Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop
In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.
In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.
Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.
In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.
Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.
In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.
In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.
In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.
A comparative history of commercial transition in three West African slave trading economies, 1630 to 1860
Dalrymple-Smith, Angus - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk, co-promotor(en): M. van Rossum. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436199 - 283
slavery - history - colonialism - trade - commodities - gold - law - social change - economic change - west africa - slavernij - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - handel - basisproducten - goud - recht - sociale verandering - economische verandering - west-afrika
The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to this debate. Firstly, it reviews new evidence which shows that the commercial transition in West Africa’s most important slave exporting regions, the Gold Coast, the Bight of Biafra and the Bight of Benin, can be predicted by the patterns of trade established in previous centuries. It then presents a model of analysis which sets out which interrelated factors shaped their export economies and ultimately determined how they responded to the changing political and economic environment of the Atlantic world from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. This study offers an important comparative, long term quantitative perspective on the transition from slave exports to so-called ‘legitimate commerce’.
Chapter 1 shows that the speed and timing of the nineteenth century commercial transition differed considerably across the case study regions. Along the Gold Coast there was a sudden, and effectively total end to transatlantic slave trading after 1807. In the Bight of Biafra slave exports gradually declined until largely ceasing in the 1830s. Lastly in the Bight of Benin export slavery continued until the 1850s. The chapter argues that earlier studies have tended to ignore long term trends and also lack a comparative approach, as many are focused on individual regions. It then suggests a new model of analysis and dismisses two factors as irrelevant; the British slave trade patrol and changing demands for, or changing supply of, African slaves. The chapter argues that regional variations can be explained by five key factors: 1) the nature and duration of long-term trade relations; 2) the identity of the principal European trade partner; 3) certain aspects of the ecology of the different regions; 4) the regional political contexts; and 5) the development of institutions that either encouraged or discouraged elite participation in non-slave exports.
Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of each case study region’s patterns of trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth Centuries based on secondary and primary qualitative sources. It then reviews quantitative evidence of commodity trading patterns from the earlier eighteenth century from British and Dutch commodity traders and slaving vessels that bought commodities. It argues that the expansion of slavery in the Bight of Biafra did not crowd out other forms of commerce. On the Gold Coast the early eighteenth century saw continued engagement in commodity exports while the slave trade expanded. However, by the 1780s, both slave and commodity exports seem to have begun to decline. In the Dahomean-controlled area of the Bight of Benin, there is no evidence of slavery crowding out other forms of commerce, as captives were always the only item of trade with the Atlantic world.
Chapter 3 investigates the extent to which the 18th century intensification of the trans-Atlantic slave trade boosted commercial agriculture in the coastal areas of West Africa and in particular in the case study regions. It explores the provisioning strategies of 187 British, French, Dutch and Danish slave voyages conducted between 1681 and 1807, and calls for a major downward adjustment of available estimates of the slave trade induced demand impulse. It shows that during the 18th century, an increasing share of the foodstuffs required to feed African slaves were taken on board in Europe instead of West Africa. However, there was considerable variation in provisioning strategies among slave trading nations and across main regions of slave embarkation. The Bight of Benin never significantly engaged in provisioning trade. Traders along the Gold Coast provided relatively large quantities of food to slaving vessels, but in the Bight of Biafra, British demand stimulated a considerable trade in foodstuffs. The chapter explains these trends and variation in terms of the relative (seasonal) security of European versus African food supplies, the falling relative costs of European provisions and the increasing risks in the late 18th century trade, putting a premium on faster embarkation times.
Chapter 4 uses a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities on the coast and in British markets over the long eighteenth century and provides new insights into the changing nature of Britain’s non-slave trade. It improves on previous work by Johnson et al. (1990) and finds that earlier estimates of the volume and value of commodity trade have been underestimates and fail to account for regional changes in output. The data suggests that from the 1770s the focus of Britain’s commodity trade shifted from Senegambia to the Bight of Biafra and that in the later eighteenth century non-slave goods were primarily purchased by slave ships, not specialist bi-lateral traders. The chapter argues that these changes were motivated by a number of factors; conflicts between Atlantic powers, the prices of British trade goods and African imports, increasing levels of risk faced by British slave merchants and the fact that traders in the Bight of Biafra were both willing and able to supply desirable commodities.
