Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Regulating appetite in broilers for improving body and muscle development – A review
    Pas, Marinus F.W. te; Borg, Randy ; Buddiger, Nico J.H. ; Wood, Benjamin J. ; Rebel, Johanna M.J. ; Krimpen, Marinus M. van; Calus, Mario P.L. ; Park, Jong Eun ; Schokker, Dirkjan - \ 2020
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0931-2439
    biological mechanism - broiler - regulation - understanding and optimization of appetite

    Appetite is the desire for feed and water and the voluntary intake of feed and is an important regulator of livestock productivity and animal health. Economic traits such as growth rate and muscle development (meat deposition) in broilers are directly correlated to appetite. Factors that may influence appetite include environmental factors, such as stress and temperature variation, and animal-specific factors, such as learning period, eating capacity and preferences. Feed preferences have been reported to be determined in early life, and this period is important in broilers due to their fast growth and relatively short growth trajectories. This may be of importance when contemplating the use of more circular and sustainable feeds and the optimization of appetite for these feeds. The objective of this review was to review the biological mechanisms underlying appetite using data from human, animal and bird models and to consider the option for modulating appetite particularly as it relates to broiler chickens.

    Food self-sufficiency and GM regulation under conflicting interests: the case of GM maize in South Africa
    Shao, Qianqian ; Drabik, Dusan ; Gouse, Marnus ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2020
    Agrekon 59 (2020)1. - ISSN 0303-1853 - p. 110 - 128.
    food self-sufficiency rate - Genetically modified (GM) food - GM food policy - lobbying - maize - numerical simulation - political economy - regulation - South Africa

    Food self-sufficiency is an important contributor to food security, and one of the potential solutions to this problem is increased food production productivity through agricultural biotechnology. In this paper, we study the relationship between a country’s genetically modified (GM) food policy and the food self-sufficiency rate (SSR) under conflicting interests, with the example of GM crop regulation and GM maize production in South Africa. We develop a theoretical model of a small open economy and investigate the GM food policy as the outcome of a GM and a non-GM food groups’ lobbying game that follows the model of Grossman and Helpman. The government maximises its payoff by considering the weighted sum of social welfare and contributions from interest groups. Our findings suggest that a lower GM food regulation supports domestic agricultural production, and we offer potential reasons why a country that has a low SSR still has a strict GM food policy regulation. We also find that the food SSR is a biased measure of food availability when both production and consumption change simultaneously.

    A health risk for consumers: the presence of adulterated food supplements in the Netherlands
    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W.H. ; Sijm, Dick T.H.M. ; Dam, Ruud van; Mol, Hans G.J. - \ 2019
    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA)
    food supplement - dietary supplement - adulterants - pharmaceutical drug - food safety - regulation - enforcement
    The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.
    The Economics of Regulating New Plant Breeding Technologies - Implications for the Bioeconomy Illustrated by a Survey Among Dutch Plant Breeders
    Wesseler, Justus ; Politiek, Hidde ; Zilberman, David - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Court of Justice of the European Union - CRISPR-Cas - Dutch plant breeders - genetically modified organism - impact - new plant breeding technologies - plant breeding sector - regulation

    New plant breeding technologies (NPBTs) are increasingly used for developing new plants with novel traits. The science tells us that those plants in general are as safe as than those once developed using “conventional” plant breeding methods. The knowledge about the induced changes and properties of the new plants by using NPBTs is more precise. This should lead to the conclusion that plants developed using NPBTs should not be regulated differently than those developed using “conventional” plant breeding methods. This contribution discusses the economics of regulating new plant breeding technologies. We first develop the theoretical model and elaborate on the different regulatory approaches being used and compare their advantages and disadvantages. Then we provide a perspectives on EU regulation around mutagenesis-based New Plant Breeding Techniques (NPBT), formed by new insights from a survey among Dutch plant breeding companies. The survey measures the attitude of breeding companies towards the ruling of the EU Court of Justice that subjected the use of CRISPR-Cas in the development of new plant varieties under the general EU regulations around GMOs. The results show that plant breeders experience a financial barrier because of the ruling, with perceived negative impact on competitiveness and investments in CRISPR-Cas as a result. The degree of negative impact differs however significantly among seed-sectors and company sizes. One of the most striking results was the relative optimism of companies in the sector about more lenient legislation in the next five years, despite the stated negative effects.

    A health risk for consumers: the presence of adulterated food supplements in the Netherlands
    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W.H. ; Sijm, Dick T.H.M. ; Dam, Ruud van; Mol, Hans G.J. - \ 2019
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 36 (2019)9. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1273 - 1288.
    adulterants - dietary supplement - enforcement - food safety - Food supplement - pharmaceutical drug - regulation

    The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.

