Olaf van Kooten, hoogleraar Wageningen UR en lector InHolland: ‘hoezo slechte markt; we zijn zelf de markt’
Kierkels, T. ; Kooten, O. van - \ 2014
Onder Glas 11 (2014)8. - p. 32 - 33.
glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - kwaliteitszorg - groenten - consumentenaangelegenheden - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - consumenten - relaties - klanttevredenheid - agrarische economie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - quality management - vegetables - consumer affairs - food marketing - consumers - relationships - consumer satisfaction - agricultural economics
Er is iets grondig mis in de afzetketen van met name groente en fruit; de samenwerking komt maar moeilijk van de grond. Als gevolg daarvan liggen er producten van een lage kwaliteit in de winkel en verdient niemand iets. Dat het anders kan bewijzen schaarse voorbeelden. Hoogleraar tuinbouwketens Olaf van Kooten van Wageningen UR vertelt het met duidelijke woorden.
Governance of the member-cooperative relationship: a case from Brazil
Cechin, A.D. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736550 - 144
landbouwcoöperaties - governance - kwaliteit - relaties - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - participatie - lidmaatschap - brazilië - agricultural cooperatives - governance - quality - relationships - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - participation - membership - brazil
Recent events in the agri-food sector increased the demand for quality attributes, from healthy and safe products to sustainable agricultural practices (Grunert, 2005). Particularly challenging is the connectedness of transactions between farmers, traders, processors, retailers and final customers in order to comply with quality requirements, which implies a need for value chain coordination. Combined with increased consumer demand for variety and convenience, these changes in sector have led to stronger sequential interdependencies, in which the output of one part is the input for another part. The increasing connectedness between transactions demands more vertical coordination. A major challenge for the agricultural cooperative is to combine horizontal coordination among the members with vertical coordination in the value chain (Bijman 2009; Hanf, 2009). Since they are member-oriented, agricultural cooperatives traditionally buy the farm products of its members regardless of its quality. Increasingly, however, cooperatives need to guarantee product quality towards their customers, and thus assure that members supply products of the right quality.
The objective of this thesis is to disentangle the governance mechanisms that can be used by the cooperative to strengthen the member-cooperative relationship, and to assess the impact of the different governance mechanisms on the coordination of members’ adjustments to higher quality levels. The attempt to organize the participating farmers and firms along the food value chain generates transactional risks and coordination costs in the relationship between agricultural cooperative and farmer-member. This leads to the first research question of this thesis.
R.Q. (1): What are the mechanisms for governing the member-cooperative relationship, and how do they affect transactional risks and coordination costs?
This thesis (Chapter 2) poses that four governance mechanisms - market, hierarchy, community and democracy affect coordination costs and transactional risks through their effect on member commitment and cognitive heterogeneity. It is important that members of an agricultural cooperative are committed to customer orientation; otherwise the involved transactional risks would make vertical coordination more costly. It is necessary to disentangle two types of commitment: to collective action and to customer orientation. Member commitment to collective action prevents side selling, in particular, and free-riding behaviour in general. This leads to the second research question of this thesis.
R.Q. (2): How do the four governance mechanisms - market, hierarchy, community and democracy - affect both types of commitment?
One of the conclusions stemming from this thesis was that, on the one hand, a cooperative may assure members’ compliance in a less costly way if market incentives related to quality, productivity and effort are strengthened, as well as (hierarchy) input control and on-farm monitoring, since these mechanisms are positively related to commitment to customer orientation. On the other hand, democracy and community mechanisms do have an important role in enhancing commitment to collective action which is a sine qua non condition for the viability of the cooperative (Chapter 3).
A large multi-product cooperative in which different activities of the cooperative cater to different groups of members, as the case that was chosen as the empirical basis of this thesis, may face problems related to membership heterogeneity (Hansmann, 1996; Fulton and Giannakas, 2001). The basic assumption in most of the literature on the impact of member heterogeneity on the process and outcomes of decision-making is that farmers pursue individual or subgroup interests when participating in the decision-making of the cooperative. If members primarily pursue individual economic interests, there might be a relationship between the economic reasons for becoming a member (and maintaining membership) and the motivation to participate in the governance of the cooperative. This leads to the third research question of this thesis.