Part 1 establishes that the Gold Coast had a far long history of commodity trading and seemed to have been moving away from the slave trade at the end of the eighteenth century. The region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey always focused exclusively on slaves. The Bight of Biafra had a considerable non-slave export economy that was growing at the end of the eighteenth century. Part 2 of the thesis applies the model of analysis to the case study regions.
Chapter 5 argues that that for the Gold Coast and more particularly the Asante empire British abolition policies and the slave forts can explain the timing of the end of transatlantic slavery but not why it ended. Following the model of analysis, the chapter shows that the presence of gold determined both long term political development and the nature of the region’s trade relationship with the Atlantic. In addition, gold became essential as a means of marking status and wealth at all levels of society and for domestic exchange. This meant that slaves were always essential for the production of gold, meaning that there was an important competing domestic market for coerced labour. Over the eighteenth-century gold became scarcer leading to slaves being pulled out of the Atlantic market to focus on production. In addition, well-developed trade relations with the interior and a rise in demand from the Islamic states in the Sokoto caliphate led to an expansion of kola exports which demanded yet more labour. Most importantly, the chapter argues that both households and elite groups could profit more from commodity than slave exports which explains the rapid move away from the transatlantic slavery and towards the production of commodities.
In Chapter 6 it is argued that in the Bight of Biafra, the slave and commodity trades were not only compatible but complementary. The region’s riverine transport networks, long established coastal-interior trade relations and suitability for the growing of yams, palm oil and tropical hardwoods meant that the provisioning and commodity trades could function alongside slave exports. The relatively late opening of central Igboland to the Atlantic slave markets meant that the region did not see the influx of wealth in the seventeenth century that spurred the development of states in the other case study areas. Instead the region followed a different institutional path which saw the development small political entities linked together through the Aro trade network. Elites in the interior and at the coast were reliant on trade for both power and status, but not specifically the slave trade. As a result, abolition was not a serious economic shock as commodities and slaves had always been traded side by side. As in Gold Coast both commoners and elites benefited from commodity trading. Atlantic goods allowed many more people to purchase goods to improve their standards of living, while elites benefitted from the less volatile commodity trade. Furthermore, the British state also perhaps unintentionally supported the development of the palm oil trade through its customs policies. Eventually, this led to palm oil crowding out slave exports through greater demands for domestic labour.
Chapter 7 investigates why the region of the Bight of Benin controlled by Dahomey only ever exported slaves. It shows that this region possessed no gold and had less favourable geography for commodity exports than the Bight of Biafra. The early expansion of export slavery in the seventeenth century spurred the development of states and elites who were entirely dependent on slave exports to maintain their wealth and power. It led to the development of a militaristic culture and institutions based on large scale slave raiding that were highly effective as a means of controlling and harnessing elite violence, generating wealth and defending the state from powerful external threats and economic competition. The demands of the army and elites took much of the kingdom’s potential labour away from households. In addition, constant warfare led to a serious demographic decline across the region further reducing the amount of available labour. The chapter argues that it was never in the interests of elites to switch to an alternative economic system and there was, until the 1850s, always sufficient external demand. In the end abolition efforts were a necessary condition to ending the slave trade.
Chapter 8 concludes with a summary of the main contributions of thesis; the importance of long term patterns of trade in determining nineteenth century commercial transition and a modified model of analysis to explain the diverging trajectories of the different case study regions. It also argues that the impact of Britain’s abolition campaign should be reassessed. In the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra it was not an important factor in ending transatlantic slavery, while in the Bight of Benin it was. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.
