High fat challenges with different fatty acids affect distinct atherogenic gene expression pathways in immune cells from lean and obese subjects
Esser, D. ; Dijk, S.J. van; Oosterink, E. ; Lopez, S. ; Muller, M.R. ; Afman, L.A. - \ 2015
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 59 (2015)8. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 1563 - 1572.
triglyceride-rich lipoproteins - blood mononuclear-cells - men - atherosclerosis - inflammation - activation - receptors - adherence - profiles - alpha
Scope - Early perturbations in vascular health can be detected by imposing subjects to a high fat (HF) challenge and measure response capacity. Subtle responses can be determined by assessment of whole-genome transcriptional changes. We aimed to magnify differences in health by comparing gene-expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells toward a high MUFA or saturated fatty acids (SFA) challenge between subjects with different cardiovascular disease risk profiles and to identify fatty acid specific gene-expression pathways. Methods and results -In a cross-over study, 17 lean and 15 obese men (50–70 years) received two 95 g fat shakes, high in SFAs or MUFAs. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene-expression profiles were assessed fasted and 4-h postprandially. Comparisons were made between groups and shakes. During fasting, 294 genes were significantly differently expressed between lean and obese. The challenge increased differences to 607 genes after SFA and 2516 genes after MUFA. In both groups, SFA decreased expression of cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake genes and increased cholesterol efflux genes. MUFA increased inflammatory genes and PPAR-a targets involved in ß-oxidation. Conclusion - Based upon gene-expression changes, we conclude that an HF challenge magnifies differences in health, especially after MUFA. Our findings also demonstrate how SFAs and MUFAs exert distinct effects on lipid handling pathways in immune cells.
Hypothesis: the sound of the individual metabolic phenotype? Acoustic detection of NMR experiments
Cacciatore, S. ; Saccenti, E. ; Piccioli, M. - \ 2015
OMICS - A Journal of Integrative Biology 19 (2015)3. - ISSN 1536-2310 - p. 147 - 156.
breast-cancer - personalized medicine - disease - profiles - models - health - time - classification - identification - metabonomics
We present here an innovative hypothesis and report preliminary evidence that the sound of NMR signals could provide an alternative to the current representation of the individual metabolic fingerprint and supply equally significant information. The NMR spectra of the urine samples provided by four healthy donors were converted into audio signals that were analyzed in two audio experiments by listeners with both musical and non-musical training. The listeners were first asked to cluster the audio signals of two donors on the basis of perceived similarity and then to classify unknown samples after having listened to a set of reference signals. In the clustering experiment, the probability of obtaining the same results by pure chance was 7.04% and 0.05% for non-musicians and musicians, respectively. In the classification experiment, musicians scored 84% accuracy which compared favorably with the 100% accuracy attained by sophisticated pattern recognition methods. The results were further validated and confirmed by analyzing the NMR metabolic profiles belonging to two other different donors. These findings support our hypothesis that the uniqueness of the metabolic phenotype is preserved even when reproduced as audio signal and warrants further consideration and testing in larger study samples
Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation
Graaf, R.M. de; Krosse, S. ; Swolfs, A.E.M. ; Brinke, E. te; Prill, N. ; Leimu, R. ; Galen, P.M. van; Wang, Y. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Dam, N.M. van - \ 2015
Phytochemistry 110 (2015). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 166 - 171.
hyperaccumulator thlaspi-praecox - moringa-oleifera l. - mustard oil bomb - arabidopsis-thaliana - plants - isothiocyanates - stenopetala - accumulation - brassicaceae - profiles
Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is commonly found. Sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) so far has been identified as the main glucosinolate of the heavy metal accumulating plant species Noccaea caerulescens (Brassicaceae). However, a screening of 13 N. caerulescens populations revealed that in 10 populations a structurally related glucosinolate was found as the major component. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses of the intact glucosinolate as well as of the products formed after enzymatic conversion by sulfatase or myrosinase, this compound was identified as 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin). So far, glucomoringin had only been reported as the main glucosinolate of Moringa spp. (Moringaceae) which are tropical tree species. There was no apparent relation between the level of soil pollution at the location of origin, and the presence of glucomoringin. The isothiocyanate that is formed after conversion of glucomoringin is a potent antimicrobial and antitumor agent. It has yet to be established whether glucomoringin or its breakdown product have an added benefit to the plant in its natural habitat
Monitoring spring phenology with high temporal resolution terrestrial LiDAR measurements
Calders, K. ; Schenkels, T. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Armston, J. ; Verbesselt, J. ; Herold, M. - \ 2015
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 203 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 158 - 168.
