Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
    Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts, co-promotor(en): G.B.M. Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
    europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

    In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

    The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

    The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

    Research questions

    The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

    What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

    What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

    How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

    How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

    Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

    Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

    Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

    Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

    Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

    The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

    The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

    Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

    The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

    The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

    European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

    Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

    Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

    Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

    Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

    Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

    Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

    Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

    De kracht van bundeling : samenwerking rond kennis en innovatie in zeven Greenportregio’s
    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Os, G.J. van - \ 2015
    tuinbouw - samenwerking - nederland - regio's - interdisciplinair onderzoek - publiek-private samenwerking - horticulture - cooperation - netherlands - regions - interdisciplinary research - public-private cooperation
    Deze brochure belicht uit elke Greenportregio ( Noord-Holland Noord, Aalsmeer, Westland-Oostland, Duin- & Bollenstreek, Boskoop, Gelderland en Venlo ) een inspirerend facet van de samenwerking. Dit is een reflectie op de organisatie, aansturing, de successen, leerpunten en eye-openers. Deze reflectie is het resultaat van monitoring en evaluatie die gedurende vier jaar is uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR (beleidsondersteunend onderzoek, ministerie van Economische Zaken)
    How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment?
    Biber, P. ; Borges, J.G. ; Moshammer, R. ; Barreiro, S. ; Botequim, B. ; Brodrechtová, Y. ; Brukas, V. ; Chirici, G. ; Cordero-Debets, R. ; Corrigan, E. ; Eriksson, L.O. ; Favero, M. ; Galev, E. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kavaliauskas, M. ; Marchetti, M. ; Marques, S. ; Mozgeris, G. ; Navrátil, R. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Orazio, C. ; Paligorov, I. ; Pettenella, D. ; Sedmák, R. ; Smrecek, R. ; Stanislovaitis, A. ; Tomé, M. ; Trubins, R. ; Tucek, J. ; Vizzarri, M. ; Wallin, I. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Sallnäs, O. - \ 2015
    Forests 6 (2015)5. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1666 - 1695.
    scenario analysis - simulator silva - climate-change - management - growth - tree - impacts - regions - yield - stand
    While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.
    Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level
    Carter, S.L. ; Herold, M. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Neumann, K. ; Kooistra, L. ; Verchot, L. - \ 2015
    Biogeosciences 12 (2015). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4809 - 4825.
    greenhouse-gas mitigation - carbon stocks - deforestation - intensification - food - 21st-century - cropland - policies - regions - maps
    Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available non-forest land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector could reduce deforestation emissions as well as reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics between 2000 and 2010. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics (97 countries) are 4.3 GtCO2e yr-1. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agricultural emissions on existing agriculture land. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, with potential for forest-sparing interventions and a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), there is a potential to mitigate 1.3 GtCO2e yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agricultural emissions as a priority for mitigation, up to 1 GtCO2e yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from implementing interventions based on national level data call for detailed investigation at the local level to inform decisions on mitigation interventions. Three case studies demonstrate the use of the analytical framework. The inherent link between the agriculture and forestry sectors due to competition for land suggests that these sectors cannot be considered independently. Our findings highlight the need to include the forest and the agricultural sectors in the decision-making process to mitigate deforestation.
