|GRAS 29 flavoring substances
Cohen, S.M. ; Eisenbrand, G. ; Fukushima, S. ; Gooderham, N.J. ; Guengerich, F.P. ; Hecht, S.S. ; Rietjens, I. ; Rosol, T. ; Harman, C. ; Taylor, S.V. - \ 2020
Food Technology 74 (2020)3. - ISSN 0015-6639
fema gras - ingredients - program
The 29th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.
GRAS 28 flavoring substances
Cohen, S.M. ; Eisenbrand, G. ; Fukushima, S. ; Gooderham, N.J. ; Guengerich, F.P. ; Hecht, S.S. ; Rietjens, I. ; Harman, C. ; Taylor, S.V. - \ 2018
Food Technology 72 (2018)7. - ISSN 0015-6639 - p. 62 - 77.
fema gras - ingredients - program
The 28th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.
|GRAS 27 flavoring substances
Cohen, S.M. ; Fukushima, S. ; Gooderham, N.J. ; Hecht, S.S. ; Marnett, L.J. ; Rietjens, I. ; Smith, R. ; Bastaki, Maria ; McGowen, Margaret M. ; Harman, C.L. ; Taylor, S.V. - \ 2015
Food Technology 69 (2015)8. - ISSN 0015-6639
fema gras - ingredients - program
The 27th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment.
Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Sediment Regime in a Semi-Arid Region: Case Study of the Wuqi Catchment in the Upper Beiluo River Basin, China
Zhu, J. ; Gao, P. ; Geissen, V. ; Maroulis, J. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Mu, X. ; Zhao, G. - \ 2015
Arid Land Research and Management 29 (2015)1. - ISSN 1532-4982 - p. 1 - 16.
flow-duration curves - loess-plateau - soil-erosion - yellow-river - vegetation changes - streamflow - trend - discharge - afforestation - program
The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. With recent land use and land cover change, the Yellow River Basin has experienced significant sediment regime fluctuations. In this study, we analyzed the sediment regime from the Wuqi catchment which feeds into the upper reaches of the Beiluo River. Results show that a significant decreasing trend in annual suspended sediment discharge and suspended sediment concentration has existed from 1985 to 2008. The change-point year (the year that abrupt changes in sediment regime occurred in the catchment) was detected in 2001 (p <0.05) for suspended sediment discharge and sediment concentration. There was a significant decreasing trend in streamflow discharge with the change-point year detected in 2002. Meanwhile, erosive rainfall and heavy rainfall exhibits an increasing but not significant trend. Coevally, land use has undergone considerable transformation. Compared to rainfall, land use, and land cover change and soil and water conservation have played a major role in influencing the sediment regime post-2000. In order to reduce soil erosion and sediment yield, more attention should be paid to changes in land use pattern and the impacts of soil and water conservation.
The impact of contracts on organic honey producers' incomes in southwestern Ethiopia
Girma, J. ; Gardebroek, C. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 50 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 259 - 268.
propensity score - countries - schemes - program - africa - bias
In southwestern Ethiopia honey is a non-timber forest product that provides income for many smallholders. Some of these beekeepers supply their honey under contract to a company that markets their organic honey internationally allowing them to access premium markets. Since both production and marketing depend crucially on the forest, both smallholders and the company have an interest in preserving the forest. An important question is whether smallholders also benefit economically from supplying under contract. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of participation in contract supply of organic honey to beekeepers' income levels in the Sheka zone in southwestern Ethiopia. Results indicate that contract supply improved quality of honey delivered, the prices beekeepers received, and total honey income per household. The findings illustrate the potential of contract supply of forest product for sustainable management of forests.