Kwaliteit van modellen voor wettelijke onderzoekstaken
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu - Wageningen UR (WOt-paper 38) - 4
kwaliteitsnormen - modellen - recht - natuur - milieu - landbouwwetenschappen - landschap - evaluatie - quality standards - models - law - nature - environment - agricultural sciences - landscape - evaluation
De unit Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu van Wageningen UR (WOT N&M) zet modellen, (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden en graadmeters in bij het beleidsgericht onderzoek voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Het gaat daarbij bijvoorbeeld om onderzoek voor de Natuurverkenningen, de Herijking van de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur of de Evaluatie van het Mest- en Gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid. Om de kwaliteit van deze modellen en (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden te verbeteren en te borgen maakt de WOT N&M gebruik van een kwaliteitssysteem. In deze WOtpaper wordt dit kwaliteitssysteem toegelicht.
Institutional Arrangements for Conservation, Development and Tourism in Eastern and Southern Africa : A Dynamic Perspective
Duim, V.R. van der; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Wijk, J.J. van - \ 2015
Dordrecht : Springer Science - ISBN 9789401795296 - 265
geografie - milieu - sociale wetenschappen - recht - toerisme - geography - environment - social sciences - law - tourism
This book describes and analyzes six novel conservation arrangements in eastern and southern Africa, illustrating how tourism is increasingly used and promoted as a key mechanism for achieving conservation and development objectives outside state-protected areas.
Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz
Purnhagen, K. ; Rott, P. - \ 2014
Cham : Springer (Studies in European Economic Law and Regulation 3) - ISBN 9783319049038 - 892
internationaal recht - recht - economie - regulatie - politicologie - publiek recht - burgerlijk recht - privaatrecht - europese unie - Europa - international law - law - economics - regulation - political science - public law - civil law - private law - european union - Europe
This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European Economic Law and Regulation. The contributions discuss a wide range of Micklitz’ work: from his theoretical work on private law beyond party autonomy, with a special focus on its regulatory function, to the illustration of how his work has built the basis for current solutions such as used in solving the financial crisis. The book is divided into sections covering foundations of private law, regulatory law, competition and intellectual property law, product safety law, consumer contract law and the enforcement of law. This book clearly shows the enormous impact of Hans Micklitz' work on the EU legal system in both scholarship and practice.
Fiscale faciliteiten agrosector : werking en effecten
Silvis, H.J. ; Veen, H. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. ; Galen, M.A. van; Luijt, J. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Silvis, F. ; Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Den Haag 14-060) - 39
agrarische economie - landbouwsector - recht - grondbelasting - omzetbelasting - landbouwgrond - evaluatie - nederland - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - law - land tax - sales tax - agricultural land - evaluation - netherlands
Het Interdepartementale Beleidsonderzoek (IBO) Agrosector heeft behoefte aan inzicht in de werking van de fiscale faciliteiten voor de agrosector en in de effecten van mogelijke aanpassingen daarvan. Doelstelling van dit project is om de IBO-werkgroep Agrosector inzicht te bieden in de effecten van het draaien aan knoppen van de fiscale regelingen, met name het afschaffen ervan. Door dit inzicht is de werkgroep beter in staat om onderbouwde beleidsaanbevelingen te doen.
|Towards a European Legal Culture
Helleringer, G. ; Purnhagen, K. - \ 2014
Baden Baden : C.H. Beck Hart Nomos - ISBN 9783832971953 - 395
recht - wetgeving - harmonisatie - cultuur - europese unie - europa - law - legislation - harmonization - culture - european union - europe
European harmonization efforts - such as a European civil code, European constitutional treaties, European principles, and European fundamental rights - are frequently criticized for building on or creating a European legal culture that does not exist. In reality, what we have is European legal pluralism. Some have argued that the pluralistic structure of European law hinders the development of a community, which is a necessary requirement for a European legal culture. And, if there can be no common European legal culture, then there is no basis for harmonizing exercises. The contributors to this book explore whether, in fact, the contrary is true. Cultural pluralism might indeed be a distinctive feature of European legal culture. Diversity is not something that is in opposition to a European legal culture, but rather constitutes a new, different understanding of it. The book demonstrates in detail how such an approach - inter alia in the areas of private, corporate, administrative, and constitutional law - furthers the understanding of a developing European legal culture, how it offers theoretical and doctrinal insights, and how it adds critical perspective.