leaf-area index - pulsed-laser systems - canopy gap fraction - temperate forest - deciduous forest - climate-change - part i - profiles - environments - photography
Vegetation phenology studies the timing of recurring seasonal dynamics and can be monitored through estimates of plant area index (PAI). Shifts in spring phenology are a key indicator for the effect of climate change, in particular the start of the growing season of forests. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also referred to as terrestrial LiDAR, is an active remote sensing technique and measures the forest structure with high spatial detail and accuracy. TLS provides information about the 3D distribution of canopy constituents and vertical plant profiles can be derived from these data. Vertical plant profiles describe the plant area per unit volume as a function of height, and can be used to used to monitor seasonal dynamics through PAI. Here, we present a TLS time series based on 48 measurement days of four sampling locations in a deciduous forest in the Netherlands. Vertical plant profiles are derived for each measurement and allow us to quantify not only total canopy integrated PAI, but also monitor PAI at specific horizontal layers. Sigmoidal models show a good fit to the derived total canopy integrated PAI time series (CV(RMSE) 0.99). The start of season (SOS) based on these models occurs between March 29 and April 3, 2014, depending on the species composition. The SOS derived from the TLS data corresponds well with field observations and occurs 7–12 days earlier compared to the SOS estimate from the MODIS NDVI time series. This is mainly caused by the lower relative standard deviation for TLS measurements in leaf-off conditions (0.72% compared to 2.87% for the MODIS NDVI data), which allows us to significantly detect small changes in phenology earlier. TLS allows us to monitor PAI at specific horizontal layers and we defined an understorey, intermediate and upper canopy layer. Even though our study area had only a sparse understorey, small differences are observed in the SOS between the different layers. We expect that these phenological differences will be more pronounced in multi-layered forests and TLS shows the potential to study seasonal dynamics not only as a function of time, but also as a function of canopy height.
Moisture transport in swelling media modelled with a Lattice Boltzmann scheme having a deforming lattice
Sman, R.G.M. van der - \ 2014
Journal of Food Engineering 124 (2014). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 54 - 63.
non-brownian suspensions - diffusion lattice - water transport - flow - simulations - profiles - kinetics - food - gels - validation
In this paper we present a novel numerical scheme for simulating the one-dimensional deformation of hydrogel material due to drying or rehydration. The scheme is based on the versatile Lattice Boltzmann method, which has been extended such that the computational grid (lattice) deforms due to shrinkage or swelling. This property of a deforming grid is new to the lattice Boltzmann method, and a detailed description of this new method is given. Via simulations we show that self-similar moisture concentration profiles occur in two periods in both drying and swelling processes: the penetration period and the regular regime. Given the property of self-similarity, we have been able to formulate a reduced-order model for the regular regime of swelling.
Isoflavone supplement composition and equol producer status affect gene expression in adipose tissue: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in postmenopausal women
Velpen, V. van der; Geelen, A. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Veer, P. van 't; Afman, L.A. - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1269 - 1277.
