Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides
Voet, H. van der; Boer, W.J. de; Kruisselbrink, J.W. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Kennedy, M.C. ; Boon, P.E. ; Klaveren, J.D. van - \ 2015
Food and Chemical Toxicology 79 (2015). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 5 - 12.
dietary exposure - carbamate insecticides - 21st-century roadmap - chemicals - food - organophosphorus - framework - residues - project
Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure.
Fruit and vegetable intake and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC study
Leenders, M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Ferrari, P. ; Siersema, P.D. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Olsen, A. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Dossus, L. ; Dartois, L. - \ 2014
European Journal of Epidemiology 29 (2014)9. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 639 - 652.
cardiovascular-disease mortality - hiroshima/nagasaki life-span - dietary-intake measurements - cancer-mortality - heart-disease - european countries - all-cause - nutrition - risk - project
Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95 % CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95 % CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors.
Different in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study
Forouhi, N.G. ; Koulman, A. ; Sharp, S.J. ; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2 (2014)10. - ISSN 2213-8587 - p. 810 - 818.
dairy product intake - de-novo lipogenesis - risk-factors - dietary - humans - cancer - biomarker - mellitus - disease - project
Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2 diabetes in EPIC-InterAct participants. Methods The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study includes 12¿403 people with incident type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort of 16¿154 individuals who were selected from a cohort of 340¿234 European participants with 3·99 million person-years of follow-up (the EPIC study). Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained until Dec 31, 2007, by a review of several sources of evidence. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids (mol%); samples from people with type 2 diabetes and subcohort participants were processed in a random order by centre, and laboratory staff were masked to participant characteristics. We estimated country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for associations per SD of each SFA with incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression, which is weighted for case-cohort sampling, and pooled our findings using random-effects meta-analysis. Findings SFAs accounted for 46% of total plasma phospholipid fatty acids. In adjusted analyses, different individual SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposing directions. Even-chain SFAs that were measured (14:0 [myristic acid], 16:0 [palmitic acid], and 18:0 [stearic acid]) were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per SD difference: myristic acid 1·15 [95% CI 1·09–1·22], palmitic acid 1·26 [1·15–1·37], and stearic acid 1·06 [1·00–1·13]). By contrast, measured odd-chain SFAs (15:0 [pentadecanoic acid] and 17:0 [heptadecanoic acid]) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per 1 SD difference: 0·79 [0·73–0·85] for pentadecanoic acid and 0·67 [0·63–0·71] for heptadecanoic acid), as were measured longer-chain SFAs (20:0 [arachidic acid], 22:0 [behenic acid], 23:0 [tricosanoic acid], and 24:0 [lignoceric acid]), with HRs ranging from 0·72 to 0·81 (95% CIs ranging between 0·61 and 0·92). Our findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Different individual plasma phospholipid SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposite directions, which suggests that SFAs are not homogeneous in their effects. Our findings emphasise the importance of the recognition of subtypes of these fatty acids. An improved understanding of differences in sources of individual SFAs from dietary intake versus endogenous metabolism is needed. Funding EU FP6 programme, Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, and Cambridge Lipidomics Biomarker Research Initiative.
A rapid and massive gene expression shift marking adolescent transition in C. elegans
Snoek, L.B. ; Sterken, M.G. ; Volkers, R.J.M. ; Klatter, M. ; Bosman, K.J. ; Bevers, R.P.J. ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Smant, G. ; Cossins, A.R. ; Kammenga, J.E. - \ 2014
Scientific Reports 4 (2014). - ISSN 2045-2322
caenorhabditis-elegans - natural variation - genome - populations - robustness - diversity - profiles - genotype - project - age
Organismal development is the most dynamic period of the life cycle, yet we have only a rough understanding of the dynamics of gene expression during adolescent transition. Here we show that adolescence in Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a spectacular expression shift of conserved and highly polymorphic genes. Using a high resolution time series we found that in adolescent worms over 10,000 genes changed their expression. These genes were clustered according to their expression patterns. One cluster involved in chromatin remodelling showed a brief up-regulation around 50 h post-hatch. At the same time a spectacular shift in expression was observed. Sequence comparisons for this cluster across many genotypes revealed diversifying selection. Strongly up-regulated genes showed signs of purifying selection in non-coding regions, indicating that adolescence-active genes are constrained on their regulatory properties. Our findings improve our understanding of adolescent transition and help to eliminate experimental artefacts due to incorrect developmental timing.