    Getting an Imported GM Crop Approved in China
    Jin, Yan ; Drabik, Dušan ; Heerink, Nico ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2019
    Trends in Biotechnology 37 (2019)6. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 566 - 569.
    approval - China - GM crops - regulation

    What are the procedures and trends for obtaining approval for imported genetically modified (GM) crops in China, and how do approval dates and length of approval in China compare with those in other countries? The answers are crucial for current food security in China and the future of crops derived by gene editing.

    Maximum vs minimum harmonization: what to expect from the institutional and legal battles in the EU on gene editing technologies
    Purnhagen, Kai P. ; Wesseler, Justus H.H. - \ 2019
    Pest Management Science 75 (2019)9. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 2310 - 2315.
    approval costs - European Union - ex-ante regulation - ex-post liability - gene editing - investment - maximum harmonization - minimum harmonization - new plant breeding technologies - real options - regulation

    New plant-breeding technologies (NPBTs), including gene editing, are widely used and drive the development of new crops. However, these new technologies are disputed, creating uncertainty in how their application for agricultural and food uses will be regulated. While in North America regulatory systems respond with a differentiated approach to NPBTs, the Court of Justice of the European Union (EU) has in effect made most if not all NPBT subject to the same regulatory regime as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This paper discusses from a law and economics point of view different options that are available for the EU's multi-level legal order. Using an ex-ante regulation versus ex-post liability framework allows the economic implications of different options to be addressed. The results show that under current conditions, some options are more expensive than others. The least costly option encompasses regulating new crops derived from NPBTs similar to those used in ‘conventional’ breeding. The current regulatory situation in the EU, namely making the use of NPBTs subject to the same conditions as GMOs, is the most costly option.

    Gene-Edited Crops : Towards a Harmonized Safety Assessment
    Kleter, Gijs A. ; Kuiper, Harry A. ; Kok, Esther J. - \ 2019
    Trends in Biotechnology 37 (2019)5. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 443 - 447.
    crop biotechnology - gene editing - genetically modified crops - international harmonization - novel plant breeding techniques - regulation - risk assessment - safety assessment

    Gene editing and other innovative plant breeding techniques are transforming the field of crop biotechnology. Divergent national regulatory regimes worldwide apply to crops bred with these techniques. A plea is made for international harmonization of the premarket assessment of their safety. Such harmonization has previously been achieved for genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Perspective: regulation of pest and disease control strategies and why (many) economists are concerned
    Wesseler, Justus - \ 2019
    Pest Management Science 75 (2019)3. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 578 - 582.
    approval - economics - pest management strategies - policy - regulation

    Pests and diseases are a continuous challenge in agriculture production. A wide range of control strategies have been and will continue to be developed. New control strategies are in almost all countries around the world assessed prior to approval for use in farmers' fields. This is rightly so to avoid and even reduce negative effects for human health and the environment. Over the past decades the approval processes have become increasingly politicized resulting in an increase in the direct approval costs and the length in approval time without increasing the safety of the final product. This reduces the development of control strategies and often has negative human health and environmental effects. Possibilities exist for improvements. They include reducing approval costs and approval time by streamlining the approval process and substituting approval requirements by strengthening ex-post liability.

    A comparison of the EU and US regulatory frameworks for the active substance registration of microbial biological control agents
    Frederiks, Coen ; Wesseler, Justus H.H. - \ 2019
    Pest Management Science 75 (2019)1. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 87 - 103.
    (M)BCA - (microbial) biocontrol agents - biopesticides - EU - registration - regulation - USA

    Background: Microbial biological control agents (MBCA) are biopesticides based on living microbes. They have huge potential for the control of pests and diseases, but have trouble reaching the European Union (EU) market. According to several authors, this is caused by the regulatory regime, which is less supportive compared with that in the USA. The main objective of this paper is to present regulatory differences between the USA and the EU, and the resulting effects and developments of registration in both regions. Results: Results show that EU registration is more complex due to differences between EU- and Member State (MS)-level processes, large actor heterogeneity and low flexibility. As a result, EU registration takes, on average, ∼ 1.6 years longer than US registration. Regulatory amendments have improved EU-level processes and led to a significant contraction of procedural time spans, but processes at the MS level have not improved and have become a larger procedural obstacle. Conclusion: The results correspond with the idea that EU registration is complex and lengthy compared with that in the USA. To improve regulation, national-level processes should be targeted for amendment. To that end, the authors suggest various ways of expanding the registration capacity of MS.

