Institutional dimensions of veterinary services reforms: responses to structural adjustment in Northern Ghana
Amankwah, K. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Karbo, N. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 296 - 315.
animal health-services - developing-countries - delivery - innovation - privatization - constraints - provision - economics - systems - world
This study examines the effect of the post-1980s' structural adjustment reforms on the delivery and smallholders' use of veterinary services in two districts in Northern Ghana. Our analytical framework distinguishes between allocative, cognitive, and normative institutions to analyse the effects on four areas of service delivery: (1) prevention; (2) clinical services; (3) provision of drugs, vaccines, and other products; and (4) human health protection. The reforms were accompanied by substantial reductions in the allocation of both financial and human resources to public veterinary services; this in turn induced fragmentation in service supply, preferential service to progressive (or wealthy) farmers, and non-adherence to international protocols for livestock health reporting. A few communities self-organized to access veterinary services. Thus, the reforms triggered changes mostly in formal allocative institutions, but these triggered further changes in informal allocative, cognitive, and normative institutions that structured the impact of the reforms. The paper concludes that institutional change is not a one-off outcome of an intervention. Rather, such interventions trigger new dynamics that policy-makers and analysts need to take into account. This requires regular monitoring of anticipated and unanticipated effects of privatization and decentralization to enable policy adjustment.
Identities in the Commons: The Dynamics of Norms and Social Capital
Bulte, E.H. ; Horan, R.D. - \ 2010
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 10 (2010)1. - ISSN 1935-1682
property resource use - reduction methods - moral motivation - free access - cooperation - systems - evolution - economics - privatization - management
This paper provides a formal analysis of the evolution of cooperation in the management of common property resources. We develop a dynamic model that includes moral norms or a sense of 'identity,' and show that cooperation may – but need not – be an equilibrium outcome in the absence of intervention by a managing agency or punishment by peers. We demonstrate that outside intervention has ambiguous effects when identity matters – it may reduce welfare of the agents harvesting the stock.
|Farmers’ territory invaded by a water company: The effects of drinking water privatization on rice farmers in Calapan City, the Philippines
Liebrand, J. - \ 2009
Köln, Germany : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing - ISBN 9783838307374 - 228
waterbeheer - waterbeleid - drinkwater - privatisering - watersystemen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - risico - ecosystemen - conflict - boeren - rijst - filippijnen - waterrechten - staat - water management - water policy - drinking water - privatization - water systems - natural resources - risk - ecosystems - conflict - farmers - rice - philippines - water rights - state
This book documents a water conflict known as the Bayanan water issue in Calapan City, the Philippines. Drinking water privatization in Calapan City was implemented by the book; a private company was granted extensive water rights and subsequently made capital investments in a drinking water system in a bid to improve water services for consumers. Sadly, it was also water privatization failure by the book. In circumstances of a weak State and a weak market, the policy intervention of water privatization intensified conflicts over water control, excluded water users from decisions about their own resources, allowed commercial interests to prevail and produced increased risks to ecosystems. These issues are serious barriers for any form of equitable and sustainable water management, and call for critical rethinking of market approaches in water management. Increased water conflicts and risks to ecosystems need to be addressed more prominently in contemporary debates on (drinking) water privatization. Therefore this case study of the Philippines is relevant reading for any policy maker, practitioner and researcher working on water privatization.
Risicobarometer voor de pluimveehouderij
Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Horne, P.L.M. van; Hennen, W.H.G.J. ; Wisman, J.H. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151691 - 50
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pluimveehouderij - risico - risicoschatting - risicofactoren - privatisering - dierziekten - nederland - farm management - poultry farming - risk - risk assessment - risk factors - privatization - animal diseases - netherlands
Door specialisatie, bedrijfsvergroting en dierziekten zijn de risico's in de pluimveehouderij groot. Dit zal ook door een terugtredende overheid in de komende jaren alleen maar toenemen. Het belang voor de pluimveehouder om bewust te zijn van deze risico's neemt daardoor toe. In dit kader is voor de pluimveehouder een internetprogramma ontwikkeld om een beeld te krijgen van de bedrijfsrisico's. Dit rapport geeft achtergronden bij de ontwikkeling van de risicobarometer voor de pluimveehouder. The risks for poultry farmers are huge because of their specialisation, increase of farm size and animal diseases. These risks will also only increase in the future because of government withdrawal and more privatisation. The importance for poultry farmers to become conscious about these risks increases. In this setting an internet tool has been developed for poultry farmers to become aware of the risks on farm level. This report gives the backgrounds used to develop a risk barometer for poultry farms.