The Perversity of the ‘Citizenship Game’: slum-upgrading in the urban periphery of Recife, Brazil
Nuijten, M.C.M. - \ 2013
Critique of anthropology 33 (2013)1. - ISSN 0308-275X - p. 8 - 25.
regimes - project
This article analyses the effects of slum upgrading on the lives of slum dwellers, especially on their position in society and their relation with the state. It zooms in on the implementation of Prometrópole, a World Bank-funded slum upgrading project in Recife that removes the population from shacks close to rivers to new housing estates. In this project, the state embraces participatory democracy and stresses the growing inclusion of the poor as citizens of the Brazilian nation-state. The question that inspired the article is: ‘How does the “citizenship agenda” employed by the Brazilian state relate to practices of political belonging in the urban periphery, characterized by social exclusion and violence?’ On the basis of ethnographic research, the article concludes that the upgrading of poor neighbourhoods indeed increases feelings of belonging and inclusion among the poor population. At the same time, however, the stress on the responsible citizen and the empty participatory procedures in the project have the perverse effects of side-lining the poor and reinforcing clientelist politics.
Atmospheric blocking in a high resolution climate model: influences of mean state, orography and eddy forcing
Berckmans, J.N.J. ; Woollings, T. ; Demory, M. ; Vidale, P. ; Roberts, M. - \ 2013
Atmospheric Science Letters 14 (2013)1. - ISSN 1530-261X - p. 34 - 40.
eddies - flow - propagation - simulations - patterns - project
An underestimate of atmospheric blocking occurrence is a well-known limitation of many climate models. This article presents an analysis of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking in an atmospheric model with increased horizontal resolution. European blocking frequency increases with model resolution, and this results from an improvement in the atmospheric patterns of variability as well as a simple improvement in the mean state. There is some evidence that the transient eddy momentum forcing of European blocks is increased at high resolution, which could account for this. However, it is also shown that the increase in resolution of the orography is needed to realise the improvement in blocking, consistent with the increase in height of the Rocky Mountains acting to increase the tilt of the Atlantic jet stream and giving higher mean geopotential heights over northern Europe. Blocking frequencies in the Pacific sector are also increased with atmospheric resolution, but in this case the improvement in orography actually leads to a decrease in blocking
Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct
Romaguera, D. ; Norat, T. ; Wark, P.A. ; Vergnaud, A.C. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Woudenbergh, G.J. van; Beulens, J.W.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; The InterAct Consortium, A. - \ 2013
Diabetologia 56 (2013)7. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 1520 - 1530.
weight-gain - metabolic syndrome - body-weight - risk - project - obesity - cancer - cohort - dietary - women
Aims/hypothesis Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown, largely in American populations, to increase type 2 diabetes incidence. We aimed to evaluate the association of consumption of sweet beverages (juices and nectars, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and artificially sweetened soft drinks) with type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults. Methods We established a case–cohort study including 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 participants selected from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. After exclusions, the final sample size included 11,684 incident cases and a subcohort of 15,374 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression models (modified for the case–cohort design) and random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the association between sweet beverage consumption (obtained from validated dietary questionnaires) and type 2 diabetes incidence. Results In adjusted models, one 336 g (12 oz) daily increment in sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drink consumption was associated with HRs for type 2 diabetes of 1.22 (95% CI 1.09, 1.38) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.26, 1.83), respectively. After further adjustment for energy intake and BMI, the association of sugar-sweetened soft drinks with type 2 diabetes persisted (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.32), but the association of artificially sweetened soft drinks became statistically not significant (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.95, 1.31). Juice and nectar consumption was not associated with type 2 diabetes incidence. Conclusions/interpretation This study corroborates the association between increased incidence of type 2 diabetes and high consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks in European adults
WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6–9-year-old children
Wijnhoven, T.M.A. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van - \ 2013
Pediatric Obesity 8 (2013)2. - ISSN 2047-6310 - p. 79 - 97.