The Politics of Systematization in EU Product Safety Regulation: Market, State, Collectivity, and Integration
Purnhagen, K. - \ 2013
Dordrecht : Springer (Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice 26) - ISBN 9789400765436 - 257
recht - Europa - filosofie - internationaal recht - privaatrecht - law - Europe - philosophy - international law - private law
This book examines the increasing role of the legal method of systematisation in European Union (EU) law. It argues that the legal method of systematisation that has been developed in a welfare-state context is increasingly used as a regulative tool to functionally integrate the market. The book uses the example of EU product regulation as a reference to illustrate the impact of systematisation on EU law. It draws conclusions from this phenomenon and redefines the current place and origin of systematisation in the EU legal system. It puts forward and demonstrates two main arguments. First, in certain sectors such as in EU product safety law, the quality of EU law changes from a sector-specific and reactive field of law to an increasingly coherent legal system at European level. Therefore, instead of punctual market intervention, it increasingly governs whole market areas. By doing so, it challenges and often fully replaces the respective welfare-based legal systems in the Member States for the benefit of the ideal of a market-driven EU legal system. Second, at European level, the ideal is in development. This illustrates the change of the function of Statecraft from nation-states to market-states.
|Aguas Robadas: despojo hídrico y movilización social
Arroyo, A. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2013
Quito : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad : Sección justicia hídrica 19) - ISBN 9789942091543 - 391
waterbeheer - waterbeleid - recht - waterrechten - politieke bewegingen - duurzame ontwikkeling - justitie - wetgeving - latijns-amerika - ontwikkelingslanden - wereld - water management - water policy - law - water rights - political movements - sustainable development - justice - legislation - latin america - developing countries - world
Functiecombinaties in het buitengebied : juridische knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen
Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2013
Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk - 31
landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecosysteemdiensten - gebiedsontwikkeling - recht - Nederland - land use - sustainability - ecosystem services - area development - law - Netherlands
Voor duurzame gebiedsontwikkeling is een balans van planet, people, profit (3P) nodig. Daarvoor heeft men weging als rechtsvindingsmethodiek nodig. Daarbij zouden ecosysteemdiensten behulpzaam kunnen zijn. Deze kunnen leiden tot duurzame functiecombinaties in het buitengebied, wat dan weer duurzame gebiedsontwikkeling garandeert. Ontbreekt een van deze schakels, dan riskeert men planologische monoculturen en enkelvoudig ruimtegebruik. Momenteel ontbreekt weging als schakel. In het groene omgevingsrecht is de sectorale toetsing nog steeds het uitgangspunt.
Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : macronutrients, minerals, carnitine, taurine and nucleotides
Capuano, E. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2012.019) - 54
flesvoedingsamenstelling - analytische methoden - globale analyse - macronutriënten - mineralen - taurine - carnitine - nucleotiden - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - recht - infant formulae - analytical methods - proximate analysis - macronutrients - minerals - taurine - carnitine - nucleotides - nutrient requirements - law
Adequate methods with known performance characteristics for the assessment of the concentration of nutrients in infant and follow-on formula (referred to as "formula") are essential in the evaluation whether the composition deviates from the compositional provisions as laid down by law. Many standardized analytical methods for the analysis of nutrients in infant formula are internationally available.
Bedrijfsovername in de multifunctionele landbouw ; juridische en fiscale consequenties van diverse rechtsvormen
Stokkers, R. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Dekking, A.J.G. - \ 2012
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO 521) - 42
multifunctionele landbouw - bedrijfsopvolging in de landbouw - eigendomsoverdrachten - recht - Nederland - multifunctional agriculture - farm succession - property transfers - law - Netherlands
Bedrijfsovername in de multifunctionele landbouw is een betrekkelijk nieuw fenomeen, omdat veel bedrijven pas één generatie geleden zijn gestart. De overname van een multifunctionele landbouwbedrijf is anders dan die van een gangbaar landbouwbedrijf, omdat er meer takken zijn en vaak ook meerdere opvolgers binnen één onderneming. Daardoor is over dit onderwerp nog weinig kennis beschikbaar, niet alleen bij de bedrijfsopvolgers en, maar ook bij hun accountants en bedrijfsadviseurs. Junior Waardewerken is een innovatienetwerk van 16 jonge multifunctionele ondernemers. De deelnemers aan dit netwerk hebben allemaal de ambitie om op termijn het bedrijf van hun ouders over te nemen. Zij willen daartoe hun kennis over bedrijfsovername in de multifunctionele landbouw vergroten en tevens toegankelijk maken voor toekomstige bedrijfsopvolgers. Dit naslagwerk is geschreven om de bekendheid van (toekomstige) multifunctionele ondernemers en hun adviseurs met de beschikbare rechtsvormen voor agrarische bedrijven te vergroten. Het schenkt aandacht aan de juridische en fiscale consequenties van de diverse ondernemingsvormen bij een normale bedrijfsvoering en bij bedrijfsoverdracht. De theorie wordt geïllustreerd met enkele rekenvoorbeelden voor de multifunctionele landbouw. De informatie kan worden gebruikt voor een goed keuze van de organisatie en rechtsvorm, die rekening houdt met de belangen van zowel bedrijfsverlaters als –opvolgers.