|On creating competition and strategic restructuring: regulatory reform in public utilities
Wubben, E.F.M. ; Hulsink, W. - \ 2003
Cheltenham/Northampton : Edward Elgar Publishers - ISBN 9781843763710 - 232
openbare voorzieningen - marktconcurrentie - liberalisering van de handel - industrie - engineering - west-europa - vs - regulatie - privatisering - netwerken - public utilities - regulation - market competition - trade liberalization - industry - engineering - western europe - usa - privatization - networks
The effects of privatization on wages and job satisfaction: the case of Ghana
Asiedu, K.F. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Folmer; W.J.M. Heijman. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087577 - 222
lonen - Ghana - arbeidsvoldoening - Afrika - overheidsbedrijven - genationaliseerde bedrijven - privatisering - wages - Ghana - work satisfaction - Africa - public enterprises - nationalized enterprises - privatization
Key words : privatization, wages, job satisfaction, state owned enterprise, Ghana, Africa
In this thesis, we examine the impact of privatization on wages and job satisfaction in selected urban-based enterprises in Ghana.The fear and anxiety of workers in state-owned enterprises and recent developments in the corporate world have necessitated the need to examine wages and job satisfaction of workers in various enterprises closely. Decades of economic mismanagement and bad policies in Ghana, beginning in the 1970s led to a steady deterioration of the economy, with the situation reaching a crisis point in the early 1980s. To address the deteriorating situation, policy reforms were initiated in the latter part of 1980s. The main instruments used for the public sector were liberalization of the economy and privatization of state-owned enterprises.
Most studies of privatization in Ghana put relatively little emphasis on the labor market. We argue that privatization changes the objectives of a firm from objectives formulated by the state to more narrow, profit oriented ones. We also show that the impact of privatization on wages and job satisfaction is theoretically ambiguous. If the state puts relatively little weight on profit maximization but focuses on welfare instead, wages and satisfaction levels may be higher. If transfer payments in the form of subsidies from the government to state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are high, SOEs can afford to pay higher wages and provide better work conditions than privatized enterprises (PEs).
Using data from 300 workers selected from 6 SOEs and 7 PEs, we find that PEs pay higher wages than SOEs. In terms of partial satisfaction levels (work safety, job security and training opportunities), work safety is found not to have improved with privatization. The effects of privatization in Ghana are such that a number of enterprises that have survived have done so by restructuring to reduce cost and to be competitive thus affecting investment in work place safety. Compared with PEs, work safety is perceived as better in SOEs. Job security is found to increase with privatization. In PEs, workers report to be more secure with their jobs than those in SOEs. A possible explanation could be the basic problem in SOEs, where too many workers, especially administrative and clerical level staff are employed. Consequently, the transition from an SOE to a PE is seen as a threat to job security. The results also show that both general and specific training opportunities have not improved with privatization. SOEs offer more training, especially general training than PEs.
The hypothesis that there is a discernible increase in overall job satisfaction as a result of privatization cannot be confirmed by our study. The effect of privatization on overall job satisfaction could be due to a mix of positive and negative influences mentioned above, which together lead to statistically insignificant impacts at all degrees of privatization. Thus, our study finds no direct relationship between privatization and overall job satisfaction.
Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes
Groot, A.E. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086976 - 216
leren - voorlichting - landbouw - irrigatie - senegal - kenya - wereld - decentralisatie - acteurs - innovaties - bedrijfsvoering - participatie - privatisering - landbouwvoorlichting - personen - learning - extension - participation - management - actors - innovations - agriculture - decentralization - irrigation - senegal - kenya - world - privatization - agricultural extension - persons
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural development, poverty alleviation, natural resource management, health promotion or policy formulation, participation is often presented as the golden key to unlock the door to a more sustainable and democratic world. The task of ensuring that the golden key is used and the door is unlocked is, in general, placed in the hands of facilitators i.e. men or women responsible for the management of participatory processes. The work of facilitators is considered crucial for bringing about desirable change. However, their role and influence is difficult to grasp and judge. In fact, the notion of facilitation is often 'depersonalised'. People refer to it in terms of incentives to bring about a desired change. This study, however, acknowledges that facilitators are critical success variables and are people who bring along their own interests, perceptions, values, assumptions, and competencies that influence the participatory process and its outcomes. Through a critical analysis of facilitation experiences, this study aims to increase transparency on facilitators' actions, perceptions, values, theoretical and methodological perspectives, and how these can shape the participatory processes and outcomes in a particular context. Such transparency helps to make explicit the responsibilities and competencies of facilitators and to improve their accountability to the actors with whom they work.