school-aged children - preschool-children - overweight - prevalence - adolescents - trends - project - schoolchildren - definitions - methodology
Summary •Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. •Presence of a north–south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. •Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. •Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6–9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. •Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. •It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. Background Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Objective To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. Methods Weight and height were measured in 6–9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. Results A total of 168¿832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including obesity and based on the 2007 WHO growth reference).The prevalence of obesity ranged from 6.0 to 26.6% among boys and from 4.6 to 17.3% among girls. Multi-country comparisons suggest the presence of a north–south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Conclusions Overweight among 6–9-year-old children is a serious public health concern and its variation across the European Region highly depends on the country. Comparable monitoring of child growth is possible across Europe and should be emphasized in national policies and implemented as part of action plans
Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Murphy, N. ; Norat, T. ; Ferrari, P. ; Jenab, M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B. ; Skeie, G. ; Dahm, C.C. ; Overvad, K. ; Olsen, A. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Racine, A. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Bergmann, M.M. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Lagiou, P. ; Palli, D. ; Pala, V. ; Panico, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Vineis, P. ; Siersema, P. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Hjartaker, A. ; Engeset, D. ; Gonzalez, C.A. ; Sanchez, M.J. ; Dorronsoro, M. ; Navarro, C. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Quiros, J.R. ; Sonestedt, E. ; Ericson, U. ; Nilsson, L. ; Palmqvist, R. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Key, T.J. ; Crowe, F.L. ; Fedirko, V. ; Wark, P.A. ; Chuang, S.C. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
colorectal-cancer - nonstarch polysaccharides - epidemiologic evidence - measurement error - glycemic index - cohort - project - carbohydrate - calibration - protection
Background: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. Methodology/Principal Findings: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. Conclusions/Significance: Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention.
Poultry welfare and management: WPSA Working Group Nine
Elson, H.A. ; Jong, I.C. de; Kjaer, J.B. ; Sossidou, E. ; Tauson, R.K. - \ 2012
Worlds Poultry Science Journal 68 (2012)4. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 768 - 775.
range laying hens - production systems - project
The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of superior management and housing systems for poultry have been stimulated by the lobbying of animal welfare organisations along with subsequent policy decisions and legislation. WPSA WG9 was formed in 1972 to encourage scientific studies to inform the poultry welfare debate; its members have positively influenced research and development of welfare-friendly housing systems and husbandry throughout Europe. They have also been active in EU projects aimed at improving the wellbeing of poultry e.g. LayWel, EFSA Opinions and Welfare Quality®. Information derived from such projects has influenced EU Directives and national legislation on the protection and welfare of laying hens and broilers, in particular.
Design aspects of 24 h recall assessments may affect the estimates of protein and potassium intake in dietary surveys
Crispim, S.P. ; Geelen, A. ; Siebelink, E. ; Huybrechts, I. ; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2012
Public Health Nutrition 15 (2012)7. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1196 - 1200.