R.Q. (3): How do economic motivations for association affect members’ participation in the governance of a cooperative?
The conclusion of this thesis, regarding this research question, was that besides the role of social mechanisms in enhancing commitment to collective action, there seems to be a role of social mechanisms in enhancing members’ control of their cooperative. Members who participate in boards or committees are not actuated to participate by the same economic motivations that drive their association to the cooperative. Cooperative ideology, in turn, appears to be an important motivation for them to actively participate (Chapter 4).
The ability of cooperatives to adapt to a rapidly changing environment characterized by technological change and industrialization of agriculture has been questioned Fulton (1995). The organizational structure of the cooperative is said to have negative implications for its quality management (Mérel et al., 2009). On the one hand, cooperatives may be mimicking Investor-Owned Firms (IOFs) in applying more hierarchical mechanisms which enable them to define and effectively apply quality norms for their supply, control the quality of delivered products and monitor members’ production processes. On the other hand, cooperatives have unique organizational characteristics that could provide them with competitive advantage, such as the tight relationship between members and cooperative, which may enable less costly coordination of the transaction (Sykuta and Cook, 2001). This leads to the fourth and last research question of this thesis.
R.Q. (4): What are the differences in quality performance between a cooperative and an IOF, and can these differences be explained by relationship characteristics?
In the Brazilian broiler industry, suppliers delivering to a cooperative are performing better in terms of quality than suppliers delivering to an IOF. Cooperative and IOF have the same incentive and control mechanisms for production efficiency and high-quality chicken meat. The cooperative’s advantage over the IOF in terms of suppliers’ quality performance could be influenced by the characteristics of the supplier-buyer relationship. This thesis shows (Chapter 5) that there are some important differences regarding relationship characteristics that could account for this higher performance. Dependence on current buyer, which is higher for cooperative members, uncertainty regarding buyer’s behavior, which is lower for cooperative members, and market risk reduction by the buyer, which is higher for cooperative members, can help explain the higher rate of compliance to the “feet callus” quality standard. These three features of the supplier-cooperative relationship are likely to prevent suppliers from shirking behavior and to induce commitment. Moreover, cooperative suppliers receive more technical support from their buyer for adapting to new quality requirements than IOF suppliers do; this is likely to positively affect farmers’ competence in complying with quality standards.
The main methodological approach of this thesis is quantitative. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with professional managers of the industrial division, directors and farmers in order to guide the design of the questionnaire. The data that is analyzed in this thesis were collected by using a survey questionnaire applied among 148 farmers, all members of the same multi-product cooperative in Brazil, and 42 broiler suppliers of two major buyers in the same region.
This thesis makes several theoretical contributions, which can be listed as follows:
(1) Member commitment in agricultural cooperatives can be disentangled conceptually and empirically into two types. Commitment to collective action is related to Fulton’s (1995) definition: the willingness to patronize a cooperative even when the cooperative’s price or service is not as good as that provided by an IOF. It is an attitude that precedes loyal behaviour; it is the making of a sacrifice or an effort in the name of the relationship and the success of the organization. Commitment to customer orientation, in turn, is the willingness to give up a part of the autonomy at the farm level for the sake of the cooperative’s compliance with the requirements from downstream customers. It is a positive attitude of members towards the re-orientation of the cooperative and is related to Borgen’s (2001) view on commitment.
(2) Membership heterogeneity might not be a source of inefficiency in decision-making if the organizational goal is precisely to satisfy diverse members’ interests, and if members who occupy representative and managing functions are genuinely seeking to further organizational goals rather than to follow private motives. Most conceptualizations of decision-making problems and influence costs derive from organizational economics, where agency theory has been quite influential. The findings of this thesis (Chapter 4) suggest that assumptions from agency theory, which are often adopted by cooperative studies, could better be treated as an empirical matter.