in-vivo - glucose-metabolism - lipid-metabolism - soy isoflavones - phytoestrogens - profiles - protein - macrophage - insights - genotype
Background: Isoflavone supplements, consumed by women experiencing menopausal symptoms, are suggested to have positive effects on menopause-related adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk profile, but discussions about their safety are still ongoing. Objective: The objective was to study the effects of an 8-wk consumption of 2 different isoflavone supplements compared with placebo on whole-genome gene expression in the adipose tissue of postmenopausal women. Design: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover intervention consisted of 2 substudies, one with a low-genistein (LG) supplement (56% daidzein + daidzin, 16% genistein + genistin, and 28% glycitein + glycitin) and the other with a high-genistein (HG) supplement (49% daidzein + daidzin, 41% genistein + genistin, and 10% glycitein + glycitin). Both supplements provided ~100 mg isoflavones/d (aglycone equivalents). After the 8-wk isoflavone and placebo period, whole-genome arrays were performed in subcutaneous adipose tissue of postmenopausal women (n = 26 after LG, n = 31 after HG). Participants were randomized by equol-producing phenotype, and data analysis was performed per substudy for equol producers and nonproducers separately. Results: Gene set enrichment analysis showed downregulation of expression of energy metabolism–related genes after LG supplementation (n = 24) in both equol-producing phenotypes and oppositely regulated expression for equol producers (down) and nonproducers (up) after HG supplementation (n = 31). Expression of inflammation-related genes was upregulated in equol producers but downregulated in nonproducers, independent of supplement type. Only 4.4–7.0% of the genes with significantly changed expression were estrogen responsive. Body weight, adipocyte size, and plasma lipid profile were not affected by isoflavone supplementation. Conclusions: Effects of isoflavones on adipose tissue gene expression were influenced by supplement composition and equol-producing phenotype, whereas estrogen-responsive effects were lacking. LG isoflavone supplementation resulted in a caloric restriction–like gene expression profile for both producer phenotypes and pointed toward a potential beneficial effect, whereas both supplements induced anti-inflammatory gene expression in equol producers.
A rapid and massive gene expression shift marking adolescent transition in C. elegans
Snoek, L.B. ; Sterken, M.G. ; Volkers, R.J.M. ; Klatter, M. ; Bosman, K.J. ; Bevers, R.P.J. ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Smant, G. ; Cossins, A.R. ; Kammenga, J.E. - \ 2014
Scientific Reports 4 (2014). - ISSN 2045-2322
caenorhabditis-elegans - natural variation - genome - populations - robustness - diversity - profiles - genotype - project - age
Organismal development is the most dynamic period of the life cycle, yet we have only a rough understanding of the dynamics of gene expression during adolescent transition. Here we show that adolescence in Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a spectacular expression shift of conserved and highly polymorphic genes. Using a high resolution time series we found that in adolescent worms over 10,000 genes changed their expression. These genes were clustered according to their expression patterns. One cluster involved in chromatin remodelling showed a brief up-regulation around 50 h post-hatch. At the same time a spectacular shift in expression was observed. Sequence comparisons for this cluster across many genotypes revealed diversifying selection. Strongly up-regulated genes showed signs of purifying selection in non-coding regions, indicating that adolescence-active genes are constrained on their regulatory properties. Our findings improve our understanding of adolescent transition and help to eliminate experimental artefacts due to incorrect developmental timing.
Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows
Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Remmelink, G.J. ; Jorjong, S. ; Fievez, V. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1499 - 1512.
subsequent lactation - bovine somatotropin - metabolic status - transition cows - holstein cows - fatty-acids - performance - reproduction - management - profiles
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and early lactation ration (glucogenic or lipogenic), resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Rations were isocaloric and equal in intestinal digestible protein. The experimental period lasted from 8 wk prepartum to 14 wk postpartum and cows were monitored for milk yield, milk composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and milk fat composition. Prepartum average milk yield for 60 d precalving was 13.8 and 7.7 ± 0.5 kg/d for cows with a 0- and 30-d dry period, respectively. Prepartum DMI and energy intake were greater for cows without a dry period and 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Prepartum EB was greater for cows with a 60-d dry period. Postpartum average milk yield until wk 14 was lower for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (32.7, 38.7, and 43.3 ± 0.7 kg/d for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively). Postpartum DMI did not differ among treatments. Postpartum EB was greater for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Young cows (parity 2) showed a stronger effect of omission of the dry period, compared with a 60-d dry period, on additional milk precalving (young cows: 15.1 kg/d; older cows: 12.0 kg/d), reduction in milk yield postcalving (young cows: 28.6 vs. 34.8 kg/d; older cows: 41.8 vs. 44.1 kg/d), and improvement of the EB postcalving (young cows: 120 vs. -93 kJ/kg0.75·d; older cows: -2 vs. -150 kJ/kg0.75·d. Ration did not affect milk yield and DMI, but a glucogenic ration tended to reduce milk fat content and increased EB, compared with a more lipogenic ration. Reduced dry period length (0 and 30 d) increased the proportion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in milk fat and omitting the dry period decreased the proportion of long-chain fatty acids in milk fat. In conclusion, shortening and omitting the dry period shifts milk yield from the postpartum to the prepartum period; this results in an improvement of the EB in early lactation. An increased energy status after a short dry period can be further improved by feeding a more glucogenic ration in early lactation.