european centers - telephone - recommendations - calibration - project - efcoval
Objective: To evaluate the impact of different modes of administration (face-to-face v. telephone), recall days (first v. second), clays of the week (weekday v. weekend) and interview clays (1 d later v. 2 d later) on bias in protein and K intakes collected with 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR). Design: Two non-consecutive 24-HDR (collected with standardised EPIC-Soft software) were used to estimate protein and K intakes by a face-to-face interview at the research centres and a telephone interview, and included all days of the week. Two 24 h urine collections were used to determine biomarkers of protein and K intake. The bias in intake was defined as the ratio between the 24-HDR estimate and the biomarker. Setting: Five centres in Belgium, Czech Republic, France, the Netherlands and Norway in the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) study. Subjects: About 120 adults (aged 45-65 years) per centre. Results: The bias in protein intake in the Czech Republic and Norway was smaller for telephone than face-to-face interviews (P=0.01). The second 24-HDR estimates of protein intake in France and K intake in Belgium had a larger bias than the first 24-HDR (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). In the Czech Republic, protein intake estimated during weekends and K intake estimated during weekdays had a larger bias than during other days of the week (P = 0.01). In addition, K intake collected 2 d later in the Czech Republic was likely to be overestimated. Conclusions: The biases in protein and K intakes were comparable between modes of administration, recall days, days of the week and interview days in some, but not all, study centres.
Improving nitrogen management on grassland on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands
Oenema, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Keulen, H. van - \ 2012
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 162 (2012)nov. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 116 - 126.
use efficiency - nutrient management - system - agriculture - carbon - regulations - phosphorus - balances - project - impact
Nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), the ratio of N output and N input, is rather low on dairy farms with high stocking densities and high N input on grassland resulting in high N losses to the environment. This study describes and analyses the development and variation in N management on grassland on 16 commercial pilot dairy farms in the project ‘Cows & Opportunities’ (C&O) over a 12-year period (1998–2009, with the aim that applying this knowledge to other farmers may provide insight in the (im)possibilities to improve management. Farm milk production ranged from 11 to 23 Mg ha-1 and grassland occupied ca. 80% of the total land area (between 63 and 97%). Mean N application rate (kg total N ha-1 year-1) on grassland (in manure, chemical fertilizer, excreta during grazing, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) on the pilot farms decreased from 540 in 1998 to 450 in 2001, while in the remainder of the period the inter-annual variation was low (between 400 and 450). Mean dry matter yields on grassland (11 Mg ha-1) varied among years and farms (between 7.7 and 16 Mg ha-1), without any significant temporal trend. We observed no trend of diminishing returns of dry matter yields at farm scale up to an N application rate on grassland of ca. 600 kg ha-1 because farms with a high production intensity (Mg milk ha-1) need more dry matter than farms with a lower intensity and were able to increase nitrogen management on grassland with high N input levels. Management options that result in improved NUE include reduced grazing time which results in increased dry matter yields and NUE as a consequence of better utilization of organic manure.
The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study
Patel, P.S. ; Forouhi, N.G. ; Kuijsten, A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Woudenbergh, G.J. van - \ 2012
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95 (2012)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1445 - 1453.
nutrition - cancer - consumption - omega-3-fatty-acids - project - design - risk - calibration - mellitus - validity
Background: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. Design: This was a case-cohort study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, 12,403 incident diabetes cases, and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. Habitual fish intake (lean fish, fatty fish, total fish, shellfish, and combined fish and shellfish) was assessed by country-specific dietary questionnaires. HRs were estimated in each country by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: No overall association was found between combined fish and shellfish intake and incident T2D per quartile (adjusted HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.06; P-trend = 0.99). Total fish, lean fish, and shellfish intakes separately were also not associated with T2D, but fatty fish intake was weakly inversely associated with T2D: adjusted HR per quartile 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), with an HR of 0.84 (0.70, 1.01), 0.85 (0.76, 0.95), and 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) for a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the lowest quartile of intake, respectively (P-trend = 0.06). Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean fish, total fish, and shellfish intakes are not associated with incident diabetes but that fatty fish intake may be weakly inversely associated. Replication of these findings in other populations and investigation of the mechanisms underlying these associations are warranted. Meanwhile, current public health recommendations on fish intake should remain unchanged
The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring
Slimani, N. ; Casagrande, C. ; Nicolas, G. ; Freisling, H. ; Huybrechts, I. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Niekerk, E.M. ; Rossum, C. van; Bellemans, M. ; Maeyer, M. de; Lafay, L. ; Krems, C. ; Amiano, P. ; Trolle, E. ; Geelen, A. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Boer, E.J. de - \ 2011
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (2011)S1. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S5 - S15.