(3) This thesis presents a different perspective on the comparative advantage of the cooperative in producing food products with higher quality attributes. The literature on the implications of the cooperative structure for quality management (Mérel et al., 2009) emphasizes that cooperatives often fail to adequately reward the highest quality producers, often causing the problem of “adverse selection”. However, despite starting with larger heterogeneity in terms of producers’ capacity to produce high-quality products, cooperatives may achieve high quality products through superior coordination and adaptation support. The findings of this thesis are in line with other empirical studies outside the domain of cooperatives that found that quality performance may be influenced by relationship characteristics, through their effect on transaction costs (Lu et al., 2009; Coronado et al., 2010).
(4) Overall, the main scientific contribution of this thesis is the use of the ‘chemistry of organizations’ framework proposed by Grandori and Furnari (2008) in seeking a better understanding of the governance of cooperatives. By adopting that framework the thesis addressed in an integrated way the role of social capital (Ostrom, 1999) and community governance (Bowles and Gintis, 2002; Hayami, 2009) in facilitating collective action, and the role of relational contracts (Poppo and Zenger, 2002; Lazzarini, Miller and Zenger, 2004) in assuring commitment from parties in a transaction. Furthermore, with that framework, the thesis addressed the cognitive role of governance mechanisms, such as knowledge exchange (Conner and Prahalad, 1996; Grant, 1996) and competence enhancing (Nooteboom, 2004).
The implications of this thesis for management and policy are listed in the three following groups:
(1) Rewarding farmers appropriately and controlling and monitoring delivery and production processes are important for enhancing commitment both to collective action and to customer orientation. Giving “voice” and building a social community for members and their families are important to prevent members’ free-riding and selling “outside”. It is advised to combine at least the following governance mechanisms: hierarchy control, market incentives, community involvement and democratic voice. Finally, communication is an important tool for enhancing farmers’ commitment to customer orientation.
(2) Cooperatives can participate in high-quality value chains and be as efficient and effective as other organizational arrangements in the agri-food sector. More importantly, cooperatives might even have an advantage in the production and marketing of goods with credence attributes, such as animal welfare, organic and fair trade. Therefore, policies aiming to promote sustainable food production may target cooperatives, as this organisational form is more effective in lowering the risks associated with farmer’ opportunistic behavior.
(3) Member participation, commitment, satisfaction with leadership and with the cooperative’s strategy are examples of what could be additional performance criteria besides reported profits, which taken alone could be misleading. Because the cooperative’s objectives are beyond the economic viability of the collective enterprise, (Birchall and Ketilson, 2009), the intangible social assets should be assessed in order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative, and thereby to compare cooperatives with investor-owned firms and among cooperatives themselves.
Inter-organizational information exchange, supply chain compliance and performance
Peng, G. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859529 - 220
business management - supply chain management - communication - cooperation - businesses - relationships - governance - performance - improvement - information - bedrijfsmanagement - ketenmanagement - communicatie - samenwerking - bedrijven - relaties - governance - prestatieniveau - verbetering - informatie
In modern business management today's companies no longer compete as solely autonomous entities, but rather as supply chains. Supply chain collaboration can bring with substantial benefits and advantages for companies. To strenghten supply chain collaboration, inter-organisational communication is an essential enabler.
Gender, AIDS and food security : culture and vulnerability in rural Côte d'Ivoire
Maiga, M.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser; Anke Niehof. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857891 - 199
acquired immune deficiency syndrome - voedselzekerheid - cultuur - plattelandsvrouwen - sociologie - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - plattelandsbevolking - sociale economie - verwantschap - relaties - ivoorkust - afrika - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - food security - culture - rural women - sociology - female labour - rural population - socioeconomics - kinship - relationships - cote d'ivoire - africa - gender - livelihood strategies
|Bos op arme gronden
Kint, Vincent ; Geudens, Guy ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2010
In: Bosecologie en Bosbeheer / den Ouden, J., Muys, B., Mohren, G.M.J., Verheyen, K., Leuven : ACCO - ISBN 9789033477829 - p. 511 - 526.