|Roadmap to EU food law
Scholten-Verheijen, I. ; Appelhof, T. ; Heuvel, T. van den; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
Den Haag : Eleven International Publishing (1 ) - ISBN 9789490947262 - 200
voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedsel - regelingen - eu regelingen - recht - beleid inzake voedsel - europese unie - food legislation - food - regulations - eu regulations - law - food policy - european union
International food law is largely a meta-framework, providing models and setting limits to the way states and other entities, such as the European Union, regulate the food sector. The Codex Alimentarius plays a central role at the international level. European law comprises a mix of rules. The core of European food law can be found in a Regulation best known as the 'General Food Law' Regulation. An increasing number of EU Regulations applicable in this field directly address consumers and businesses in the same way national legislation does. In addition, there are EU directives requiring Member States to include harmonized provisions in their national legal system. The private sector has formulated schemes consisting of private standards that are embedded in certification procedures. These schemes are based on EU legislation taking it beyond the borders of the EU, elaborating it in more detail, or simply ensuring compliance. Some schemes are based on international models. This book provides a roadmap of the law applicable to the food sector in the EU. The roadmap provides an overview of the structure and content of food law in such a way that it is clear which rules are applicable.
|Recht en politiek in een tijd van globalisering
Pijnenburg, L.F.P. - \ 2011
Zoetermeer : Klement - ISBN 9789086870615 - 222
internationaal recht - recht - politiek - globalisering - filosofie - nationaal bewustzijn - naties (landen) - psychologie - cultuur - identiteit - culturele psychologie - mensenrechten - morele waarden - moraal - ethiek - europese unie - integratie - besluitvorming - wereld - international law - law - politics - globalization - philosophy - national consciousness - nations - psychology - culture - identity - cultural psychology - human rights - moral values - moral - ethics - european union - integration - decision making - world
Wat betekenen de sterk toegenomen migratie in de wereld en de gestage totstandkoming van een wereldmaatschappij voor de manier waarop we onszelf en de ander zien? Wat zijn de gevolgen van deze globalisering voor ons begrip van politiek en voor de vorming van nationale en culturele identiteiten? Op welke manier kunnen we onze idealen van vrede, vrijheid en rechtvaardigheid op een duurzame manier realiseren in een wereld waarin we steeds meer afhankelijk van elkaar worden? In de hier bijeengebrachte rechts- en politiek-filosofische opstellen verkent Habermas de mogelijkheden van de democratie voorbij de grenzen van de natiestaat, de politieke en morele uitdagingen waarvoor de Europese Unie zich gesteld ziet en de status van de mondiale mensenrechten. Hij ontwikkelt een gedetailleerd, veeldimensionaal model van transnationaal en supranationaal bestuur op basis van het kantiaanse kosmopolitisme en plaatst dit in de context van de negentiende- en twintigste-eeuwse ontwikkelingen op het gebied van het internationaal recht. Wat Europa betreft, bepleit Habermas een politiek van geleidelijke integratie waarbij de belangrijke beslissingen over de toekomst van Europa worden gelegd in de handen van de volken die er deel van uitmaken. Alleen door zich meer en meer te verenigen zal Europa, in nauwe samenwerking met de Verenigde Staten, mede gestalte kunnen geven aan een stabielere en evenwichtiger wereldorde.
Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes
Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food law series 1871-3483) - ISBN 9789086867301 - 435
voedsel - recht - privaatrecht - voedselketens - contracten - regulatie - kwaliteitsnormen - boekhoudcontrole - certificering - governance - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - food - law - private law - food chains - contracts - regulation - quality standards - auditing - certification - governance - food legislation
Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation, in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Other standards focus on corporate social responsibility or sustainability. This book also addresses how private religious standards such as Kosher and Halal play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure.
Van toetsing naar weging? Duurzame gebiedsontwikkeling en natuurwetgeving
Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2011
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 28 (2011)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 17 - 24.
gebiedsontwikkeling - natuurwaarde - ecosysteemdiensten - recht - Nederland - area development - natural value - ecosystem services - law - Netherlands
Het huidige natuurbeschermingsrecht kenmerkt zich door toetsing aan ecologische instandhouding doelstellingen. Duurzame gebiedsontwikkeling vraagt echter niet om toetsing aan eenzijdige criteria, maar om een afweging van meerzijdige sociale, economische en ecologische belangen (people, profit, planet). Het huidige recht vormt dus een blokkade voor duurzame gebiedsontwikkeling.
Governance of the world food system and crisis prevention
Burger, C.P.J. ; Warner, J.F. ; Derix, E. - \ 2010
Culemborg : Platform Agriculture, Innovation & Society / Wageningen UR - 40
governance - voedselzekerheid - voedselveiligheid - sociale crisis - voedselhulp - beleid inzake voedsel - recht - governance - food security - food safety - social crisis - food aid - food policy - law
The present study offers a framework, rooted in Disaster Studies. The next few sections will first discuss the analytical tool box, which we have largely drawn from Disaster Studies. Thereafter the food regime will be looked into in the quantitative (food security, Section 3.1) and qualitative sense (food safety, Section 3.2), and the actors and rules and regulations for international food aid discussed. It will become clear that the private sector has a key role to play in both categories. Chapter 4 calls attention to the increasing complexities and uncertainties in the global food system that complicate food governance. To get anything done at all, a simplification seems necessary, such as declaring a food problem a safety issue.
Behavioural change as a key to sustainable agriculture
Lauwere, C.C. de; Pierick, E. ten; Beekman, V. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van - \ 2010
In: Global food security: ethical and legal challenges, EurSafe 2010, 16-18 September 2010. - Bilbao : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861545 - p. 91 - 96.
voedselzekerheid - recht - klimaatverandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouwbeleid - wereld - aquacultuur - biotechnologie - octrooien - volksgezondheid - voeding - etiketteren - bescherming van de consument - ethiek - dierenwelzijn - beleid inzake voedsel - sociale ethiek - Nederland - food security - law - climatic change - sustainability - agricultural policy - world - aquaculture - biotechnology - patents - public health - nutrition - labelling - consumer protection - ethics - animal welfare - food policy - social ethics - Netherlands
Food security will exist when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (as stated in the Rome Declaration in 1996). Given the dimension of the current global food crisis, food security means adopting effective and specific actions at individual, household, national, regional and global levels. Food security invites us to reflect upon ethical principles like human equity, justice between current and future generations, respect for human dignity and sustainable food production. We strive to maintain our basic ethical convictions and engage in societal debates about other important values. While we do this, we may have to change our ways of life and learn to create new priorities in the face of global responsibility. Science and technology are key tools to reach the Millennium Goals, providing both society and decision makers alike with relevant information and new options within an ethical framework. The contributions found in this publication bring together the perspectives of a diverse group of authors. Coming from the academic world, the public sector and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), they provide the latest views on 'Global food security: ethical and legal challenges'.