nutrition - cancer - calibration - project - validation - rationale - countries - nitrogen - centers - program
Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitoring. Within European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL), EPIC-Soft was adapted and further developed on various aspects that were required to optimize its use. In this paper, we present the structure and main interview steps of the EPIC-Soft program, after implementation of a series of new specifications deemed to satisfy specific requirements of pan-European monitoring surveys and other international studies. Subjects/Methods: Updates to optimize the EPIC-Soft program were ascertained according to the following stepwise approach: (1) identification of requested specifications to be potentially implemented through an ad hoc ‘EPIC-Soft specifications questionnaire’ sent to past, current and possible future users of the software; (2) evaluation of the specifications in collaboration with two ad hoc task force groups and through a workshop; (3) development of a technical solution for each retained specification; (4) implementation of the specifications by software developers; (5) testing and amendment of bugs. Results: A number of new specifications and facilities were implemented to EPIC-Soft program. In addition, the software underwent a full reprogramming and migration to a modern Windows environment, including changes in its internal architecture and user interface. Although the overall concept and structure of the initial software were not changed substantially, these improvements ease the current and future use of EPIC-Soft and increase further its adaptation to other countries and study contexts. Conclusions: EPIC-Soft is enriched with further functions and facilities expected to fulfil specific needs of pan-European dietary monitoring and risk assessment purposes. The validity, feasibility and relevance of this software for different national and international study designs, and the logistical aspects related to its implementation are reported elsewhere.
Multimodel estimate of the global terrestrial water balance: Setup and first results
Haddeland, I. ; Clark, D. ; Franssen, W.H.P. ; Ludwig, F. ; Voss, F. ; Arnell, N.W. ; Bertrand, N. ; Best, M. ; Folwell, S. ; Gerten, D. ; Gomes, S. ; Gosling, S. ; Hagemann, S. ; Hanasaki, N. ; Harding, R. ; Heinke, J. ; Kabat, P. ; Koirala, S. ; Oki, T. ; Polcher, J. ; Stacke, T. ; Viterbo, P. ; Weedon, G.P. ; Yeh, P. - \ 2011
Journal of Hydrometeorology 12 (2011)5. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 869 - 884.
land-surface scheme - space-time climate - parameterization schemes - integrated model - project - simulation - resources - runoff - gcm - precipitation
Six land surface models and five global hydrological models participate in a model intercomparison project [Water Model Intercomparison Project (WaterMIP)], which for the first time compares simulation results of these different classes of models in a consistent way. In this paper, the simulation setup is described and aspects of the multimodel global terrestrial water balance are presented. All models were run at 0.5° spatial resolution for the global land areas for a 15-yr period (1985–99) using a newly developed global meteorological dataset. Simulated global terrestrial evapotranspiration, excluding Greenland and Antarctica, ranges from 415 to 586 mm yr-1 (from 60 000 to 85 000 km3 yr-1), and simulated runoff ranges from 290 to 457 mm yr-1 (from 42 000 to 66 000 km3 yr-1). Both the mean and median runoff fractions for the land surface models are lower than those of the global hydrological models, although the range is wider. Significant simulation differences between land surface and global hydrological models are found to be caused by the snow scheme employed. The physically based energy balance approach used by land surface models generally results in lower snow water equivalent values than the conceptual degree-day approach used by global hydrological models. Some differences in simulated runoff and evapotranspiration are explained by model parameterizations, although the processes included and parameterizations used are not distinct to either land surface models or global hydrological models. The results show that differences between models are a major source of uncertainty. Climate change impact studies thus need to use not only multiple climate models but also some other measure of uncertainty (e.g., multiple impact models).
Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power
Zeitoun, M. ; Mirumachi, N. ; Warner, J.F. - \ 2011
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 11 (2011)2. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 159 - 178.
hydro-hegemony - river-basin - cooperation - management - conflict - project - regime - peace
This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of compliance related to distributive (conflictual) or integrative (consensual) ends (after Scott (1994)). The focus is on inter-state water conflicts in hegemonic political contexts, where, it is found, the ‘first among equals’ has a greater ability to exploit ‘soft’ power and to determine the outcome. ‘Soft’ power is also seen to influence the choices states make or avoid in their transboundary water interaction, which explains in part how treaties intending to manage conflict may in fact delay or perpetuate it. For example, ‘soft’ power can be used by the basin hegemon to frame inequitable forms of cooperation in a cooperative light, such that unfair and ultimately unsustainable transboundary arrangements are replicated by the international donor community. Non-hegemonic riparian states also employ their capacity of ‘soft’ power, though may find themselves with little choice other than to comply with the arrangement established by the basin hegemon. The findings stress the importance of analysts questioning claims of interaction promoted as ‘cooperative’, and of examining the ‘soft’ power plays that underlie all transboundary water arrangements. Exemplification is provided through transboundary river basins and aquifers around the globe
Optimizing subsurface drainage practices in irrigated agriculture in the semi-arid and arid regions: Experiences from Egypt, India and Pakistan
Ritzema, H.P. ; Schultz, E. - \ 2011
Irrigation and Drainage 60 (2011)3. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 360 - 369.
waterlogged saline lands - pilot area - performance - project - systems - delta
In this paper, the role of subsurface drainage in irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is discussed based on experiences obtained in Egypt, India and Pakistan. Agriculture in these countries is predominantly practiced by small, marginal farmers with landholdings of often less than one hectare. In general, they do not have the means to pay for the investments in irrigation and drainage themselves. Consequently, most irrigation and drainage projects are funded by the (local) governments. Shallow horizontal pipe drainage systems have proved to be a technically feasible and cost-effective tool to combat the twin problem of waterlogging and salinity. Their large scale implementation is, however, hampered by a number of institutional and socio-economic reasons. The paper discusses why subsurface drainage is needed to safeguard investments in irrigated agriculture and to conserve land resources, as well as what the challenges are to make subsurface drainage work
The need for harmonizing methodologies for assessing soil threats in Europe
Beek, C.L. ; Toth, T. ; Hagyo, A. ; Tóth, G. ; Recatala Boix, L. ; Ano Vidal, C. ; Malet, J.P. ; Maquaire, O. ; Akker, J.J.H. van den; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Verzandvoort, S. ; Simota, C. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2010
Soil Use and Management 26 (2010)3. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 299 - 309.
models - management - erosion - project
Central to the EU thematic strategy for soil protection is that areas affected by soil degradation through erosion, soil organic matter (SOM) decline, compaction, salinization and landslides should be identified in a clear and consistent way. However, the current methodologies to achieve this often differ and this can result in different perceptions of risks amongst EU Member States. The aims of this paper are to: (i) assess the current status of assessment methodologies in Europe (EU27) associated with erosion, SOM decline, compaction, salinization and landslides and (ii) discuss the issues associated with harmonization of these methodologies throughout the EU27. The need for harmonization is assessed using the relative share of common elements between different methodologies. The results demonstrate that the need for harmonization in methodology is greatest for erosion and compaction and least for SOM decline and landslides. However, many of the methodologies which were investigated are still incomplete and there are significant differences in terms of: (i) understanding the threats, (ii) methods of data collection, (iii) processing and interpretation and (iv) risk perception. We propose two options for the harmonized assessment of soil threats: (i) a two-tiered approach based on data availability and spatial scale and (ii) a combination of standardization and harmonization for each assessment methodology. Future assessments should focus on the advantages and disadvantages of these options as the current situation will result in endless discussions on differences and the merits of particular methodologies instead of taking appropriate measures to reduce or eliminate the actual threats.