Understanding the impacts of care farms on health and well-being of disadvantaged populations: a protocol of the Evaluating Community Orders (ECO) pilot study
Elsey, H. ; Bragg, R. ; Elings, M. ; Cade, J.E. ; Brennan, C. ; Farragher, T. ; Tubeuf, S. ; Gold, R. ; Shickle, D. ; Wickramasekera, N. ; Richardson, Z. ; Murray, J. - \ 2014
BMJ Open 4 (2014)10. - ISSN 2044-6055
animal-assisted therapy - illness - program
Introduction: Care farms, where all or part of the farm is used for therapeutic purposes, show much potential for improving the health and well-being of a range of disadvantaged groups. Studies to date have been qualitative or observational, with limited empirical evidence of the effectiveness of care farms in improving health and well-being. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to improvements for different disadvantaged groups is a further gap in the evidence. Participants in this study are offenders serving community orders. Their low socioeconomic status and poor health outcomes relative to the general population exemplifies disadvantage. Methods and analysis: This paper describes the protocol of a study to understand the impacts of care farms and to pilot the design and tools for a study to assess cost-effectiveness of care farms in improving the quality of life of offenders. As a pilot study, no power calculation has been conducted. However, 150 offenders serving community sentences on care farms and 150 on other probation locations (eg, litter picking, painting) will be recruited over a 1-year period. Changes in quality of life, measured by Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, health and reconvictions of offenders at care farms compared to other probation locations will be analysed to inform the sample size calculation for the follow on study. The feasibility of recruitment, retention, collecting cost data and modelling cost-effectiveness will also be assessed. The study will use qualitative methods to explore the experiences of offenders attending care farms and perceptions of probation and care farm staff on the processes and impacts of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination: Findings will be published and inform development of a natural experiment and will be disseminated to probation services, care farms and academics. University of Leeds Ethical Review Board approved: SoMREC/13/014. National Offender Management Service (NOMS) approved: 2013-257.
Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens
Gonzales, J.L. ; Boender, G.J. ; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Koeijer, A.A. de - \ 2014
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117 (2014)1. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 251 - 259.
transmission characteristics - virus - poultry - epidemic - netherlands - infection - spread - interventions - population - program
Current knowledge does not allow the prediction of when low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes infecting poultry will mutate to their highly pathogenic phenotype (HPAIV). This mutation may already take place in the first infected flock; hence early detection of LPAIV outbreaks will reduce the likelihood of pathogenicity mutations and large epidemics. The objective of this study was the development of a model for the design and evaluation of serological-surveillance programmes, with a particular focus on early detection of LPAIV infections in layer chicken flocks. Early detection is defined as the detection of an infected flock before it infects on average more than one other flock (between-flock reproduction ratio Rf <1), hence a LPAI introduction will be detected when only one or a few other flocks are infected. We used a mathematical model that investigates the required sample size and sampling frequency for early detection by taking into account the LPAIV within- and between-flock infection dynamics as well as the diagnostic performance of the serological test used. Since layer flocks are the target of the surveillance, we also explored whether the use of eggs, is a good alternative to sera, as sample commodity. The model was used to refine the current Dutch serological-surveillance programme. LPAIV transmission-risk maps were constructed and used to target a risk-based surveillance strategy. In conclusion, we present a model that can be used to explore different sampling strategies, which combined with a cost-benefit analysis would enhance surveillance programmes for low pathogenic avian influenza.
Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda
Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Kok, G. ; Weyusya, J. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Rijsdijk, E. ; Nshakira, N. ; Bartholomew, L.K. - \ 2014
Health Education Research 29 (2014)4. - ISSN 0268-1153 - p. 598 - 610.
hiv-1 infection - parenting teens - rural uganda - pregnancy - stigma - metaanalysis - adolescents - prevention - behavior - program
Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in rural Uganda. We used Intervention Mapping (IM) for systematically developing a theory and evidence-based comprehensive health promotion programme. A planning group consisting of community leaders, teenage mothers, staff of a community-based organization and a health promotion professional was involved in the six steps of IM: needs assessment, programme objectives, methods and applications, intervention design, planning for adoption and implementation and planning for evaluation. The programme includes five intervention components: community awareness raising, teenage mother support groups, formal education and income generation, counselling, and advocacy. The intervention components are based on a variety of theoretical methods, including entertainment education, persuasive communication, mobilization of social networks and social action. In conclusion, IM facilitated the planning group to structure the iterative, bottom-up, participatory design of the project in a real-life setting and to use evidence and theory. The article provides suggestions for the planning of support interventions for unmarried teenage mothers.
Get your high-quality low-cost genome sequence
Faino, L. ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2014
Trends in Plant Science 19 (2014)5. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 288 - 291.
generation - assemblies - alignments - annotation - program - tool
The study of whole-genome sequences has become essential for almost all branches of biological research. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the scalability, speed, and resolution of sequencing and brought genomic science within reach of academic laboratories that study non-model organisms. Here, we show that a high-quality draft genome of a eukaryote can be obtained at relatively low cost by exploiting a hybrid combination of sequencing strategies.