    Bouwstenen voor verduurzaming van het kennis- en innovatienetwerk in het Greenport Regio Boskoop
    Derkx, M.P.M. ; Dijkshoorn, M.W.C. ; Dolmans, N.G.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR - 53
    boomteelt - kennissystemen - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - samenwerking - regio's - agrarisch onderwijs - doelstellingen - arboriculture - knowledge systems - innovations - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - cooperation - regions - agricultural education - objectives
    In de Greenportregio Boskoop staan kennisvalorisatie en innovatie volop in de belangstelling. Binnen het project Kennis & Innovatie Impuls wordt sinds 2010 nauw samengewerkt tussen partijen in de regio op het gebied van kennis, innovatie en onderwijs. In 2013 heeft in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken een impactmeting plaatsgevonden om de effecten van de diverse kennis- en innovatie-activiteiten in de regio in beeld te kunnen brengen. De impactmeting heeft laten zien dat de Greenportregio Boskoop nadrukkelijk op de kaart staat en dat kennis steeds beter beschikbaar komt en beter benut wordt. De regio kent een intensief netwerk en er wordt steeds meer samengewerkt. Dit begint ook zijn vruchten af te werpen. Ondernemers werken bijvoorbeeld meer samen en kunnen daardoor een bredere markt bewerken en bedienen. Samenwerking in de Greenportregio Boskoop blijkt echter nog veel naar binnen gericht te zijn. Er liggen kansen wanneer er verbindingen gelegd worden met andere regio’s, andere sectoren, andere greenports en internationaal. Het project Kennis & Innovatie Impuls is in de afrondende fase. De provincie Zuid Holland onderkent de noodzaak tot innovatie en het volledig benutten van kennis in haar provinciale Greenportbeleid en geeft daaraan prioriteit. De provincie wil dit bereiken via een netwerk van complementaire Greenport IDC’s, waarbinnen ondernemers in de tuinbouwsector innovatieve methoden, technieken en apparatuur kunnen uittesten en leren implementeren in hun bedrijfsvoering, waardoor kennis kan worden omgezet in nieuwe verdienmodellen op de markt. Daarom heeft de provincie een subsidie verleend voor een verkenning naar de wijze waarop een IDC voor de boom- en heesterteelt, - een IDC Bomen - het best kan worden opgezet: via aansluiting en onderbrengen van functies bij aanpalende IDC’s of via een apart op te zetten IDC Bomen. Parallel hieraan wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van EZ, - voortbouwend op de impactmeting, - gewerkt aan het leveren van bouwstenen voor een verdienmodel om het opgebouwde kennis- en innovatienetwerk te verduurzamen. In dit onderzoek zijn er gesprekken gevoerd met belanghebbenden in de regio en heeft een aantal brainstormsessies plaatsgevonden. Daarnaast zijn er gesprekken gevoerd met vertegenwoordigers van andere IDC’s in de provincie Zuid Holland en met de Innovatie Motor Greenport Aalsmeer. Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek kan geconcludeerd worden dat een IDC Bomen een goede formule is om aan vraagstukken op het gebied van kennis en innovatie te werken omdat in andere greenports ook via een dergelijke formule gewerkt wordt aan dergelijke vraagstukken. Dit geeft herkenbaarheid in aanpak en in financiering. Het verdient aanbeveling een apart IDC Bomen op te zetten en van daaruit samen te werken met andere IDC’s. Het alleen aansluiten en onderbrengen van functies bij aanpalende IDC’s brengt te weinig herkenbaarheid en te weinig focus op de boomkwekerijsector. De meeste IDC’s in Zuid Holland zijn immers volledig op de glastuinbouw- en thema gericht.
    Kennis en innovatiesystemen in de Greenportregio’s : Notitie monitor Agrivizier 2014
    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Os, G.J. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Notitie ) - 7
    kennisoverdracht - innovaties - regio's - regionaal landbouwbeleid - economische samenwerking - knowledge transfer - innovations - regions - regional agricultural policy - economic cooperation