    The Plant Protection Products (PPP) Sector in the European Union : A Special View on Herbicides
    Bonanno, Alessandro ; Materia, Valentina C. ; Venus, Thomas ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2017
    European Journal of Development Research 29 (2017)3. - ISSN 0957-8811 - p. 575 - 595.
    agriculture - European Union - herbicides - market concentration - plant protection products - regulation
    The policy debates on plant protection products (PPPs) in the European Union (EU) are dominated by the environmental implications of crop protection (in particular, the use of herbicides) and the concentration of the herbicide industry. This article aims at presenting an overview of the patterns herbicide usage over time between and within European countries, and an overview of the industry structure. Potential determinants driving some of these differences are discussed, such as the recent PPP policies adopted by the EU. Results show that herbicides are the most important input used in crop protection, but regional differences are substantial. The concentration of the industry is high, but below levels that would raise concerns by EU regulators. The sector is also highly regulated, which contributes to a high concentration and a consequent decline in innovations. This finding raises the possibility of substituting bans of active ingredients in herbicides with alternative solutions.
    Actualisering ammoniak emissiefactoren pluimvee : advies voor aanpassing van ammoniak emissiefactoren van pluimvee in de Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav)
    Ellen, H.H. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1015) - 60
    pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - regulatie - dierhouderij - poultry - poultry farming - ammonia emission - regulation - animal husbandry
    Quorum Sensing Controls Adaptive Immunity through the Regulation of Multiple CRISPR-Cas Systems
    Patterson, Adrian G. ; Jackson, Simon A. ; Taylor, Corinda ; Evans, Gary B. ; Salmond, George P.C. ; Przybilski, Rita ; Staals, Raymond H.J. ; Fineran, Peter C. - \ 2016
    Molecular Cell 64 (2016)6. - ISSN 1097-2765 - p. 1102 - 1108.
    bacterial communication - CRISPR-Cas - horizontal gene transfer - phage resistance - quorum sensing - regulation

    Bacteria commonly exist in high cell density populations, making them prone to viral predation and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through transformation and conjugation. To combat these invaders, bacteria possess an arsenal of defenses, such as CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity. Many bacterial populations coordinate their behavior as cell density increases, using quorum sensing (QS) signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that QS regulation results in increased expression of the type I-E, I-F, and III-A CRISPR-Cas systems in Serratia cells in high-density populations. Strains unable to communicate via QS were less effective at defending against invaders targeted by any of the three CRISPR-Cas systems. Additionally, the acquisition of immunity by the type I-E and I-F systems was impaired in the absence of QS signaling. We propose that bacteria can use chemical communication to modulate the balance between community-level defense requirements in high cell density populations and host fitness costs of basal CRISPR-Cas activity.

    Suitability of analytical methods to measure solubility for the purpose of nanoregulation
    Tantra, Ratna ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Bolea, Eduardo ; Rey-Castro, Carlos ; David, Calin A. ; Dogné, Jean Michel ; Jarman, John ; Laborda, Francisco ; Laloy, Julie ; Robinson, Kenneth N. ; Undas, Anna K. ; Zande, Meike Van Der - \ 2016
    Nanotoxicology 10 (2016)2. - ISSN 1743-5390 - p. 173 - 184.
    Nanomaterials - regulation - solubility

    Solubility is an important physicochemical parameter in nanoregulation. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then from a risk assessment point of view, its disposal can be treated much in the same way as "ordinary" chemicals, which will simplify testing and characterisation regimes. This review assesses potential techniques for the measurement of nanomaterial solubility and evaluates the performance against a set of analytical criteria (based on satisfying the requirements as governed by the cosmetic regulation as well as the need to quantify the concentration of free (hydrated) ions). Our findings show that no universal method exists. A complementary approach is thus recommended, to comprise an atomic spectrometry-based method in conjunction with an electrochemical (or colorimetric) method. This article shows that although some techniques are more commonly used than others, a huge research gap remains, related with the need to ensure data reliability.

    Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production : a 10-year study
    Hoi, P.V. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Oosterveer, Peter ; Brink, P.J. van den; Huong, P.T.M. - \ 2016
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability (2016). - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 325 - 338.
    pesticides - Red River Delta - regulation - uses - vegetables

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to insufficient pesticide management capacity of the Vietnamese government, pesticide types and quantities registered and distributed on the market have substantially increased in Vietnam over the last 10 years. A 10-year monitoring programme at farm level showed that pesticide use follows the increasing pesticide availability on the market, and many toxic and illegal pesticides are still being used. In an agricultural country dominated by millions of small-scale farmers and with limited state capacity for control at farm level, reduction of the use of the most toxic pesticides can best be achieved by more effective pesticide market control through stricter and more effective state regulations and implementation, aimed at eliminating illegal, low quality and counterfeit pesticides from the market. But even then, better state and private extension services, and greater state capacity for control and enforcement remain essential in enabling farmers to make better decisions about pesticide use.

    Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz
    Purnhagen, K. ; Rott, P. - \ 2014
    Cham : Springer (Studies in European Economic Law and Regulation 3) - ISBN 9783319049038 - 892
    internationaal recht - recht - economie - regulatie - politicologie - publiek recht - burgerlijk recht - privaatrecht - europese unie - Europa - international law - law - economics - regulation - political science - public law - civil law - private law - european union - Europe
    This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European Economic Law and Regulation. The contributions discuss a wide range of Micklitz’ work: from his theoretical work on private law beyond party autonomy, with a special focus on its regulatory function, to the illustration of how his work has built the basis for current solutions such as used in solving the financial crisis. The book is divided into sections covering foundations of private law, regulatory law, competition and intellectual property law, product safety law, consumer contract law and the enforcement of law. This book clearly shows the enormous impact of Hans Micklitz' work on the EU legal system in both scholarship and practice.
    Production nog affected by rate of heating up and cooling down (interview with Arie de Gelder and Anja Dieleman)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Gelder, A. de; Dieleman, J.A. - \ 2012
    In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 2012 (2012)1. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 42 - 43.
    glastuinbouw - groenten - temperatuur - regulatie - teeltsystemen - vruchtgroenten - solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - temperature - regulation - cropping systems - fruit vegetables - tomatoes - agricultural research
    Tomato growers tend to stick to a strict temperature strategy: a low temperature in the early morning to reach the day temperature, and rapid cooling down at the end of the day. According to recent research, this is not necessary. A gradual temperature rise in the morning and decrease in the evening gives the same results.
    Strakke temperatuurstrategie is bij tomaat niet nodig: Snelheid opstoken en afkoelen heeft geen invloed op productie (interview met Anja Dieleman en Arie de Gelder)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Dieleman, J.A. ; Gelder, A. de - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)5. - p. 52 - 53.
    glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - temperatuur - regulatie - gewasteelt - landbouwkundig onderzoek - groenten - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - temperature - regulation - crop management - agricultural research - vegetables
    Veel tomatentelers houden een strak temperatuurregime aan: een lage temperatuur in de voornacht, opstoken naar de dag en aan het einde van de dag weer snel afkoelen tot de nachttemperatuur. Niet nodig blijkt uit de resultaten van het laatste onderzoeksjaar. ‘s Morgens langzaam de temperatuur op laten komen en deze ‘s avonds weer langzaam laten zakken, geeft dezelfde resultaten.
    Literatuurstudie naar de moleculaire kennis rond de balans tussen vegetatieve-generatieve groei van aardbeiplanten
    Bastiaan-Net, S. ; Doorn, W.G. van; Evenhuis, A. ; Mes, J.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1303) - ISBN 9789461732552 - 76
    plantenontwikkeling - aardbeien - bloei - groeistadia - fragaria - regulatie - genetische regulatie - genen - kleinfruit - plant development - strawberries - flowering - growth stages - fragaria - regulation - genetic regulation - genes - small fruits
    De situatie waarbij de aanleg van blad en bloem in goed evenwicht is, zodat de gewenste fysiologische en productieve stadia van de plant bereikt worden, is van groot belang voor de aardbeien sector. In opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw en onder begeleiding en advies van Plantum is een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd naar de moleculaire kennis op dit gebied bij planten in het algemeen en de vertaling ervan naar meerjarige aardbei planten. Recent onderzoek op dit gebied heeft geleid tot de identificatie van een aantal sleutelgenen die de regulatie van bloemaanleg en ontwikkeling bepalen.
    Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes
    Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food law series 1871-3483) - ISBN 9789086867301 - 435
    voedsel - recht - privaatrecht - voedselketens - contracten - regulatie - kwaliteitsnormen - boekhoudcontrole - certificering - governance - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - food - law - private law - food chains - contracts - regulation - quality standards - auditing - certification - governance - food legislation
    Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation, in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Other standards focus on corporate social responsibility or sustainability. This book also addresses how private religious standards such as Kosher and Halal play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure.
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