Effective Interventions in Overweight or Obese Young Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hoek, E. van; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Bouwman, L.I. ; Janse, A.J. - \ 2014
Childhood Obesity 10 (2014)6. - ISSN 2153-2168 - p. 448 - 460.
randomized controlled-trial - body-mass index - life-style intervention - weight management interventions - primary-care - pediatric obesity - adolescent overweight - childhood obesity - age-children - program
Abstract Background: Treatment programs for overweight and obese young children are of variable effectiveness, and the characteristics of effective programs are unknown. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, the effectiveness of treatment programs for these children is summarized. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases were searched up to April 2012. Articles reporting the effect of treatment on the body weight of overweight or obese children with a mean age in the range of 3– <8 years are included. Studies reporting the change in BMI z-score with standard error were included in a meta-analysis. For this purpose, a random-effects model was used. Results: The search identified 11,250 articles, of which 27 were included in this review. Eleven studies, including 20 treatment programs with 1015 participants, were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled intervention effect showed high heterogeneity; therefore, subgroup analysis was performed. Subgroup analysis showed that program intensity and used components partly explained the heterogeneity. The subgroup with two studies using multicomponent treatment programs (combining dietary and physical activity education and behavioral therapy) of moderate or high intensity showed the largest pooled change in BMI z-score (–0.46; I2, 0%). Conclusion: Although the subgroup multicomponent treatment programs of moderate to high intensity contained only two studies, these treatment programs appeared to be most effective in treating overweight young children.
Reflexive governance for food security: The example of school feeding in Brazil
Sonnino, R. ; Lozano Torres, C.E. ; Schneider, S. - \ 2014
Journal of Rural Studies 36 (2014). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 1 - 12.
public procurement - nutrition security - family farmers - scaling-up - program - crisis - world - sustainability - productivism - insecurity
In the last decade, the unfolding of a “new food equation” has raised the need to address food security more structurally and systemically. This paper aims to progress this debate through a focus on Brazil, where food security policies are embedded into a “reflexive governance” framework that facilitates learning, adaptation and collaboration between actors at different scales and stages of the food system. Based on key legislation and policy documents, the analysis of school feeding as an example of food security intervention context provides two insights. First, it highlights the importance of broadening participation in the governance system to actors who have been neglected by discourses on food security, with their narrow focus on the two ends of the food system. Second, it emphasizes the need to foster social learning not just across governance scales (vertically) but also between communities (horizontally) to ensure that alternative practices coalesce into a more coherent platform that can address an increasingly uneven geography of food security.
Dinner Rituals That Correlate with Child and Adult BMI
Wansink, B. ; Kleef, E. van - \ 2014
Obesity 22 (2014)5. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. E91 - E95.
family meals - diet quality - eating behavior - food-intake - adolescents - patterns - television - illusions - program
Objective: What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and adults. Methods: In this study of 190 parents (BMI529.167.2) and 148 children (BMI520.364.4), the relationship between their BMIs and everyday family dinner rituals was examined using both correlation and regression analysis (controlled for educational level of parents). Results: Families who frequently ate dinner in the kitchen or dining room had significantly lower BMIs for both adults (r520.31) and children (r520.24) compared to families who ate elsewhere. Additionally, helping cook dinner was associated with higher BMI for girls (r50.26), and remaining at the table until everyone is finished with eating was associated with lower BMI for boys (r520.31). Conclusions: Dinner tables may be one place where social support and family involvement meet—both of which relate to the BMI of children as well as parents. Family meals and their rituals might be an underappreciated battleground to fight obesity.
Which covariates should be controlled in propensity score matching? Evidence from a simulation study
Nguyen Viet Cuong, N. - \ 2013
Statistica Neerlandica 67 (2013)2. - ISSN 0039-0402 - p. 169 - 180.
estimators - program
Propensity score matching is a widely-used method to measure the effect of a treatment in social as well as medicine sciences. An important issue in propensity score matching is how to select conditioning variables in estimation of the propensity scores. It is commonly mentioned that variables which affect both program participation and outcomes are selected. Using Monte Carlo simulation, this paper shows that efficiency in estimation of the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated can be gained if all the available observed variables in the outcome equation are included in the estimation of propensity scores. This result still holds in the presence of non-sampling errors in the observed control variables
GRAS flavoring substances 26
Marnett, L.J. ; Cohen, S.M. ; Fukushima, S. ; Gooderham, N.J. ; Hecht, S.S. ; Rietjens, I. ; Smith, R.L. ; Adams, T.B. ; Hallagan, J.B. ; Harman, C. ; McGowen, M.M. ; Taylor, S.V. - \ 2013
Food Technology 67 (2013)8. - ISSN 0015-6639 - p. 38 - 56.