    Deze notitie beschrijft de tussentijdse stand van zaken van een monitorings en evaluatietraject 2012–2015 in het kader van het onderzoeksthema Methodieken Kennisoverdracht. De ontwikkelingen en de verankering van samenwerking in regionale kennis en innovatiesystemen wordt bestudeerd in zeven Greenportregio’s: Westland Oostland (Innovatie en Demonstratie Centra), Duin en Bollenstreek (IDC Bollen en Vaste planten), Noord Holland Noord (Agrivizier), Greenport Gelderland (voorheen Betuwse Bloem), Boskoop (Kennis en Innovatie Impuls), Aalsmeer (Innovatiemotor) en Venlo (GreenBrains). De studie richt zich specifiek op: Het monitoren en evalueren van het samenwerkingsproces om de regio’s zowel intern als regio overstijgend een spiegel met geleerde lessen voor te houden en ‘best practices’ te documenteren. En het leveren van kennis op maat op basis van specifieke vragen van de betreffende Greenportregio’s.
    Innovatie- en Demonstratiecentrum Bomen in de Greenport Regio Boskoop : een verkenning naar de wijze van opzet en invulling
    Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 51
    boomkwekerijen - regio's - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agrarisch onderwijs - opleiding - participatie - instellingen - doelgroepen - organisaties - innovaties - forest nurseries - regions - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - sustainability - agricultural education - training - participation - institutions - target groups - organizations - innovations
    Het doel van het project Kennis & Innovatie Impuls Greenportregio Boskoop is een extra impuls te geven aan het innovatieve vermogen van het greenportcluster boomkwekerij, aan het delen en toepassen van (nieuwe) kennis, aan duurzaam ondernemerschap en het zorgen voor voldoende en gekwalificeerd groen personeel voor de toekomst. Met het project wordt een ‘lerend ondernemersnetwerk’ tot stand gebracht waarin alle relevante regiopartijen participeren. Doelgroepen van het EFRO-project zijn ondernemers, kennisinstellingen (onderzoeks-, onderwijs- en adviespartijen) en overheden actief in de regio Boskoop. Een verkenning naar de wijze van opzet en invulling.
    Monitoring cashew seedlings during interactions with the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging
    Muniz, C.R. ; Freire, F.C.O. ; Viana, F.M.P. ; Cardoso, J.E. ; Sousa, C.A.F. ; Guedes, M.I.F. ; Schoor, R. van der; Jalink, H. - \ 2014
    Photosynthetica 52 (2014)4. - ISSN 0300-3604 - p. 529 - 537.
    plant-pathogen interactions - a fluorescence - photosynthetic responses - leaves - identification - parameters - infection - regions - stress
    The chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence imaging technique was applied to cashew seedlings inoculated with the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae to assess any disturbances in the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants before the onset of visual symptoms. Two-month-old cashew plants were inoculated with mycelium of L. theobromae isolate Lt19 or Lt32. Dark-adapted and light-acclimated whole plants or previously labelled, single, mature leaf from each plant were evaluated weekly for Chl fluorescence parameters. From 21 to 28 days, inoculation with both isolates resulted in the significantly lower maximal photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) than those for control samples, decreasing from values of 0.78 to 0.62. In contrast, the time response of the measured fluorescence transient curve from dark-acclimated plants increased in both whole plants and single mature leaves in inoculated plants compared with controls. The Fv/Fm images clearly exhibited photosynthetic perturbations 14 days after inoculation before any visual symptoms appeared. Additionally, decays in the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and photochemical quenching coefficient were also observed over time. However, nonphotochemical quenching increased during the evaluation period. We conclude that Fv/Fm images are the effective way of detecting early metabolic perturbations in the photosynthetic apparatus of cashew seedlings caused by gummosis in both whole plants and single leaves and could be potentially employed in larger-scale screening systems.
    Op zoek naar de verbinding, Handelingsperspectieven voor het Rijk om concurrentiekracht van regio’s te versterken
    Fontein, R.J. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Coninx, I. ; Michels, R. ; Pleijte, M. ; Kranendonk, R.P. ; Kruit, J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2524) - 45
    economische sectoren - regionale planning - concurrerend vermogen - regio's - overheidsbeleid - landbouwsector - economic sectors - regional planning - competitive ability - regions - government policy - agricultural sector
