthracnose - identification - diversity - teleomorph - gloeosporioides - compatibility
Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture.
A re-appraisal of Harknessia (Diaporthales), and the introduction of Harknessiaceae fam. nov.
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 49 - 65.
phylogenetic lineages - ribosomal dna - genera nova - primer sets - eucalyptus - wuestneia - morphology - culture - fungi - genus
Harknessiaceae is introduced as a new family in the ascomycete order Diaporthales to accommodate species of Harknessia with their Wuestneia-like teleomorphs. The family is distinguished by having pycnidial conidiomata with brown, furfuraceous margins, brown conidia with hyaline, tube-like basal appendages, longitudinal striations, and rhexolytic secession. Six species occurring on Eucalyptus are newly introduced, namely H. australiensis, H. ellipsoidea, H. pseudohawaiiensis, and H. ravenstreetina from Australia, H. kleinzeeina from South Africa, and H. viterboensis from Italy. Epitypes are designated for H. spermatoidea and H. weresubiae, both also occurring on Eucalyptus. Members of Harknessia are commonly associated with leaf spots, but also occur as saprobes and endophytes in leaves and twigs of various angiosperm hosts.
Genera of diaporthalean coelomycetes associated with leaf spots of tree hosts
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Edwards, J. ; Pascoe, I.G. ; Porter, I.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 66 - 75.
phylogenetic lineages - ribosomal dna - south-africa - primer sets - eucalyptus - phaeoacremonium - grapevines - harknessia - culture - genus
Four different genera of diaporthalean coelomycetous fungi associated with leaf spots of tree hosts are morphologically treated and phylogenetically compared based on the DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA gene (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon. These include two new Australian genera, namely Auratiopycnidiella, proposed for a leaf spotting fungus occurring on Tristaniopsis laurina in New South Wales, and Disculoides, proposed for two species occurring on leaf spots of Eucalyptus leaves in Victoria. Two new species are described in Aurantiosacculus, a hitherto monotypic genus associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Australia, namely A. acutatus on E. viminalis, and A. eucalyptorum on E. globulus, both occurring in Tasmania. Lastly, an epitype specimen is designated for Erythrogloeum hymenaeae, the type species of the genus Erythrogloeum, and causal agent of a prominent leaf spot disease on Hymenaea courbaril in South America. All four genera are shown to be allied to Diaporthales, although only Aurantiosacculus (Cryphonectriaceae) could be resolved to family level, the rest being incertae sedis.
Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Swart, L. ; Denman, S. ; Taylor, J.E. ; Bezuidenhout, C.M. ; Palm, M.E. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2011
Persoonia 27 (2011). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 20 - 45.
south-africa - primer sets - sp nov. - phylogeny - mycosphaerella - genera - phoma - genus - calonectria - morphology
Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study was to characterise several of these pathogens using morphology, culture characteristics, and DNA sequence data of the rRNA-ITS and LSU genes. In some cases additional genes such as TEF 1-a and CHS were also sequenced. Based on the results of this study, several novel species and genera are described. Brunneosphaerella leaf blight is shown to be caused by three species, namely B. jonkershoekensis on Protea repens, B. nitidae sp. nov. on Protea nitida and B. protearum on a wide host range of Protea spp. (South Africa). Coniothyrium-like species associated with Coniothyrium leaf spot are allocated to other genera, namely Curreya grandicipis on Protea grandiceps, and Microsphaeropsis proteae on P. nitida (South Africa). Diaporthe leucospermi is described on Leucospermum sp. (Australia), and Diplodina microsperma newly reported on Protea sp. (New Zealand). Pyrenophora blight is caused by a novel species, Pyrenophora leucospermi, and not Drechslera biseptata or D. dematoidea as previously reported. Fusicladium proteae is described on Protea sp. (South Africa), Pestalotiopsis protearum on Leucospermum cuneiforme (Zimbabwe), Ramularia vizellae and R. stellenboschensis on Protea spp. (South Africa), and Teratosphaeria capensis on Protea spp. (Portugal, South Africa). Aureobasidium leaf spot is shown to be caused by two species, namelyA.proteaecomb. nov. on Protea spp. (South Africa), and A. leucospermi sp. nov. on Leucospermum spp. (Indonesia, Portugal, South Africa). Novel genera and species elucidated in this study include Gordonomyces mucovaginatus and Pseudopassalora gouriqua (hyphomycetes), and Xenoconiothyrium catenata (coelomycete), all on Protea spp. (South Africa).
Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts
Damm, U. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
Fungal Diversity 39 (2009). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 45 - 87.
spored graminicolous colletotrichum - sequence-analysis - infection process - mulberry leaves - primer sets - lily bulbs - leaf-spot - sp-nov - anthracnose - dematium
Colletotrichum (Glomerellaceae, Sordariomycetes) species with dark setae and curved conidia are known as anthracnose pathogens of a number of economically important hosts and are often identified as C. dematium. Colletotrichum dematium has been synonymised with many species, including the type of the genus, C. lineola. Since there is no living strain of the original material of either species available, we re-collected C. lineola from the original location to serve as an epitype of that name, and chose an appropriate epitype specimen and associated strain of C. dematium from the CBS collection. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 97 isolates of C. lineola, C. dematium and other Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts resulted in 20 clades, with 12 clades containing strains that had previously been identified as C. dematium. The epitype strains of C. lineola and C. dematium reside in two closely related clades. Other clades represent four previously undescribed species, C. anthrisci, C. liriopes, C. rusci and C. verruculosum, isolated respectively from Anthriscus in the Netherlands, Liriope in Mexico, Ruscus in Italy and Crotalaria in Zimbabwe. The new combinations C. spaethianum and C. tofieldiae are made. Colletotrichum truncatum is epitypified, as well as C. circinans, C. curcumae and C. fructi. Three further unidentified Colletotrichum taxa were detected in the phylogenetic analysis, which may require description after further research. Each species is comprehensively described and illustrated
Molecular and phenotypic characterisation of novel Phaeoacremonium species isolated from esca diseased grapevines
Essakhi, S. ; Mugnai, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Surico, G. - \ 2008
Persoonia 21 (2008). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 119 - 134.
petri-disease - primer sets - wood - infections - california - decline - measles - trees
Petri disease and esca are very destructive grapevine decline diseases that occur in most countries where grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is cultivated. Phaeoacremonium species are among the principal hyphomycetes associated with symptoms of the two diseases, producing a range of enzymes and phytotoxic metabolites. The present study compared the phylogeny of a global collection of 118 Phaeoacremonium isolates from grapevines, in order to gain a better understanding of their involvement in Petri disease and esca. Phylogenetic analyses of combined DNA sequence datasets of actin and ß-tubulin genes revealed the presence of 13 species of Phaeoacremonium isolated from esca diseased grapevines. Phaeoacremonium aleophilum was the most frequently isolated species with an incidence up to 80 % of all isolates investigated. Species previously described mainly as human pathogenic species, namely Pm. alvesii, Pm. griseorubrum and Pm. rubrigenum are newly reported on grapevine from Turkey, Italy and Croatia, respectively. Phaeoacremonium viticola and Pm. scotyli represent new records for Italy, as well as Pm. mortoniae for Hungary and Croatia. In addition, four new species of Phaeoacremonium, namely Pm. croatiense, Pm. hungaricum, Pm. sicilianum and Pm. tuscanum are newly described from grapevine based on morphology, cultural characteristics, as well as molecular phylogeny.
Resolving the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of dark-spored teleomorph genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae
Phillips, A.J.L. ; Alves, A. ; Pennycook, S.R. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Ramaley, A. ; Akulov, A. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2008
Persoonia 21 (2008). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 29 - 55.
sp-nov - primer sets - anamorph - characters - confidence - speciation - inference - prunus - trees - spp.
Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are common plant pathogens and saprobes found on a variety of mainly woody hosts. Teleomorphs typically have hyaline, aseptate ascospores. However, some have been reported with brown ascospores and their taxonomic status is uncertain. A multi-gene approach (SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-a and ß-tubulin) was used to resolve the correct phylogenetic position of the dark-spored 'Botryosphaeria' teleomorphs and related asexual species. Neodeightonia and Phaeobotryon are reinstated for species with brown ascospores that are either 1-septate (Neodeightonia) or 2-septate (Phaeobotryon). Phaeobotryosphaeria is reinstated for species with brown, aseptate ascospores that bear an apiculus at either end. The status of Sphaeropsis is clarified and shown to be the anamorph of Phaeobotryosphaeria. Two new genera, namely Barriopsis for species having brown, aseptate ascospores without apiculi and Spencermartinsia for species having brown, 1-septate ascospores with an apiculus at either end are introduced. Species of Dothiorella have brown, 1-septate ascospores and differ from Spencermartinsia in the absence of apiculi. These six genera can also be distinguished from one another based on morphological characters of their anamorphs. Although previously placed in the Botryosphaeriaceae, Dothidotthia, was shown to belong in the Pleosporales, and the new family Dothidotthiaceae is introduced to accommodate it
Opportunistic, human-pathogenic species in the Herpotrichiellaceae are phenotypically similar to saprobic or phytopathogenic species in the Venturiaceae
Crous, P.W. ; Schubert, K. ; Braun, U. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Hocking, A.D. ; Shin, H.D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2007
Studies in Mycology 58 (2007)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 185 - 217.