zandgronden - bossen - relaties - eolische afzettingen - bodem-plant relaties - vlaanderen - sandy soils - forests - relationships - aeolian deposits - soil plant relationships - flanders
Onder arme groeiplaatsen worden vooral de zandgronden verstaan. In Nederland liggen ze in het oosten en het zuiden van het land en ze lopen door naar de zandgronden in het noorden van Vlaanderen. De duinengordel langs de Noordzeekust behoort ook tot deze categorie. Zandgronden kunnen verder ingedeeld worden volgens hun geologische ontstaanswijze. Er kan onderscheid gemaakt worden tussen afzettingen door zee, rivieren of de wind, die bovendien uit het tertiair of het quartair tijdvak kunnen dateren. Zowel in Vlaanderen als Nederland ligt het grootste deel van het huidige bosareaal op de arme zandgronden: in Vlaanderen is het 60% van het totale areaal (90.000 ha) en in Nederland 86% (270.000 ha).
Eerste resultaten onderzoek naar meest geschikte ras-onderstamcombinaties
Maas, F.M. ; Beurskens, Stan - \ 2009
De Wijngaard 17 (2009)2. - p. 29 - 30.
druiven - rassen (planten) - relaties - onderstammen - stamverschillen - wijndruivenrassen - bodemtypen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - nederland - grapes - varieties - relationships - rootstocks - strain differences - wine cultivars - soil types - agricultural research - netherlands
In 2008 is in samenspraak met het Wijngaardiersgilde en met subsidie van het ministerie van LNV een onderzoek gestart om verspreid over Nederland en voor verschillende bodemtypen te onderzoeken hoe de verschillende druiven ras-onderstamcombinaties zich ontwikkelen. 14 Rode en 14 witte druivenrassen staan op 9 verschillende bedrijven op 9 verschillende onderstammen. Dit eerste jaar zijn al grote verschillen per regio en per bedrijf gemeten, volgende 2 jaren zal het onderzoek zich toespitsen op de verschillen in groei, loofwandstructuur, gewasgezondheidsaspecten, oogsttijdstippen en de oogstgegevens.
Internationaal belang van de nationale natuur : ecosystemen, vaatplanten, mossen, zoogdieren, reptielen, amfibieën en vissen
Janssen, J.A.M. ; Stumpel, A.H.P. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Keizer-Sedlakova, I. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Siebel, H.N. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 43) - 54
ecosystemen - natuurbescherming - bedreigde soorten - beschermde soorten - soorten - nederland - relaties - europa - natuurbeleid - ecosystems - nature conservation - endangered species - protected species - species - netherlands - relationships - europe - nature conservation policy
In dit rapport wordt een analyse uitgevoerd van de ecosystemen en soorten (uit een beperkt aantal soortsgroepen) waarvoor ons land internationale verantwoordelijkheid draagt. Hierbij worden een vijftal criteria toegepast: aandeel areaal, aandeel populatie of oppervlakte, ligging ten opzichte van het areaal, voorkomen op internationale rode lijst en – voor ecosystemen en trekvissen – een specifieke reden. Uit de analyse komen 34 ecosystemen en 111 soorten naar voren waarvoor Nederland binnen Europa van groot belang is. Bekeken is voorts in welke landschappen de internationaal belangrijke ecosystemen en soorten voorkomen en in hoeverre ze aandacht krijgen in het nationale en internationale natuurbeleid. De belangrijkste landschappen met de internationaal belangrijke ecosystemen en soorten zijn de hogere zandgronden en het kustgebied, gevolg door het rivierengebied en het laagveen. In het internationale natuurbeleid (Habitatrichtlijn) krijgen vier van de resulterende ecosystemen onvoldoende aandacht, in het nationale beleid komen vooral de mossen er bekaaid af. Trefwoorden: Natuurbeleid, internationaal, ecosystemen, soorten, Europa
The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province
Lu Hualiang, - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046653 - 252
food chains - vegetables - marketing - production - china - trade - markets - businesses - relationships - socioeconomics - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - networks - social capital - voedselketens - groenten - marketing - productie - china - handel - markten - bedrijven - relaties - sociale economie - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - netwerken - sociaal kapitaal
Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,
Ketenomkering in kennisland
Wals, A.E.J. ; Lans, T. ; Buurma, J.P. - \ 2005
Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)suppl. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 7 - 9.