    Deze notitie schetst handelingsperspectieven voor het Rijk om vanuit haar rol en verantwoordelijkheden concurrentiekracht van regio’s te versterken. Op basis van uitgebreid onderzoek in drie regio’s 1) co-siting in het haven- en industriecomplex, 2) Agrofoodcluster FoodValley en 3) Energy Valley zijn praktische handelingsperspectieven ontwikkeld om regionale concurrentiekracht te versterken. Het onderzoek maakt duidelijk dat het Rijk verschillende handelingsperspectieven kan inzetten op basis van verschillende concurrentiestrategieën en rollen, waarbij maatwerk vereist is.
    Ontwerp beoordelingskader nieuwe stelsel agrarisch natuurbeheer
    Melman, T.C.P. ; Hammers, M. ; Clement, J. ; Schmidt, A.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2503) - 44
    agrarisch natuurbeheer - samenwerking - regio's - beoordeling - monitoring - agri-environment schemes - cooperation - regions - assessment - monitoring
    In het nieuwe stelsel agrarisch natuurbeheer dat per 2016 operationeel moet zijn, worden door streekcollectieven gebiedsaanvragen ingediend die door de overheid beoordeeld moeten worden. Hiervoor is een beoordelingskader ontworpen. Ecologische effectiviteit en economische efficiëntie zijn hiervan belangrijke aspecten. Het beoordelingskader begint bij het benoemen van doelen, het identificeren van gebieden die hiervoor potenties hebben, kennis die nodig is over ecologische randvoorwaarden en loopt tot het beoordelen van de plannen voor het realiseren van omstandigheden waarmee die doelen gerealiseerd kunnen worden. Een schets van het beoordelingsproces wordt gegeven en aandachtspunten worden geformuleerd voor het verder doorontwikkelen van de beoordelingssystematiek. Omdat de overheid veel ruimte aan initiatieven van de collectieven wil geven is belangrijk dat de beoordelingssystematiek breed wordt gedragen en zowel door beoordelaars als de opstellers van de gebiedsaanvragen kan worden benaderd. Daartoe is ook een ontwerpschets gemaakt van een online kennis- en beoordelingssysteem.
    Kennis- en innovatiesystemen in de Greenportregio’s: tweede tussenrapportage resultaten monitoringstudie
    Geerling-Eiff, F.A. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Potters, J.I. ; Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 76
    tuinbouw - bloembollen - boomkwekerijen - kennissystemen - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - agro-industriële ketens - ondernemerschap - samenwerking - monitoring - regio's - horticulture - ornamental bulbs - forest nurseries - knowledge systems - innovations - knowledge transfer - agro-industrial chains - entrepreneurship - cooperation - monitoring - regions
    In deze tweede tussenrapportage staan de tussentijdse resultaten beschreven van de monitoringstudie naar de totstandkoming van regionale kennis - en innovatiesysteem binnen de zeven Greenportregio’s Noord - Holland Noord, Betuwse Bloem, Westland - Oostland, Dui n - en Bollenstreek, Boskoop, Aalsmeer en Venlo. In de zeven bestudeerde Greenportregio’s wordt gewerkt aan het versterken van de concurrentiekracht van de tuinbouwsector, vanuit een regionale positie. Om concurrentie vanuit omringende landen tegen te gaan is het van belang de positie te kunnen handhaven en te versterken. Meer inzet van kennis, innovatie en ondernemerschap is hiervoor een vereiste. Dit kan door in te zetten op een aantal (baanbrekende) innovaties die aansluiten bij de huidige vraagstukken en die leiden tot nieuwe business. Elke Greenportregio heeft hierin zijn eigen speerpunten en aanpak. Versterking is mogelijk door bedrijven, kennisinstellingen en overheden in de regio te verbinden en samen te laten werken aan nieuwe business
    Exploring the 'New Rural Paradigm' in Europe: eco-economic strategies as a counterforce to the global competitiveness agenda
    Horlings, L.G. ; Marsden, T.K. - \ 2014
    European Urban and Regional Studies 21 (2014)1. - ISSN 0969-7764 - p. 4 - 20.
    ecological modernization - agrofood geographies - food - regions - uk
    Rural regions in Europe are facing diverging pathways of development. On the one hand, the influence of urbanisation and the intensification and continued up-scaling of agriculture make it more difficult for many regions to remain distinctive and increase sustainability. Places, as well as goods and services, have become increasingly interchangeable. For many regions an obvious choice is to compete with other regions for global mobile capital and labour. On the other hand, and as a counterforce to these global logics, new strategies, which are more place-based, are being developed, such as the construction of identities or images around new agricultural goods and services. These strategies can be seen in the context of the ‘New Rural Paradigm’ for European rural regions. In the search for new trajectories for sustainable development, different models can be identified: the bio-economy paradigm and the eco-economy. Each model has its own sustainability claim and can be analysed in the context of the overarching development theory of ecological modernisation. The central question in this article is what types of strategies and pathways for eco-economic development can be witnessed in rural regions in Europe? The empirical analysis is based on 62 European cases. Three key eco-economic strategies that show a shift from an agricultural-based development to a more integrative rural and regionally based development are identified. The article concludes with some consistent parameters for understanding the dynamic complexity of rural regional development.
    Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?
    Ent, R.J. van der; Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Knoche, H.R. ; Kunstmann, H. ; Savenije, H.H.G. - \ 2013
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17 (2013)12. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4869 - 4884.
    water-vapor - deuterium excess - hydrologic-cycle - climate model - part ii - precipitation - rainfall - regions - deforestation - dispersion
    This paper compares state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. There are several atmospheric moisture tracking methods in use. However, depending on the level of aggregation, the assumptions made and the level of detail, the performance of these methods may differ substantially. In this paper, we compare three methods. The RCM-tag method uses highly accurate 3-D water tracking (including phase transitions) directly within a regional climate model (online), while the other two methods (WAM and 3D-T) use a posteriori (offline) water vapour tracking. The original version of WAM is a single-layer model, while 3D-T is a multi-layer model, but both make use the "well-mixed" assumption for evaporation and precipitation. The a posteriori models are faster and more flexible, but less accurate than online moisture tracking with RCM-tag. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the a posteriori models, we tagged evaporated water from Lake Volta in West Africa and traced it to where it precipitates. It is found that the strong wind shear in West Africa is the main cause of errors in the a posteriori models. The number of vertical layers and the initial release height of tagged water in the model are found to have the most significant influences on the results. With this knowledge small improvements have been made to the a posteriori models. It appeared that expanding WAM to a 2-layer model, or a lower release height in 3D-T, led to significantly better results. Finally, we introduced a simple metric to assess wind shear globally and give recommendations about when to use which model. The "best" method, however, very much depends on the research question, the spatial extent under investigation, as well as the available computational power.
    Land atmosphere feedbacks and their role in the water resources of the Ganges basin
    Harding, R.J. ; Blyth, E.M. ; Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Wiltshire, A. - \ 2013
    Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2013). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. S85 - S92.
    asian summer monsoon - mixed-layer model - soil-moisture - climate-change - variability - evaporation - irrigation - precipitation - regions - scheme
    The northern Indian subcontinent has frequently been identified as a hotspot for land atmosphere interactions. It is also a region with the highest concentration of irrigated land and highest (and increasing) population density in the world. The available water in the region with which to grow food depends on the Asian monsoon, groundwater and melt from Himalayan snows. Any changes or disruptions to these sources of water could threaten the food supply. It is therefore essential to understand how the land surface, and in particular irrigated land, interacts with the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the interactions will occur on many scales. To an extent the magnitude and form of these will depend on the depth of the atmosphere which is affected. Thus at the local, or micro, scale it is the surface layer (some 10s m deep) which is cooled and moistened by the evaporation of irrigated water, at the meso-scale the Planetary boundary layer (up to 1 or 2 km) will be modified with possible atmospheric moistening, increased cloud and rain formation and at very large scales the whole dynamics of the south Asian Monsoon will be affected. This illustrates a strong interaction between the Asian monsoon and the regional topography. Of considerable significance is the finding in this paper that up to 60% of the evaporation from irrigated areas in the summer months is ultimately recycled to Himalayan rainfall and so feedbacks to river flows in the Ganges. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Conventional tree height-diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin
    Kearsley, E. ; Haulleville, T. de; Hufkens, K. ; Kidimbu, A. ; Toirambe, B. ; Baert, G. ; Huygens, D. ; Kebede, Y. ; Defourny, P. ; Bogaert, J. ; Beeckman, H. ; Steppe, K. ; Boeckx, P. ; Verbeeck, H. - \ 2013
    Nature Communications 4 (2013). - ISSN 2041-1723
    tropical forests - landscape-scale - central-africa - live biomass - land-use - climate - deforestation - emissions - impacts - regions
    Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation largely depend on accurate estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks. Here we present the first field-based carbon stock data for the Central Congo Basin in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo. We find an average aboveground carbon stock of 162 +/- 20 Mg C ha(-1) for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. The best available tree height-diameter relationships derived for Central Africa do not render accurate canopy height estimates for our study area. Aboveground carbon stocks would be overestimated by 24% if these inaccurate relationships were used. The studied forests have a lower stature compared with forests in the outer regions of the basin, which confirms remotely sensed patterns. Additionally, we find an average soil carbon stock of 111 +/- 24 Mg C ha(-1), slightly influenced by the current land-use change.
    A high-resolution bioclimate map of the world: a unifying framework for global biodiversity research and monitoring
    Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Sayre, R. ; Trabucco, A. ; Zomer, R. - \ 2013
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 22 (2013)5. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 630 - 638.
    conterminous united-states - climate-change - land classification - observing system - europe - stratification - ecoregions - impacts - regions - trends
    Aim To develop a novel global spatial framework for the integration and analysis of ecological and environmental data. Location The global land surface excluding Antarctica. Methods A broad set of climate-related variables were considered for inclusion in a quantitative model, which partitions geographic space into bioclimate regions. Statistical screening produced a subset of relevant bioclimate variables, which were further compacted into fewer independent dimensions using principal components analysis (PCA). An ISODATA clustering routine was then used to classify the principal components into relatively homogeneous environmental strata. The strata were aggregated into global environmental zones based on the attribute distances between strata to provide structure and support a consistent nomenclature. Results The global environmental stratification (GEnS) consists of 125 strata, which have been aggregated into 18 global environmental zones. The stratification has a 30 arcsec resolution (equivalent to 0.86 km2 at the equator). Aggregations of the strata were compared with nine existing global, continental and national bioclimate and ecosystem classifications using the Kappa statistic. Values range between 0.54 and 0.72, indicating good agreement in bioclimate and ecosystem patterns between existing maps and the GEnS. Main conclusions The GEnS provides a robust spatial analytical framework for the aggregation of local observations, identification of gaps in current monitoring efforts and systematic design of complementary and new monitoring and research. The dataset is available for non-commercial use through the GEO portal (http://www.geoportal.org).
    Impactmeting : Greenportregio Boskoop als collectief agrarisch kennis- en innovatienetwerk
    Derkx, M.P.M. ; Jong, L.W. de; Geerling-Eiff, F.A. - \ 2013
    Lisse : PPO Sector BBF - 25
    boomteelt - innovaties - kennis - kennisvalorisatie - tuinbouw - stimulatie - regio's - arboriculture - innovations - knowledge - knowledge exploitation - horticulture - stimulation - regions
    In het EFRO-project (Europees Fonds voor Regionale Ontwikkeling) Kennis & Innovatie Impuls Greenportregio Boskoop wordt gewerkt aan het realiseren van een efficiënt, doeltreffend en samenhangend kennis- en innovatiesysteem voor het stimuleren van kennisverbreding en kennisverspreiding en voor het stimuleren van innovatie in de boomteeltsector. Het project draagt bij aan de versterking van de Greenportregio Boskoop als bloeiend centrum voor kennis en innovatie. De stichting Greenport Boskoop is penvoerder van het EFRO-project. Om de effecten van de diverse kennis- en innovatieactiviteiten in de regio in beeld te kunnen brengen is als cofinancierend onderdeel van het EFRO-project binnen het T&U-onderzoeksthema (tuinbouw en