In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula
Leijdekkers, A.G.M. ; Aguirre, M. ; Venema, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Gruppen, H. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)5. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1079 - 1087.
irritable-bowel-syndrome - pectic-oligosaccharides - arabino-oligosaccharides - ulcerative-colitis - large-intestine - fermentation - microbiota - butyrate - bacteria - profiles
The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated homogalacturonan-oligosaccharides. Some SBPOS contained an unsaturated galacturonic acid residue at their non-reducing end. It was shown that SBPOS could be completely fermented by human and pig fecal microbiota, thereby producing butyrate, yet mainly acetate and propionate as metabolites. The degradation of SBPOS by pig fecal microbiota was different and much slower compared to human fecal microbiota. In general, rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides were slower degraded than homogalacturonan32 oligosaccharides. Acetylation of rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides lowered the degradation rate by pig fecal microbiota, but not by human fecal microbiota. No classic bifidogenic effect was shown for SBPOS using human fecal inoculum. However, several other potentially interesting modifications in the microbiota composition that can be associated with host health were observed, which are discussed.
Gene Expression Analysis of Peripheral Cells for Subclassification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Remission
Lierop, P.P.E. van; Swagemakers, S.M. ; Bie, C.I. de; Middendorp, S.A. ; Baarlen, P. van; Samsom, J.N. ; Ijcken, W.F.J. van; Escher, J.C. ; Spek, P.J. van der; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
crohns-disease - ulcerative-colitis - molecular classification - cytokine production - activity index - ibd - susceptibility - profiles - onset - risk
Objective: In current clinical practice, optimal treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) aims at the induction and maintenance of clinical remission. Clinical remission is apparent when laboratory markers of inflammation are normal and clinical symptoms are absent. However, sub-clinical inflammation can still be present. A detailed analysis of the immune status during this inactive state of disease may provide a useful tool to categorize patients with clinical remission into subsets with variable states of immune activation. Design: By using Affymetrix GeneChips, we analysed RNA gene expression profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from pediatric IBD patients in clinical remission and controls. We performed (un)supervised clustering analysis of IBD-associated genes and applied Ingenuity (R) pathway software to identify specific molecular profiles between patients. Results: Pediatric IBD patients with disease in clinical remission display heterogeneously distributed gene expression profiles that are significantly distinct from controls. We identified three clusters of IBD patients, each displaying specific expression profiles of IBD-associated genes. Conclusion: The expression of immune-and IBD-associated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes from pediatric IBD patients in clinical remission was different from healthy controls, indicating that sub-clinical immune mechanisms are still active during remission. As such, RNA profiling of peripheral blood may allow for non-invasive patient subclassification and new perspectives in treatment regimes of IBD patients in the future.
A modified rinsing method for the determination of the S, W-S and D + U fraction of protein and starch in feedstuff within the in situ technique
Jonge, L.H. de; Laar, H. van; Hendriks, W.H. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)8. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1289 - 1297.