Chapter 1presents two personal stories to clarify the concerns and challenges as underlying motives for this research. The first story shows facilitators who are pawns in a power play. It gives insight into the facilitators' choice of whose interests, perspectives, and values count most. The second describes the challenges that facilitators in this study face when working in complex and messy environments in which everything/body is connected to everything/body. The two experiences inform the following research questions that underpin this study:
To address these questions, this thesis explores three experiences in facilitation of participatory processes gained by teams of facilitators of which I had been a member. The first experience explores the facilitation of a privatisation process of the SAED/IAM irrigation project in Senegal. The second case study addresses the facilitation of a linked local learning process in Kenya to support decentralisation and privatisation of agricultural services. The last case study deals with the meta-facilitation of DLV's learning process. It explores the performance of meta-facilitators to support other facilitators i.e. DLV advisors. The participatory processes managed by the facilitators and meta-facilitators in the case studies address complex issues. These issues are referred to as 'complex' because they involved multiple factors and actors at multiple interrelated administrative, discipline and social levels. These multitudinous interacting and continuously changing people and things lead to the emergence of unpredictable outcomes and as such create a high level of uncertainty.
Chapter 2discusses the emergence of the participatory paradigm and the critique on professionals operating within this paradigm. The beliefs and assumptions of the participatory paradigm largely influence the facilitators in the case studies. Moreover, in the case studies the facilitators try to overcome the main critique on participatory practice. For each of the fields in which the facilitators under study work i.e. 'rural poverty reduction', 'agricultural development', and 'environmental management, the emergence of the paradigm is discussed, including the dominant beliefs, assumptions, and competencies that characterise the operating professionals.
Chapter 3clarifies the chosen research paradigm and methodologies. It highlights that this thesis is a reflective thesis for which the empirical basis is the experience in facilitation gained by teams of consultants of which I have been a member. The research process is conducted as though it were a learning process; insights are gained along the way. The research is undertaken from a constructivist perspective assuming that reality is socially constructed. In addition, chapter 3 discusses the chosen 'grounded theory approach' and 'action research'. These methodologies support the aims to: 1) conduct the research as a learning process for which the empirical basis was the experiences gained in consultancy missions; 2) develop a theory and methodological insights on facilitation; and 3) improve facilitation practice. Both methodologies fit the researcher's constructivist epistemology. The grounded theory approach to data analysis means that the conclusions of each chapter feed into the next one, with the exception of chapter 3.
Chapter 3 also introduces Bawden's model of praxis as a framework for analysing the performance of the facilitators in the case studies. Praxis is considered the property of individuals that emerges from the interaction of theories they hold, the actions that they practice, the values they assume and the contexts that they interpret of the world surrounding them. The use of the coherence and correspondence criteria are explained to explore the (in)consistencies and effectiveness of the facilitation praxis in the case studies.
Chapters 4, 5and intermezzo I explore the experiencesin Senegal where a team of facilitators supported the privatisation of the SAED/IAM irrigation project. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical and methodological foundations of this case study. It describes how and why the facilitators used 'soft systems thinking', Agricultural Knowledge and Information systems perspective (AKIS), its operational tool the 'Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Knowledge systems' (RAAKS), Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to support the privatisation process of the irrigation project. Chapter 5 further studies the Senegal case study. Bawden' s model of praxis is used to systemically explore the facilitation actions in relation to the facilitators' values, the theories and methodologies applied, and the way the facilitators perceived the context. In addition, each action is discussed in terms of (in)consistencies in praxis and its effectiveness. Intermezzo 1 synthesises the following insights derived from the Senegal case:
These insights are translated into a preliminary set of criteria that can be used to assess the praxis of the facilitators.
Chapters 6,7and intermezzo II address the second case study i.e. the facilitation of a linked local learning process in Kenya to support ecologically sound agriculture and the decentralisation of agricultural services. Chapter 6 provides the theoretical and methodological foundations of the case. It describes the 'linked local learning' perspective and its theoretical and methodological underpinnings i.e. 'experiential learning', '(critical) learning systems', 'collaborative learning', 'negotiation', and 'mediation'. Chapter 7 further explores the Kenya case study by studying the facilitation actions in relation to the facilitators' values, the theories and methodologies applied, and the way the facilitators perceived the context. Each facilitation action is analysed in terms of (in)consistencies and effectiveness. Intermezzo II synthesises the following lessons:
Again, these lessons are translated into criteria that can be used to assess facilitation praxis.