kennis - verspreiding van onderzoek - netwerken (activiteit) - onderzoeksinstituten - technologieoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - onderzoeksimplementatie - onderzoek - onderwijs - particuliere sector - relaties - knowledge - diffusion of research - networking - research institutes - technology transfer - diffusion of information - implementation of research - research - education - private sector - relationships
Themavoordracht waarin twee manieren van kennismobiliteit worden besproken: de doorstromingsrelatie, waarbij kennis wordt gezien als product en doorstroomt van onderzoeksinstituten naar onderwijs en de netwerkrelatie, waarbij kennis wordt gezien als proces tussen onderzoek, onderwijs en bedrijfsleven
Livelihood and food security in rural Bangladesh- the role of social capital
Ali, A. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085042969 - 264
voedselzekerheid - levensomstandigheden - relaties - gemeenschappen - samenleving - menselijke relaties - man-vrouwrelaties - huishoudens - inkomen - platteland - levensstandaarden - vrouwen - Bangladesh - positie van de vrouw - sociale relaties - vrouw en samenleving - arbeid in de landbouw - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - food security - living conditions - relationships - communities - society - human relations - gender relations - households - income - rural areas - living standards - women - Bangladesh - woman's status - social relations - woman and society - farm labour - livelihood strategies
This thesis describes the role of social capital of households and individuals in achieving livelihood and food security. In the research the temporal dimension and gender were cross-cutting perspectives. IFPRI panel data collected during 1996-1997 (pre-flood) and 1999-2000 (post-flood) were analyzed. To complement the IFPRI data an additional survey and the qualitative data was collected during 2001-2003. Panel data analysis shows that gender of the household head does not make a difference in achieving food security at the household level. However, gender of the household member is crucial for attaining individual level food security. Social capital plays an important role in averting vulnerability and sustaining livelihood, and is influenced by the landholding status of the house hold, which seems to function as collateral. The qualitative data revealed that women's social capital, when defined in a broader way, does play a crucial role in achieving household food security and averting vulnerability.
The hillslope-storage Boussinesq model for variable bedrock slope
Hilberts, A.G.J. ; Troch, P.A.A. ; Loon, E.E. van; Paniconi, C. - \ 2004
regen - oppervlakkige afvoer - relaties - infiltratie - glooiend land - modellen - rain - runoff - relationships - infiltration - sloping land - models
Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry
Claro, D.P. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Geoffrey Hagelaar; D. Zylbersztajn. - Veenendaal : Universal Press - ISBN 9789058089465 - 196
bedrijven - relaties - potplanten - bloemen - informatie - nederland - productie - aanbod - landbouwindustrie - ketenmanagement - netwerken - bedrijfseconomie - businesses - relationships - pot plants - flowers - production - supply - agribusiness - information - netherlands - supply chain management - networks - business management
Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic relationship. At the beginning of our study, we were triggered by the impact of the business network on collaborative, long-term buyer-supplier relationships. In other words, does the information a company obtains from the network support the buyer-supplier relationship? In fact, yes. Our study provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence that will assist practitioners in the management of their business network and buyer-supplier relationships. The empirical evidence was gathered on the basis of two constructive steps, namely case study and survey. Buyers and suppliers in the Dutch potted flower and plant industry offered valuable insights to estimate statistical models. The involvement of buyers and suppliers allowed discussions from both sides of the relationship - purchasing and marketing.