rumen - degradability - degradation - electrophoresis - ruminants - profiles - extent - sacco
A modified rinsing method for the in situ technique was developed to separate, isolate and characterise the soluble (S), the insoluble washout (W–S) and the non-washout fractions (D1U) within one procedure. For non-incubated bags ( t50 h), this method was compared with the conventional, Combined Fractionation (CF) method that measures the D1U and S fractions in separate steps and subsequently calculates the W–S fraction. The modified method was based on rinsing of nylon bags in a closed vessel containing a buffer solution (pH 6.2) during 1 h, where shaking speeds of 40, 100, and 160 strokes per minutes (spm) were evaluated, and tested for six feed ingredients (faba beans, maize, oats, peas, soya beans and wheat) and four forages (two ryegrass silages and two maize silages). The average recoveries as the sum of all fractions were 0.97260.041 for N and 0.99060.050 for starch (mean6s.d.). The mean W–S fraction increased with increasing shaking speed and varied between 0.017 (N) and 0.083 (starch) at 40 spm and 0.078 (N) and 0.303 (starch) at 160 spm, respectively. For ryegrass silages, the W–S fraction was absent at all shaking speeds, but was present in the CF method. The modified method, in particular at 40 and 100 spm, reduced the loss of small particles during rinsing, resulting in lower W–S and higher D1U fractions for N and starch compared with the CF method. For soya beans and ryegrass silage, the modified method reduced the S fraction of N compared with the CF method. The results obtained at 160 spm showed the best comparison with those from the CF method. The W–S fraction of the feedstuff obtained at 160 spm contained mainly particles smaller than 40 mm (0.90860.086). In most feedstuff, starch was the most abundant chemical component in the W–S fraction and its content (726675 g/kg DM) was higher than in the D1U fraction (4056177 g/kg DM). Alkaline-soluble proteins were the dominant N-containing components in the W–S fraction of dry feed ingredients and its relative content (0.7960.18 of total N in W–S) was higher than in the D1U fraction (0.5960.07 of total N in D1U) for all feedstuff except maize. The molecular weight distribution of the alkaline-soluble proteins differed between the W–S and the D1U fractions of all dry feed ingredients, except soya beans and wheat.
Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults
Roodenburg, A.J.C. ; Ballegooijen, A.J. van; Dötsch-Klerk, M. ; Voet, H. van der; Seidell, J.C. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
saturated fat - foods - front - consumption - simulation - profiles - criteria - improve - system - health
Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from -23% for sodium and -62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (-15 to -28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse.
Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region
Chirinos, R. ; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P. ; Rogez, H. - \ 2013
Industrial Crops and Products 47 (2013). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 145 - 152.
capacity - extracts - assay - profiles - leaves - fruits
Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as natural antioxidant compounds. Total flavanoids (TFA), total flavonoids (TFO) and total anthocyanins (TA) were also determined. In general, the samples with the highest TPC values had the highest antioxidant activities. Leaves (e.g., Alnus acuminate, Clinopodium bolivianum, Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) and Mutisia acuminate), fruits (e.g., Sambucus peruviana), tubers (e.g., Tropaeolum tuberosum) and seed (e.g., Lupinus mutabilis) sparked attention due to their high TPC and antioxidant activities. Results from this study highlight the biodiversity of the Andean Region of Peru where plants with high TPC and antioxidant properties grow. Thus, these plants can be considered as promising sources of antioxidant phytochemicals.
Crosswind from a Single Aperture Scintillometer using Spectral Techniques
Dinther, D. van; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Moene, A.F. - \ 2013
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0739-0572 - p. 3 - 21.
windsnelheid - vliegtuigen - scintillometrie - klimaatverandering - wind speed - airplanes - scintillometry - climatic change - flevoland field experiment - heterogeneous surface - wind measurements - turbulence - fluxes - scintillations - profiles - terrain - layer - beam
In this study, spectral techniques to obtain the crosswind from a single large aperture scintillometer (SLAS) time series are investigated. The crosswind is defined as the wind component perpendicular to a path. A scintillometer obtains a path-averaged estimate of the crosswind. For certain applications this can be advantageous, e.g. monitoring the crosswind along airport runways. The essence of the spectral techniques lies in the fact that the scintillation power spectrum shifts linearly along the frequency domain as a function of the crosswind. Three different algorithms are used, which we named the Corner Frequency (CF), Maximum Frequency (MF), and the Cumulative Spectrum (CS) technique. The algorithms track the frequency shift of a characteristic point in different representations of the scintillation power spectrum. The spectrally derived crosswinds compare well with sonic anemometer estimates. The CS algorithm obtained the best results for the crosswind when compared with the sonic anemometer. However, the MF algorithm was most robust in obtaining the crosswind. Over short time intervals (
Dietary Protein Affects Gene Expression and Prevents Lipid Accumulation in the Liver in Mice
Schwarz, J. ; Tome, D.G. ; Baars, A. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Müller, M.R. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
high-fat diet - insulin-resistance - hepatic steatosis - physical-activity - adipose-tissue - body-weight - life-style - disease - rats - profiles
Background and Aims: High protein (HP) diets are suggested to positively modulate obesity and associated increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease in humans and rodents. The aim of our study was to detect mechanisms by which a HP diet affects hepatic lipid accumulation. Methods: To investigate the acute and long term effect of high protein ingestion on hepatic lipid accumulation under both low and high fat (HF) conditions, mice were fed combinations of high (35 energy%) or low (10 energy%) fat and high (50 energy%) or normal (15 energy%) protein diets for 1 or 12 weeks. Effects on body composition, liver fat, VLDL production rate and the hepatic transcriptome were investigated. Results: Mice fed the HP diets displayed a lower body weight, developed less adiposity and decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, which could be attributed to a combination of several processes. Next to an increased hepatic VLDL production rate, increased energy utilisation due to enhanced protein catabolic processes, such as transamination, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation was found upon high protein ingestion. Conclusion: Feeding a HP diet prevented the development of NAFLD by enhancing lipid secretion into VLDL particles and a less efficient use of ingested calories.