Chapters 8,9and intermezzo III deal with the meta-facilitation of DLV's learning. They examine the role of the meta-facilitators in assisting other facilitators i.e. DLV advisers in applying a participatory perspective to projects. Chapter 8 describes 'different approaches to project planning', 'stakeholder analysis', 'Kolb's learning styles', and 'organisation learning theory' as the theories and methodologies used by the facilitators. Chapter 9 further explores the DLV case study by analysing the praxis of the meta-facilitators. Intermezzo III synthesises the following insights:
These insights are translated into criteria that can be used to assess meta-facilitation praxis
The conclusions resulting from the three cases are merged and further developed in chapter 10 . In line with the research questions, general conclusions are drawn with respect to the facilitation actions , the theories and methodologies to be used, facilitators' values and meta-facilitation .
The general conclusion with respect to the role of facilitators is that there are two important clusters of actions for effective facilitation.First, there is a set of actions that aims to bring one or multiple nested (critical) subsystems into being. An important insight for the first set of actions is the notion of facilitation of system-wide change. Often facilitators can increase the effectiveness of their intervention if they involve multiple relevant actors who operate at different inter-related administrative, sectoral, and social levels (e.g., policy makers, private and government sector actors, farmers). Chapter 10 concludes that for facilitation to be effective in supporting actors to cope with complex issues there is need to ascertain whether it is necessary to intervene beyond the level at which the issue at stake emerged. Consequently, in a participatory intervention, one of the first facilitation actions to be undertaken is the design of an interactive process to purposefully bring a system, or more often, multiple nested subsystems, into existence. For this action to realise, facilitators can make use of an adapted version of soft systems theories and methodologies combined with learning, negotiation, and mediation theories as well as with Habermas' strategic and communicative rationalities.
There is a second set of actions that aims to design and implement a systemic learning path in order to enable actors to 'learn about systems' (e.g., human activity, biophysical, political systems) and 'to become critical learning systems'. Critical learning systems are comprised of reflective actors who regularly question their own and each other's perceptions, interests, and values and the way they shape their (joint) learning. To support the emergence of critical learning systems facilitators can use a combination of: 1) adapted systems theories; 2) organisational, experiential and situated learning theories; and 3) negotiation and mediation theories and strategies.
From a methodological perspective, it is concluded that in order to design a trajectory that favours critical learning it is important that facilitators: 1) enable face-to-face interaction at the boundaries of multiple subsystems; 2) overcome the limitations of Kolb's experiential learning cycle for process design; and 3) foster learning beyond single loop learning.
The role of facilitator values in the way they perceive the issue at stake, their choice of theories and methodologies, and their actions and as such the participatory processes and outcomes are clearly demonstrated in this thesis. It concludes that facilitators need to be more aware and transparent about their values. Especially in the case of differences in values between the facilitators and other actors, the articulation of this difference is an important challenge for a facilitator to deal with.
Chapter 10 also discusses two emerging insights on issues that were not explicitly addressed in the research questions. The first deals with ' power' and the second, with 'assessing facilitation praxis' . In the three case studies, the facilitators implicitly address power relationships. This study concludes that if facilitators do not pay particular attention to power relations by increasing the decision-making power of disadvantaged actors, they risk that the latter continue to be disadvantaged or, worse still, are manipulated or controlled more skilfully by the more powerful actors. Chapter 10 discusses various facilitation ingredients that contribute to bring about structural change to the system of social relationships through which inequalities are reproduced.
Meta-facilitationis addressed in chapter 10 as well. The concluding chapter describes the competencies that meta-facilitators require for being effective in their support of facilitators to develop the necessary expertise. This thesis shows that meta-facilitation should not only address the learning of facilitators but also that of those actors who form their institutional working context. In this respect, chapter 10 pays particular attention to the role of educational institutes in the development of facilitators of systemic change who are in the Wageningen University context referred to as 'beta-gamma' professionals. Any institution that aims to deliver facilitators of systemic change must address in their education the issue of value-driven professional practice. More specifically, the building of capacity for praxis and critical thinking is needed if facilitators are to focus on systemic (agricultural/rural) development in ethical and ecologically sound ways. Moreover, educational institutes and other organisations that support agro-ecosystem and rural development face the challenge of 'becoming critical learning systems' themselves in order to evolve towards an institutional and cultural environment that enables the development of 'facilitators of systemic change'.