Evaluation of cardiovascular risk predicted by different SCORE equations: The Netherlands as an example
Dis, S.J. van; Kromhout, D. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Boer, J.M.A. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. - \ 2010
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 17 (2010)2. - ISSN 1741-8267 - p. 244 - 249.
cholesterol determination - clinical-practice - 10-year risk - disease - mortality - europe - project
Background: In Europe, for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk charts for high-risk and low-risk regions (SCORE-high and SCORE-low, respectively) are used. For the Dutch ‘Clinical Practice Guideline for Cardiovascular Risk Management’ an adapted SCORE risk chart (SCORE-NL) was developed in collaboration with the SCORE group. We evaluated these three SCORE equations using Dutch risk factor and mortality data. Design: Prospective cohort study with 10-year follow-up. Methods: Baseline data were collected between 1987 and 1997 in 32 885 persons aged 37.5–62.5 years. Vital status was checked and causes of death were obtained from Statistics Netherlands. On the basis of the level of risk factors, the expected number of CVD deaths was calculated by applying the three SCORE equations and compared with the observed number. Results: The observed CVD mortality was three-fold higher in men (n=242; 1.6%) than in women (n=83; 0.5%). On the basis of SCORE-NL, 8.5% of the men and 0.8% of the women had a CVD mortality risk of 5% or more. The ratio of the observed-to-expected number of CVD deaths was 0.75 for men and 0.55 for women using SCORE-NL, 0.54 and 0.56 using SCORE-high, and 1.11 and 0.95 using SCORE-low. Conclusion: At the population level, SCORE-low predicts the number of CVD deaths well, whereas both SCORE-NL and SCORE-high overestimate the number of CVD deaths by a factor 1.5–2
Changes in streamflow dynamics in the Rhine basin under three high-resolution regional climate scenarios
Hurkmans, R.T.W.L. ; Troch, P.A.A. ; Terink, W. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Torfs, P.J.J.F. ; Jacob, D. - \ 2010
Journal of Climate 23 (2010). - ISSN 0894-8755 - p. 679 - 699.
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - klimaatverandering - scenario-analyse - modellen - rijn - catchment hydrology - climatic change - scenario analysis - models - river rhine - surface parametrization schemes - model simulations - temporal analysis - scale hydrology - routing model - vic-2l model - project - impact - runoff
Due to global warming, the hydrologic behavior of the Rhine basin is expected to shift from a combined snowmelt and rainfall driven regime to a more rainfall dominated regime. Previous impact assessments have indicated that this leads, on average, to increasing streamflow by ~30% in winter and spring, and decreasing streamflow by a similar value in summer. In this study, high-resolution (0.088°) regional climate scenarios conducted with the regional climate model REMO for the Rhine basin are used to force a macro-scale hydrological model. These climate scenarios are based on model output from the ECHAM5/MPIOM global climate model, which is in turn forced by three SRES emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC; version 4.0.5) is used to examine changes in streamflow at various locations throughout the Rhine basin. Average streamflow, peak flows, low flows and several water balance terms are evaluated for both the first and second half of the 21st century. The results reveal a distinct contrast between those periods. The first half is dominated by increased precipitation, causing increased streamflow throughout the year. During the second half of the century, a streamflow increase in winter/spring and a decrease in summer is found, similar to previous studies. This is caused by (1) temperature and evapotranspiration, which are considerably higher during the second half of the century, (2) decreased precipitation in summer and (3) an earlier start of the snowmelt season. Magnitudes of peak flows increase during both periods, that of streamflow droughts only during the second half of the century.
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