This thesis is aimed at managers at different levels in firms, which includes every decision maker in purchasing, selling or strategic planning levels. Policy makers and researchers in the field of supply chain and network management may also find useful ideas and concepts in our theoretical framework. Researchers in the fields of relationship management may be particularly interested in theoperationalizationsof the conceptual elements of the framework and the interpretation of the estimated statistical models.
|The Emerging World of Chains and Networks, Bridging Theory and Practice
Camps, Th. ; Diederen, P.J.M. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Vos, B. - \ 2004
Amsterdam : Reed Business Information - ISBN 9789059019287 - 348
innovaties - bedrijfsvoering - relaties - informatie - ketenmanagement - netwerken - productieprocessen - management - relationships - innovations - information - supply chain management - networks - production processes
Bodem, humus en vegetatie onder verschillende loofboomsoorten op de stuwwal bij Doorwerth
Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 920) - 66
bossen - vegetatie - humus - tilia - ligstro - bosgronden - plantensuccessie - nederland - relaties - veluwe - bodem-plant relaties - natuurgebieden - forests - vegetation - humus - tilia - litter - forest soils - plant succession - netherlands - relationships - veluwe - soil plant relationships - natural areas
Dit rapport gaat in op de relatie tussen loofboomsoort, humus en ondergroei op een zwak lemige stuwwalbodem bij Doorwerth (Gelderland). Er werden opstanden vergeleken van linde, esdoorn, haagbeuk, eik en beuk. Onder invloed van het `rijke¿, goed verterende bladstrooisel van linde, esdoorn en haagbeuk bleek een ontwikkeling in de richting van een `rijker¿ bostype op gang te zijn gekomen. Alleen onder linde was echter binnen 40 jaar een goed ontwikkelde, soortenrijke Carpinion-vegetatie met meerdere oud-bossoorten ontstaan. De vegetatieontwikkeling onder linde lijkt wel sterk afhankelijk te zijn van de hoeveelheid licht die tot de bosbodem weet door te dringen.
Hillslope-storage Boussinesq model for subsurface flow and variable source areas along complex hillslopes: 2. Intercomparison with a three-dimensional Richards equation model
Paniconi, C. ; Troch, P.A.A. ; Loon, E.E. van; Hilberts, A.G.J. - \ 2003
Water Resources Research 39 (2003)11. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1317 - 1317.
regen - oppervlakkige afvoer - relaties - infiltratie - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - modellen - rain - runoff - relationships - infiltration - catchment hydrology - models - free-surface flow - capillarity correction - runoff generation - rainfall - soils - groundwater - scale
The Boussinesq equation for subsurface flow in an idealized sloping aquifer of unit width has recently been extended to hillslopes of arbitrary geometry by incorporating the hillslope width function w(x) into the governing equation, where x is the flow distance along the length of the hillslope [ Troch et al., 2003 ]. Introduction of a source/sink term N allows simulation of storm-interstorm sequences in addition to drainage processes, while a function S c (x) representing the maximum subsurface water storage can be used to account for surface saturation response in variable source areas activated by the saturation excess mechanism of runoff generation. The model can thus simulate subsurface flow and storage dynamics for nonidealized (more realistic) hillslope configurations. In this paper we assess the behavior of this relatively simple, one-dimensional model in a series of intercomparison tests with a fully three-dimensional Richards equation model. Special attention is given to the discretization and setup of the boundary and initial conditions for seven representative hillslopes of uniform, convergent, and divergent plan shape. Drainage and recharge experiments are conducted on these hillslopes for both gentle (5%) and steep (30%) bedrock slope angles. The treatment and influence of the drainable porosity parameter are also considered, and for the uniform (idealized) hillslope case the impact of the unsaturated zone is examined by running simulations for different capillary fringe heights. In general terms, the intercomparison results show that the hillslope-storage Boussinesq model is able to capture the broad shapes of the storage and outflow profiles for all of the hillslope configurations. In specific terms, agreement with the Richards equation results varies according to the scenario being simulated. The best matches in outflow hydrographs were obtained for the drainage experiments, suggesting a greater influence of the unsaturated zone under recharge conditions due to transmission of water throughout the hillslope. In the spatiotemporal water table response a better match was observed for convergent than divergent hillslopes, and the bedrock slope angle was not found to greatly influence the quality of the agreement between the two models. On the basis of the intercomparison experiments we make some suggestions for further development and testing of the hillslope-storage model
Hillslope-storage Boussinesq model for subsurface flow and variable source areas along complex hillslopes: 1. Formulation and characteristic response
Troch, P.A.A. ; Paniconi, C. ; Loon, E.E. van - \ 2003
Water Resources Research 39 (2003). - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1316 - 1316.