A lipidomic analysis approach to evaluate the response to cholesterol-lowering food intake
Szymanska, E. ; Dorsten, F.A. van; Troost, J. ; Paliukhovich, I. ; Velzen, E.J.J. van; Hendriks, M.M.W.B. ; Trautwein, E.A. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Vreeken, R.J. ; Smilde, A.K. - \ 2012
Metabolomics 8 (2012)5. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 894 - 906.
coronary-artery-disease - plant sterols - mass-spectrometry - risk-factor - plasma - sphingomyelin - profiles - intervention - inflammation - metabolism
Plant sterols (PS) are well known to reduce serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Lipidomics potentially provides detailed information on a wide range of individual serum lipid metabolites, which may further add to our understanding of the biological effects of PS. In this study, lipidomics analysis was applied to serum samples from a placebo-controlled, parallel human intervention study (n = 97) of 4-week consumption of two PS-enriched, yoghurt drinks differing in fat content (based on 0.1% vs. 1.5% dairy fat). A comprehensive data analysis strategy was developed and implemented to assess and compare effects of two different PS-treatments and placebo treatment. The combination of univariate and multivariate data analysis approaches allowed to show significant effects of PS intake on the serum lipidome, and helped to distinguish them from fat content and non-specific effects. The PS-enriched 0.1% dairy fat yoghurt drink had a stronger impact on the lipidome than the 1.5% dairy fat yoghurt drink, despite similar LDL-cholesterol lowering effects. The PS-enriched 0.1% dairy fat yoghurt drink reduced levels of several sphingomyelins which correlated well with the reduction in LDL-cholesterol and can be explained by co-localization of sphingomyelins and cholesterol on the surface of LDL lipoprotein. Statistically significant reductions in serum levels of two lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC(16:1), LPC(20:1)) and cholesteryl arachidonate may suggest reduced inflammation and atherogenic potential. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0384-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Prebiotic effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl), a source of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity
Campos, D. ; Betalleluz-Pallardel, I. ; Chirinos, R. ; Aguilar-Glalvez, A. ; Noratto, G. ; Pedreschi, R. - \ 2012
Food Chemistry 135 (2012)3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1592 - 1599.
chain fatty-acids - tropaeolum-tuberosum ruiz - polymnia-sonchifolia - rats - roots - oligosaccharides - identification - fermentation - profiles - storage
Thirty-five different yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl) accessions were evaluated as potential alternative sources of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and phenolic type natural antioxidants. FOS, total phenolics (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) contents in the ranges of 6.4–65 g/100 g of dry mater (DM), 7.9–30.8 mg chlorogenic acid (CAE)/g of DM and 23–136 µmol trolox equivalente (TE)/g DM were found. Accession AJC 5189 sparked attention for its high FOS content while DPA 07011 for its high TPC and AC. In addition, the prebiotic effect of yacon FOS was tested in vivo with a guinea pig model. A diet rich in yacon FOS promoted the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, resulting in high levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecal material and enhancement of cell density and crypt formation in caecum tissue, being indicative of colon health benefits. This study allowed identification of yacon cultivars rich in FOS, AC and/or FOS and AC for nutraceutical applications.
Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments
Jin, X. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Gerkema, E. ; Vergeldt, F.J. ; As, H. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2011
Procedia Food Science 1 (2011). - ISSN 2211-601X - p. 640 - 646.
profiles - nmr - diffusivity - model - food - gel
The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with controlled air flow and temperature. The 3D images concern a matrix size of 64×64×64 elements. Signal intensity is converted to product moisture content with a linear relationship, while taking a minimum detectable moisture content of 0.3 kg water/ kg dry matter into account. Moisture content as a function of time is presented for a 2D cross sectional area in the middle of a broccoli sample. The average moisture contents for the cross sectional area obtained from the MRI imaging are compared with spatial model simulations for the moisture distribution. In that model the effective diffusion coefficient is based on the Free Volume Theory. This theory has the advantage that the changed mobility of water in the product during drying is taken into account and the theory also predicts the moisture transport in the porous broccoli floret. Key parameters for the Free Volume Theory are estimated by fitting to the experimental MRI results and the effective diffusion coefficient is given as a function of the product water content.
Application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for risk assessment: Acetaminophen as a case study
Kienhuis, A.S. ; Bessems, J.G.M. ; Pennings, J.L.A. ; Driessen, M. ; Luijten, M. ; Delft, J.H.M. van; Ven, L.T.M. van der - \ 2011
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 250 (2011). - ISSN 0041-008X - p. 96 - 107.
gene-expression - rat-liver - induced hepatotoxicity - end-points - toxicity - profiles - hepatocytes - mechanisms - ontology - reveals
Hepatic systems toxicology is the integrative analysis of toxicogenomic technologies, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with traditional toxicology measures to improve the understanding of mechanisms of hepatotoxic action. Hepatic toxicology studies that have employed toxicogenomic technologies to date have already provided a proof of principle for the value of hepatic systems toxicology in hazard identification. In the present review, acetaminophen is used as a model compound to discuss the application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for its potential role in the risk assessment process, to progress from hazard identification towards hazard characterization. The toxicogenomics-based parallelogram is used to identify current achievements and limitations of acetaminophen toxicogenomic in vivo and in vitro studies for in vitro-to-in vivo and interspecies comparisons, with the ultimate aim to extrapolate animal studies to humans in vivo. This article provides a model for comparison of more species and more in vitro models enhancing the robustness of common toxicogenomic responses and their relevance to human risk assessment. To progress to quantitative dose–response analysis needed for hazard characterization, in hepatic systems toxicology studies, generation of toxicogenomic data of multiple doses/concentrations and time points is required. Newly developed bioinformatics tools for quantitative analysis of toxicogenomic data can aid in the elucidation of dose-responsive effects. The challenge herein is to assess which toxicogenomic responses are relevant for induction of the apical effect and whether perturbations are sufficient for the induction of downstream events, eventually causing toxicity.
Gene expression patterns in the ventral tegmental area relate to oestrus behaviour in high-producing dairy cows
Wyszynska-Koko, J. ; Wit, A.A.C. de; Beerda, B. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Pas, M.F.W. te - \ 2011
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 128 (2011)3. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 183 - 191.
cerebral-cortex - immunoglobulin - fertility - normalization - microarray - molecules - profiles - adhesion - neurons - stress
Reduced oestrus behaviour expression or its absence (silent oestrus) results in subfertility in high-producing dairy cows. Insight into the genomic regulation of oestrus behaviour is likely to help alleviate reproduction problems. Here, gene expression was recorded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of high milk production dairy cows differing in the degree of showing oestrus behaviour (H – highly expressing versus L – lowly expressing), which was then analysed. Genes regulating cell morphology and adhesion or coding for immunoglobulin G (IgG) chains were differentially expressed in VTA between cows around day 0 and 12 of the oestrus cycle, but only in cows that earlier in life tended to show high levels of oestrus behaviour (H0 versus H12). The comparisons between H and L groups of cows also revealed differential expression of several genes (e.g. those of the IgG family or encoding for pro-melanin-concentrating hormone). However, any significant changes in VTA genes expression were detected in the comparison of L0 versus L12 cows. Altogether, the genes expression profile in VTA of cows highly expressing oestrus behaviour changes together with phases of the oestrus cycle, while in case of cows expressing oestrus behaviour lowly it remains stable. This supports the existence of genomic regulation by centrally expressed genes on the expression of oestrus behaviour in dairy cows.