Plurality of religion, plurality of justice : exploring the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique
Jacobs, C. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. von Benda-Beckmann, co-promotor(en): K. von Benda-Beckmann. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858010 - 262
recht - rechtssystemen - sociale systemen - cultuur - religie - conflict - pluriforme samenleving - mozambique - christendom - conflictmanagement - law - legal systems - social systems - culture - religion - conflict - plural society - mozambique - christianity - conflict management
Secularisation and modernisation theories long predicted the demise of supernatural forces in the lives of people after the Enlightenment. By the end of the twentieth century however, scholars slowly came to recognise that a belief in the supernatural was not disappearing at all but, in fact, gaining momentum in many parts of the world, especially in the global South. Religion is (back) at the centre of attention. The current attention, however, appears to be mainly to religion in a negative sense; to fundamentalism and religiously-oriented wars that are wreaking havoc in many parts of the world. Less effort has been made to come to an understanding of the role of religion in disputes that are not necessarily about religion. This dissertation explores the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, a district in Central Mozambique. Religion might provide important orientations to people on how to behave in everyday life vis-à-vis each other and vis-à-vis the spiritual world. But which normative orientations does religion provide to people in the prevention, mediation, and resolution of disputes?
In Chapter 1, theoretical approaches towards religion and disputing are discussed. Central to religion is a belief in spiritual beings, which provides normative orientations to people. In the context of Gorongosa, Christianity and traditional religion play important roles. The latter is usually referred to simply as ‘tradition’ by people in Gorongosa. After the discussion of religion, follows a discussion of theoretical approaches towards processes of disputing in the context of legal pluralism. At the end of the chapter, the selection of Gorongosa, Mozambique for the study is explained and the field site is introduced.
Chapter 2 provides a historical overview of key developments in Mozambique in general, and in Gorongosa in particular, especially in relation to governance and religion. Crucial legal changes are described and how they have affected the society of Gorongosa. It is shown that the first lasting evangelisation in Gorongosa started only in 1947, which is relatively recent. Therefore, many of the older people still vividly recall times in which traditional beliefs held a more central role.
Chapter 3 further elaborates on the changes brought to society and individuals in this society from early Christianisation onwards. Today, plurality of religion is ingrained in both society and individuals. In this chapter, I describe the way in which people identify with tradition and Christianity in discourse and in praxis. Many people define themselves as Christians, but when looking for normative orientations to guide their behaviour, they frequently shift between tradition and Christianity. Both categories of religion play a role in providing normative orientations and spiritual security to people in a rapidly changing world. When people in Gorongosa, refer to religion, they are typically referring to Christianity, not to traditional religion. It is argued that this is partly due to missionary discourse that defines Christianity as the one and only religion. Not defining tradition in the same terms as Christianity makes the two categories more compatible. It also makes it easier for people to more efficiently shop at the religious marketplace when they are in search of normative orientations.
In Chapter 4, I present a case study of a conflict over land in the Gorongosa district. At the centre of the conflict between the local population and the Gorongosa National Park was a mountain. For the Park management, the mountain was of interest because it is part of the park’s watershed and, it was argued, essential for the Park’s ecosystem. For the local population, the mountain is an important resource, with fertile lands due to the favourable climatic conditions. Additionally, certain parts of the mountain are believed to be sacred and access is tightly regulated due to ritual prescriptions laid down by the ancestral spirits. The case shows how people can empower themselves by referring to the spirits.
The role of religious leaders in disputing processes is described in Chapter 5. The first part of the chapter describes the way in which spirit mediums participate in the disputing process by first revealing the spiritual truth and subsequently by retaliation. Only once these phases have been fulfilled, steps can be taken towards reconciliation. Special attention is paid to ‘the video’; an innovative method to reveal the truth that one of the spirit mediums in Gorongosa introduced early 2008. Within a couple of weeks, this method was fully accepted by large parts of the population. I show that the instrument was innovative, yet strongly rooted in tradition. The second part of the chapter shows the mediatory role of the pastors in disputes. Pastors follow a different path through the disputing process than spirit mediums, but they strive for a similar aim; reconciliation. To achieve reconciliation, pastors first pray and read the Bible with the disputing parties. The next step is mutual forgiveness. Once this is done, the way to reconciliation is open. Pastors mainly intervene in conflicts that people want to keep ‘within the house’.