regen - oppervlakkige afvoer - infiltratie - hellingen - relaties - modellen - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - rain - runoff - relationships - infiltration - slopes - models - catchment hydrology - watershed thermodynamics - unifying framework - soil-moisture - variability - catchment - hydrology - equation - terrain
Hillslope response to rainfall remains one of the central problems of catchment hydrology. Flow processes in a one-dimensional sloping aquifer can be described by Boussinesq's hydraulic groundwater theory. Most hillslopes, however, have complex three-dimensional shapes that are characterized by their plan shape, profile curvature of surface and bedrock, and the soil depth. Field studies and numerical simulation have shown that these attributes are the most significant topographic controls on subsurface flow and saturation along hillslopes. In this paper the Boussinesq equation is reformulated in terms of soil water storage rather than water table height. The continuity and Darcy equations formulated in terms of storage along the hillslope lead to the hillslope-storage Boussinesq (HSB) equation for subsurface flow. Solutions of the HSB equation account explicitly for plan shape of the hillslope by introducing the hillslope width function and for profile curvature through the bedrock slope angle and the hillslope soil depth function. We investigate the behavior of the HSB model for different hillslope types (uniform, convergent, and divergent) and different slope angles under free drainage conditions after partial initial saturation (drainage scenario) and under constant rainfall recharge conditions (recharge scenario). The HSB equation is solved by means of numerical integration of the partial differential equation. We find that convergent hillslopes drain much more slowly compared to divergent hillslopes. The accumulation of moisture storage near the outlet of convergent hillslopes results in bell-shaped hydrographs. In contrast, the fast draining divergent hillslopes produce highly peaked hydrographs. In order to investigate the relative importance of the different terms in the HSB equation, several simplified nonlinear and linearized versions are derived, for instance, by recognizing that the width function of a hillslope generally shows smooth transition along the flow direction or by introducing a fitting parameter to account for average storage along the hillslope. The dynamic response of these reduced versions of the HSB equation under free drainage conditions depend strongly on hillslope shape and bedrock slope angle. For flat slopes (of the order of 5%), only the simplified nonlinear HSB equation is able to capture the dynamics of subsurface flow along complex hillslopes. In contrast, for steep slopes (of the order of 30%), we see that all the reduced versions show very similar results compared to the full version. It can be concluded that the complex derivative terms of width with respect to flow distance play a less dominant role with increasing slope angle. Comparison with the hillslope-storage kinematic wave model of Troch et al.  shows that the diffusive drainage terms of the HSB model become less important for the fast draining divergent hillslopes. These results have important implications for the use of simplified versions of the HSB equation in landscapes and for the development of appropriate analytical solutions for subsurface flow along complex hillslopes
De betekenis van landbouwhuisdieren in de hulpverlening : resultaten van interviews met professionals op zorg- en kinderboerderijen
Hassink, J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 50
vee - mens - relaties - psychosociale aspecten - psychotherapie - jeugdzorg - beperkingen - risicoschatting - nederland - schoolboerderijen - zorgboerderijen - livestock - man - relationships - psychosocial aspects - psychotherapy - child welfare - risk assessment - netherlands - labour - school farms - social care farms
Veranderingen in mens-dierrelaties en hun impact op de veehouderij van 2040
Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C. ; Blokhuis, H.J. ; Dagevos, H. ; Ipema, A.H. ; Stegeman, J.A. - \ 2000
Wageningen : IMAG (Rapport / IMAG 2000-6) - ISBN 9789067546096 - 52
relaties - dieren - mens - dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - biotechnologie - biologische landbouw - innovaties - relationships - animals - man - animal husbandry - animal welfare - biotechnology - organic farming - innovations
Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project
Magadlela, D. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081575 - 294
ontwikkelingsprojecten - irrigatie - ontwikkeling - interventie - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale verandering - sociale interactie - relaties - dynamica - sociologie - zimbabwe - development projects - irrigation - development - intervention - rural development - social change - social interaction - relationships - dynamics - sociology - zimbabwe
This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with changes in their livelihoods which had been introduced from outside by development intervention. The study was sustained by the realisation that irrigation is not just a matter of technical artefacts, but has much to do with people, especially the people it is meant to benefit. Development practitioners and researchers should be interested not only in irrigation performance, but also in how people manipulate the irrigation resources available to them. How does irrigation development change the lives of the irrigators over time? How is it transformed and adapted by them? How does it change their perceptions of each other in view of their local social identities and differences? What do irrigation farmers use to gain improved access to irrigation resources? How do they manipulate their social, political, technical and management environments to their benefit? What lessons can we derive from "targeted" beneficiaries' analyses of how their lives have been transformed by development intervention?