fema gras - ingredients - program
Genetic diversity and structure in a collection of tulip cultivars assessed by SNP markers
Tang, N. ; Shahin, A. ; Bijman, P.J.J. ; Liu, J. ; Tuyl, J.M. van; Arens, P. - \ 2013
Scientia Horticulturae 161 (2013). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 286 - 292.
single nucleotide polymorphisms - population-structure - genome - identification - conservation - liliaceae - program - power
Although tulip is one of the most important bulbous crops worldwide, the genetic background of most cultivars is unclear at present. The purposes of this study are to investigate genetic diversity and to identify the genetic structure and relationships among tulip cultivars. A total of 236 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from 'Kees Nelis' and 'Cantata', from which 121 SNPs with a minor allele frequency above 0.1 were selected for genetic analysis. The total observed heterozygosity (Ho) among the 72 accessions was 0.35, Ho of cultivar groups ranged from 0.22 (Tulipa fosteriana) to 0.43 (Tulipa gesneriana x T. fosteriana hybrids). Rather small genetic distances were found among T. gesneriana cultivar groups which are defined according to flowering time and morphology. In both PCoA (principle coordinate analysis) and STRUCTURE analysis, the 72 accessions were separated into three clusters (F-ST =0.208, P
Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island
Wera, E. ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Geong, M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
parenteral vaccination campaign - owned-dog population - canine rabies - rural africa - coverage - program - elimination - prevention - ndjamena - thailand
Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies control measures on Flores Island include mass vaccination and culling of dogs, laboratory diagnostics of suspected rabid dogs, putting imported dogs in quarantine, and pre-and post-exposure treatment (PET) of humans. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of the applied rabies control measures on Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings: A deterministic economic model was developed to calculate the costs of the rabies control measures and their individual cost components from 2000 to 2011. The inputs for the economic model were obtained from (i) relevant literature, (ii) available data on Flores Island, and (iii) experts such as responsible policy makers and veterinarians involved in rabies control measures in the past. As a result, the total costs of rabies control measures were estimated to be US$1.12 million (range: US$0.60-1.47 million) per year. The costs of culling roaming dogs were the highest portion, about 39 percent of the total costs, followed by PET (35 percent), mass vaccination (24 percent), pre-exposure treatment (1.4 percent), and others (1.3 percent) (dog-bite investigation, diagnostic of suspected rabid dogs, trace-back investigation of human contact with rabid dogs, and quarantine of imported dogs). Conclusions/significance: This study demonstrates that rabies has a large economic impact on the government and dog owners. Control of rabies by culling dogs is relatively costly for the dog owners in comparison with other measures. Providing PET for humans is an effective way to prevent rabies, but is costly for government and does not provide a permanent solution to rabies in the future.
Genetic diversity of Vietnamese domestic chicken populations as decision-making support for conservation strategies
Pham, H.T.M. ; Berthouly-Salazar, C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. - \ 2013
Animal Genetics 44 (2013)5. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 509 - 521.
multilocus genotype data - breeds - program - microsatellites - construction - resources - inference - software - ecotypes - alleles
The aims of this study were to assess the genetic diversity of 17 populations of Vietnamese local chickens (VNN) and one Red Jungle Fowl population, together with six chicken populations of Chinese origin (CNO), and to provide priorities supporting the conservation of genetic resources using 20 microsatellites. Consequently, the VNN populations exhibited a higher diversity than did CNO populations in terms of number of alleles but showed a slightly lower observed heterozygosity. The VNN populations showed in total seven private alleles, whereas no CNO private alleles were found. The expected heterozygosity of 0.576 in the VNN populations was higher than the observed heterozygosity of 0.490, leading to heterozygote deficiency within populations. This issue could be partly explained by the Wahlund effect due to fragmentation of several populations between chicken flocks. Molecular analysis of variance showed that most of genetic variation was found within VNN populations. The Bayesian clustering analysis showed that VNN and CNO chickens were separated into two distinct groups with little evidence for gene flow between them. Among the 24 populations, 13 were successfully assigned to their own cluster, whereas the structuring was not clear for the remaining 11 chicken populations. The contributions of 24 populations to the total genetic diversity were mostly consistent across two approaches, taking into account the within- and between-populations genetic diversity and allelic richness. The black H'mong, Lien Minh, Luong Phuong and Red Jungle Fowl were ranked with the highest priorities for conservation according to Caballero and Toro's and Petit's approaches. In conclusion, a national strategy needs to be set up for Vietnamese chicken populations, with three main components: conservation of high-priority breeds, within-breed management with animal exchanges between flocks to avoid Wahlund effect and monitoring of inbreeding rate.