This thesis ends with a critical reflection on the research process, and challenges facilitators not to reach for the latest handbook on participatory techniques, but to clean up their own act by critically reflecting on their own assumptions, values, interests and practices in order to avoid reinforcing the very practices that in theory they were meant to change.
|LUW voorbereid op toekomst.
Pepping, F. ; Ende, E.R. van den - \ 1997
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 30 (1997)20. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 52 - 54.
hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - onderzoek - samenwerking - overheid - regering - onderwijsplanning - onderwijsbeleid - privatisering - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschap - wetenschappelijke samenwerking - reorganisatie - veluwe - gelderland - agricultural colleges - universities - research - cooperation - public authorities - government - educational planning - educational policy - privatization - scientific research - science - scientific cooperation - reorganization
In de nieuwe structuur zullen departementen, onderwijsinstituten, onderzoekscholen en technologische topinstituten naast en met elkaar werken. Een uiteenzetting is gegeven over de wijze waarop het doctoraal en postdoctoraal onderwijs en onderzoek aan de LUW in elkaar grijpen
|Recreatief/toeristisch onderzoek in Wageningen: organisatie en perspectief.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1989
Recreatie en Toerisme 21 (1989)5. - ISSN 0165-4179 - p. i - ii.
recreatie - onderzoek - budgetten - tijd - recreatieonderzoek - landbouwgrond - landschap - karteringen - willekeurige bemonstering - overheid - regering - toerisme - fietsen - hoger onderwijs - openluchtrecreatie - dagrecreatie - recreatievoorzieningen - vrije tijd - vrijetijdsactiviteiten - privatisering - reorganisatie - burgerlijke staat - recreation - research - budgets - time - leisure research - agricultural land - landscape - surveys - random sampling - public authorities - government - tourism - bicycling - higher education - outdoor recreation - day visits - recreational facilities - leisure - leisure activities - privatization - reorganization - civil status
Themagedeelte waarin o.a. aandacht voor: toeristisch-recreatief onderwijs in Wageningen; het belang van een analyse van de samenhang in de recreatief-toeristische infrastructuur voor het beleid t.a.v. recreatie in het landelijk gebied; methoden voor herwegen van gestratificeerde steekproeven t.b.v. openluchtrecreatie-onderzoek
|Privatisering van water- en hengelsportaccomodaties.
Philipsen, J.F.B. ; Bakker, J.G. - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789067541312 - 273 p.
outdoor recreation - amenity and recreation areas - water recreation - angling - sport - accommodation - sailing - boating - rowing - windsurfing - water skiing - power boating - public authorities - government - hunting - netherlands - recreational facilities - privatization - reorganization - limburg
|Privatisering, een verandering van taken en gebruiksmogelijkheden.
Philipsen, J.F.B. ; Lengkeek, J. ; Bakker, J.G. - \ 1989
Recreatie 27 (1989)1. - ISSN 0165-8581 - p. 4 - 9.
openluchtrecreatie - recreatiegebieden - waterrecreatie - sport - zeilen - varen - roeien - windsurfen - waterskiën - speedboot - overheid - regering - privatisering - reorganisatie - limburg - outdoor recreation - amenity and recreation areas - water recreation - sailing - boating - rowing - windsurfing - water skiing - power boating - public authorities - government - privatization - reorganization
De Werkgroep Recreatie van de Landbouwuniversiteit heeft in 1987 en 1988 onderzoek verricht naar effecten van privatiseringen in de watersport en sportvisserij
|Door privatisering dreigen groepen watersporters uit de boot te vallen. Typologie van watersporters.
Philipsen, J.F.B. - \ 1989
Recreatie en Toerisme 21 (1989)2. - ISSN 0165-4179 - p. 47 - 49.
recreatiegebieden - regering - overheid - waterrecreatie - privatisering - reorganisatie - limburg - amenity and recreation areas - government - public authorities - water recreation - privatization - reorganization
|Sterk water. Privatisering in de sportvisserij.
Lengkeek, J. - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc (Mededelingen Werkgroep Recreatie 16) - ISBN 9789067541633 - 195 p.
amenity and recreation areas - angling - game fishes - outdoor recreation - water recreation - privatization