uitgangsmaterialen) Methodieken Kennisoverdracht een impactmeting uitgevoerd. Dit thema wordt in opdracht van de topsector T&U uitgevoerd. De impactmeting is gebaseerd op 11 tafelinterviews en 5 telefonische interviews met verschillende groepen belanghebbenden. De impactmeting heeft geresulteerd in een overzicht van bereikte resultaten, verbeterpunten en suggesties voor toekomstige projecten om verdere ontwikkeling te realiseren. Kennis & Innovatie Impuls is een opbrengst van de Greenport Boskoop en is een van de vele activiteiten binnen deze Greenport. Voor de geïnterviewden was het soms lastig om een onderscheid te maken tussen de impact van het project Kennis & Innovatie Impuls en de impact van de Greenport Boskoop in generieke zin. Anderzijds blijkt daaruit ook de interactie tussen beiden. De impactmeting heeft laten zien dat vrijwel alle doelen uit het EFRO-werkplan gerealiseerd zijn, met uitzondering van de doelstelling om een vergrote uitstroom van gekwalificeerde vakkrachten uit het regulier beroepsonderwijs te krijgen voor de boomkwekerij in de regio. Uit de interviews blijkt dat dit vooral te maken had met de economische crisis waardoor er sprake was van een overschot aan arbeidskrachten in plaats van het in 2009 voorziene tekort.
    Meetingpoint als centrum voor innovatief vakmanschap voor de boomkwekerij : Leren Greenport Boskoop en Omstreken : tussenrapportage en ideeontwikkeling
    Jong, L.W. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving - 5
    boomkwekerijen - kennisoverdracht - onderwijsleerdoelen - ondernemerschap - regio's - agrarisch onderwijs - innovaties - samenwerking - vakbekwaamheid - professionaliteit - forest nurseries - knowledge transfer - educational objectives - entrepreneurship - regions - agricultural education - innovations - cooperation - professional competence - professionalism
    In 2012 is in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) in de greenportregio’s Venlo, Rivierengebied (Betuwse Bloem), Westland/Lansingerland, Boskoop, Aalsmeer, Duin6 en Kuststreek en Noord6Holland Noord de ontwikkeling van nieuwe kennisstructuren t.b.v. de groene sector gemonitord. De resultaten van deze monitor zijn basiselementen voor een landelijke aanpak op basis van de "Gouden Driehoek". Naast het monitoren en evalueren (M&E) zijn er in een aantal van de bovengenoemde regio’s acties uitgevoerd om daarmee de betreffende regio te ondersteunen. Er is vooral gewerkt aan het verbinden van de visie aan de impact voor de werkvloer. In Greenport Boskoop en Omstreken is de ondersteuning van de Human Capital Agenda (HCA) Tuinbouw en Uitgangsmaterialen (T&U) als een speerpunt gekozen. Een van de specifieke elementen van de HCA is de uitrol van de business case ‘Centrum voor Innovatief Vakmanschap Tuinbouw en Uitgangsmateriaal (‘Greenport Talent Centre’) (CIV)’. Die aanpak beoogt competenties te verdiepen en te verbreden door kennis, (vak)vaardigheden, (algemene) vaardigheden, persoonlijke kwaliteiten en context te verbinden. Daarbij wordt specifieke input van het bedrijfsleven gevraagd als aanvulling en versterking van de opleidingscentra.
    Weidevogelkerngebieden; mogelijke betekenis, praktische doorwerking
    Melman, Dick - \ 2013
    grassland birds - nature management - regions - concentration - feasibility studies
    Versterken van de positie van de school in de regio
    Beers, P.J. ; Sol, A.J. ; Beckhoven, K. van; Essing, D. ; Kupper, F. ; Meij, M. van der; Rooze, R. ; Clasquin, A. ; Pillen, T. ; Mulder, E. ; Waggelink, W. ; Nawijn, A. ; Fokkema, R. - \ 2013
    [Wageningen] : Wageningen University - 54
    regioleren - onderwijsinstellingen - publiek-private samenwerking - netwerken (activiteit) - regio - kennisoverdracht - onderwijsmethoden - onderwijsvernieuwing - Nederland - regional atelier - educational institutions - public-private cooperation - networking - regions - knowledge transfer - teaching methods - educational innovation - Netherlands
    Samen met studenten werken aan een betere toekomst voor de regio. Dat is regioleren. Ondernemers, overheden en maatschappelijke organisaties bepalen de agenda en werken samen met onderwijs en onderzoek aan oplossingen. Waar liggen de uitdagingen? Voor de instellingen is het een belangrijke uitdaging om aansluiting te vinden bij de regio. Hoe verander je van een onderwijsinstelling in een regionaal kenniscentrum? Hoe wordt je een volwaardige partner in een kenniswerkplaats? Een tweede belangrijke uitdaging ligt in de koppeling van het leren in de regio aan de lerende regio. In het programma Regionale Transitie is deze taak bij de kenniswerkplaatsen gelegd. De kenniswerkplaats is gebaseerd op een gezamenlijke regionale kennisagenda van overheid, ondernemers, maatschappelijke organisaties, onderwijs en onderzoek.
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