Cost effectiveness of medication adherence-enhancing interventions: a systematic review of trial-based economic evaluations
Oberje, E.J.M. ; Kinderen, R.J.A. de; Evers, S.M.A.A. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van; Bruin, M. de - \ 2013
PharmacoEconomics 31 (2013)12. - ISSN 1170-7690 - p. 1155 - 1168.
randomized-controlled-trials - patient adherence - improve adherence - antiretroviral therapy - treatment outcomes - care - program - impact - nonadherence - management
Background In light of the pressure to reduce unnecessary healthcare expenditure in the current economic climate, a systematic review that assesses evidence of cost effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions would be timely. Objective Our objective was to examine the cost effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions compared with care as usual in randomised controlled trials, and to assess the methodological quality of economic evaluations. Methods MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EconLit and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched for randomised controlled trials reporting full economic evaluations of adherence-enhancing interventions (published up to June 2013). Information was collected on study characteristics, cost effectiveness of treatment alternatives, and methodological quality. Results A total of 14 randomised controlled trials were included. The quality of economic evaluations and the risk of bias varied considerably between trials. Four studies showed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) below the willingness-to-pay threshold. Few studies seemed to evaluate interventions that successfully changed adherence. Conclusions Only 14 randomised controlled trials examined the cost effectiveness of adherence interventions. Despite that some studies showe favourable ICERs, the overall quality of studies was modest and the economic perspectives applied were frequently narrow. To demonstrate that adherence interventions can be cost effective, we recommend that proven-effective adherence programmes are subjected to comprehensive economic evaluations.
Inquiry-based Science Education Competence of Primary School Teachers: A Delphi Study
Alake-Tuenter, E. ; Biemans, H.J.A. ; Tobi, H. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2013
Teaching and Teacher Education 35 (2013). - ISSN 0742-051X - p. 13 - 24.
pedagogical content knowledge - elementary teachers - education - constructivist - instruction - standards - program - work - pck
Earlier, extracted inquiry-based science teaching competency elements and domains from the international literature were compared to the United States' National Science Teaching Standards. The present Delphi study aimed to validate the findings for the Netherlands, where such standards are lacking. Experts (N = 33) were asked about the importance of 23 identified competencies. They confirmed the importance; proposed to add one competency and to differentiate between novice and experienced teachers. They suggested that teachers be provided with opportunities to integrate competence development regarding science knowledge, attitude and teaching skills throughout their career
Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT
Penn, L. ; White, M. ; Lindström, J. ; Boer, A.Th. den; Blaak, E.E. ; Eriksson, J.G. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Ilanne-Parikka, P. ; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M. ; Walker, M. ; Mathers, J.C. ; Uusitupa, M. ; Tuomilehto, J. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
life-style intervention - impaired glucose-tolerance - follow-up - program - trial - mellitus - behavior - fin-d2d - obesity - adults
Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial cohorts: to analyse T2D incidence, sustained weight loss and utility of risk predictors. Methods We analysed data on 749 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (278 men and 471 women, mean age 56 years, mean BMI 31 kgm-2) recruited between 1993 and 2003, and randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (I) or lifestyle advice control (C). The intervention aimed to increase physical activity, modify diet, and promote weight loss=5%. Using Cox-regression survival analysis, we assessed T2D incidence and the impact on T2D incidence of sustained weight loss, and of baseline cut-point values of FINDRISC score, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and HbA1c. Results Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 years. T2D was diagnosed in 139 participants (I = 45/379, C = 94/370). Cumulative T2D incidence was 57% lower in the intervention compared with the control group (HR 0.42 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.60) P