In Chapter 6, I move from the religious realms to the staterooms of disputing; the police station and the district court. While religion does appear in these settings, it is mainly traditional religion, via a reference to the spirits. People – plaintiffs and defendants alike – allocate responsibility to the spirits to justify or explain their behaviour and to defend their rights. Although many of the local state officials share a belief in ‘the spirits of tradition’ with their subjects, ‘spiritual arguments’ are seldom taken into consideration in the decision-making stage of the disputing process. I show that this sometimes leads to dissatisfaction among the disputants, who subsequently turn their backs on the state and search for a solution outside the control of the state.
Neighbourhood secretaries, community courts, and régulos are more or less hybrid authorities who have more freedom to accommodate a wide range of arguments when they are consulted to mediate in conflicts. In Chapter 7, I show that these authorities not only assist in the mediation of a wider range of arguments, but that they themselves also actively invoke normative orientations provided by both Christianity and traditional religion. Although these shifts in orientations might seem inconsistent, I argue that they are in line with the shifting orientations of their subjects, as presented in Chapter 3.
In Chapter 8, I will describe the ‘problem of order’ that the Mozambican state faces. In recent years, Mozambique has been increasingly affected by waves of ‘private justice’; often very violent forms of justice that citizens impose with their own hands. Targets of these acts of justice are mainly people suspected of crimes, witchcraft, or a combination of the two. I describe several of these incidents and discuss in which way they are linked to each other. I argue that this private justice should be understood as a questioning of the order that is imposed by the state. I use this phenomenon of private justice to show that to regain control the state is driven to cooperate with other authorities who are more trusted by the people. After independence, the Mozambican state has taken a strongly secular stance and rejected religion. Yet, the acts of private justice led the local state administration in Gorongosa to seek the cooperation of church leaders to indirectly sensitise the population. But typically, no such cooperation has been solicited from the spirit mediums. The state thus seems to be approaching the Christian leaders but much less the spirit mediums. This is despite the fact that both categories of religious leaders feel they are able to give their responses to these forms of violence meant to impose justice.
In the concluding chapter of this dissertation, Chapter 9, I come back to the main question: what role does religion play in disputing processes? It is argued that religion plays a role not only through religious leaders who engage in the mediation of disputes but also via normative orientations that might prevent conflicts from taking place. Moreover, religion is not as absent in secular rooms of disputing as might be expected. Spirits, particularly, also play a role in disputes taken to the police station and district court, yet, their role is often downplayed as being insignificant. For complainants and defendants however, this is often a crucial aspect in a conflict and when not recognised within the secular rooms of the state, people can turn their backs to the state and find justice somewhere else. In conclusion, I argue that a plurality of religion contributes to a plurality of justice in Gorongosa via the different normative orientations it provides.
Governing food security. Law, politics and the right to food
Hospes, O. ; Hadiprayitno, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for food law series no. 5) - ISBN 9789086861576 - 380
voedselzekerheid - mensenrechten - recht - politiek - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselveiligheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - governance - food security - human rights - law - politics - food policy - food safety - food legislation - governance
With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, food security still is a dream rather than reality: 'a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. Political commitments at world summits on food security, market-based agricultural policies, science-based food safety regulation and voluntary guidelines on the right to food have not ended hunger, malnourishment or food safety crises in our world. The question arises whether food insecurity is a situation that exists in spite of these commitments and legal measures, or rather due to them? This book has three purposes. Firstly, it offers insights in how law, politics and the right to food contribute to food security in both positive and negative ways. For this purpose, different theories, concepts and methodologies from legal, political, anthropological and sociological sciences are used and developed. Secondly, the book explains that food security and food policies cannot be treated as given, at one level or in one domain only. This is done in different ways: by pointing out the emergence of new paradigms on food security, human rights and science that shape food policies; by showing how law and policies at one level affect food security at another level; and by treating food security and food policies as linked to governance regimes of agriculture, food, feed, water or property. Finally, the book offers scholarly analysis of paradigms and practices but also presents social science-based ways to indirectly contribute to food security, varying from improving justiciability to building trust, from seeking ways to address non-scientific concerns to creating room for plurality of lifestyles and norms, from unmasking dominant discourse to understanding or strengthening abilities or arrangements to cope with vulnerability.