multilocus genotype data - cladosporium-carrionii - fonsecaea-pedrosoi - wangiella-dermatitidis - cladophialophora-ajelloi - primer sets - chromoblastomycosis - fungi - mice - model
Although morphologically similar, species of Cladophialophora (Herpotrichiellaceae) were shown to be phylogenetically distinct from Pseudocladosporium (Venturiaceae), which was revealed to be synonymous with the older genus, Fusicladium. Other than being associated with human disorders, species of Cladophialophora were found to also be phytopathogenic, or to occur as saprobes on organic material, or in water, fruit juices, or sports drinks, along with species of Exophiala. Caproventuria, and Metacoleroa were confirmed to be synonyms of Venturia, which has Fusicladium (= Pseudocladosporium) anamorphs. Apiosporina, based on A. collinsii, clustered basal to the Venturia clade, and appears to represent a further synonym. Several species with a pseudocladosporium-like morphology in vitro represent a sister clade to the Venturia clade, and are unrelated to Polyscytalum. These taxa are newly described in Fusicladium, which is morphologically close to Anungitea, a heterogeneous genus with unknown phylogenetic affinity. In contrast to the Herpotrichiellaceae, which were shown to produce numerous synanamorphs in culture, species of the Venturiaceae were morphologically and phylogenetically more uniform. Several new species and new combinations were introduced in Cladophialophora, Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), Exophiala, Fusicladium, Venturia (Venturiaceae), and Cylindrosympodium (incertae sedis).
Nonhost resistance of barley is successfully manifested against Magnaporthe grisea and a closely related Pennisetum-infecting lineage but is overcome by Magnaporthe oryzae
Zellerhoff, N. ; Jarosch, B. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. ; Schaffrath, U. - \ 2006
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 19 (2006)9. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1014 - 1022.
host species-specificity - rice blast fungus - foxtail millet - genetic cross - primer sets - cell-death - plants - wheat - identification - pathogens
Magnaporthe oryzae is a major pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) but is also able to infect other grasses, including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Here, we report a study using Magnaporthe isolates collected from other host plant species to evaluate their capacity to infect barley. A nonhost type of resistance was detected in barley against isolates derived from genera Pennisetum (fontaingrass) or Digitaria (crabgrass), but no resistance occurred in response to isolates from rice, genus Eleusine (goosegrass), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), or maize (Zea mays L.), respectively. Restriction of pathogen growth in the nonhost interaction was investigated microscopically and compared with compatible interactions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify fungal biomass in both types of interaction. The phylogenetic relationship among the Magnaporthe isolates used in this study was investigated by inferring gene trees for fragments of three genes, actin, calmodulin, and ß-tubulin. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we could distinguish different species that were strictly correlated with the ability of the isolates to infect barley. We demonstrated that investigating specific host interaction phenotypes for a range of pathogen isolates can accurately highlight genetic diversity within a pathogen population
Multi-gene phylogenies and phenotypic characters distinguish two species within the Colletogloeopsis zuluensis complex associated with Eucalyptus stem cankers.
Cortinas, M.N. ; Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wingfield, M.J. - \ 2006
Studies in Mycology 55 (2006). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 133 - 146.
coniothyrium-zuluense - mycosphaerella spp. - dna-sequences - south-africa - primer sets - inference - rates - speciation - mrbayes - models
Colletogloeopsis zuluensis, previously known as Coniothyrium zuluense, causes a serious stem canker disease on Eucalyptus spp. grown as non-natives in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. This stem canker disease was first reported from South Africa and it has subsequently been found on various species and hybrids of Eucalyptus in other African countries as well as in countries of South America and South-East Asia. In previous studies, phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequence data of the ITS region suggested that all material of C. zuluensis was monophyletic. However, the occurrence of the fungus in a greater number of countries, and analyses of DNA sequences with additional isolates has challenged the notion that a single species is involved with Coniothyrium canker. The aim of this study was to consider the phylogenetic relationships amongst C. zuluensis isolates from all available locations and to support these analyses with phenotypic and morphological comparisons. Individual and combined phylogenies were constructed using DNA sequences from the ITS region, exons 3 through 6 of the ß-tubulin gene, the intron of the translation elongation factor 1- gene, and a partial sequence of the mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene. Both phylogenetic data and morphological characteristics showed clearly that isolates of C. zuluensis represent at least two taxa. One of these is C. zuluensis as it was originally described from South Africa, and we provide an epitype for it. The second species occurs in Argentina and Uruguay, and is newly described as C. gauchensis. Both fungi are serious pathogens resulting in identical symptoms. Recognising them as different species has important quarantine consequences.