Human NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase inhibition by flavonoids in living cells
Lee, Y.Y. ; Westphal, A.H. ; Haan, L.H.J. de; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. - \ 2005
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 39 (2005)2. - ISSN 0891-5849 - p. 257 - 265.
hamster ovary cells - dt-diaphorase - quinone oxidoreductase - acceptor oxidoreductase - antitumor quinones - human plasma - cancer risk - quercetin - reductase - rat
Procedures for assessing enzyme inhibition in living cells are an important tool in the study of the relevance of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and interactions in the human body. This paper presents the effects of flavonoids on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity, by a newly developed method to measure NQO1 inhibition in intact cells. The principle of this method is based on the resorufin reductase activity of NQO1. The change in fluorescence in time was used to determine NQO1 activity in intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells genetically engineered to overexpress human NQO1. Applying this method to determine the inhibitory effects of reported in vitro NQO1 inhibitors (dicoumarol, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, chrysin) showed that for all inhibitors tested, the IC50 in intact cells was at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the IC50 in cell lysates. This result demonstrates that in vitro studies with purified NQO1 or with extracts from disrupted tissues are of limited value for obtaining insight into the situation in living cells. Possible factors underlying this discrepancy are being discussed. For the first time, we determined NQO1 inhibition by flavonoids in cells without disruption of the cells or addition of cofactors, enabling the assessment of enzymatic activity and the interaction of modulators of enzymatic activity in an intracellular situation.