The study focuses on social constructions of cultural identities, on social interaction and change among smallholder farmers in the context of irrigation development intervention in Eastern Zimbabwe. It shows how the introduction of an irrigation scheme not only created, but also nurtured and promoted processes of cultural identity and social differentiation among groups of rural producers who had previously had but few distinguishing social characteristics (such as ethnic affiliation). It is a study of how the irrigation context helps to highlight their social and cultural differences and leads to social conflicts and leadership struggles, and to how different individual actors devise strategies, such as enrolling outsiders into local struggles, to achieve their often conflicting group and individual objectives. The analysis portrays the irrigation scheme as a social and political 'domain' in which different groups of farmers and outsiders engage each other in negotiations over resources, and the meanings attached to these resources. In some instances, the irrigation domain is seen as an arena, a contested area where struggles take place over a diversity of livelihood resources such as water and land.
The study used the actor-oriented perspective as the theoretical basis for the analysis of research findings. An actor-oriented approach helps one recognise the agency of social actors in interactive situations. It requires a full analysis of the ways in which different social actors manage and interpret new elements in their life-worlds. The capacity of social actors to influence and shape their social surroundings is one of the salient features of the approach used in this Nyamaropa study.
The study is also about the omnipresence of encounters and clashes of different 'world-views' at the local level in the irrigation scheme. The clashes take place in the social, technical, administrative, managerial and political domains. It looks at how the different 'life-worlds' accommodate to each other in actors' daily interactions to give a semblance of harmony and attraction, co-existing with conflict and rejection. It is an analysis of the dynamism of social differences in irrigation intervention, and in any development intervention for that matter, that reveals the multiplexity of actors' interactions, and how their multiple relations and interlocking projects generate potentially explosive social exchanges. The study starts from the bottom, as it were, in its analysis of how different people in a specific rural development context create and live with complex social relations where daily interaction is characterised by strategic negotiation and mutual enrolment in other actors' projects. The analysis focuses more on local level dynamics, and does not deal, for example, with the politics of decision-making at higher levels of administration, such as the province or central government departments under which smallholder irrigation development falls. The study does, however, acknowledge the inevitable, sometimes useful role of macro-policy structures in influencing development outcomes at the local level.
As a sociological study, this research work focused on how people interacted, worked together, settled differences and used community resources in their daily struggles for survival. Irrigation literature in Zimbabwe has only recently begun to pay specific attention to the fact that irrigation development is essentially a social process. Part of the objective here is to contribute to the debate about how rural actors manage their differentiated irrigating lives, discourses, struggles and negotiations, conflicts and accommodations in their constantly changing social environments. In order to examine this complex social process, it was proposed to undertake a detailed analysis of one irrigation scheme and its impact both on farmers practising irrigated agriculture and on surrounding dryland communities.
The thesis is divided into four parts. Part One gives 'the story behind the study'. Then there is a background to the study in the form of Chapter 2. This chapter provides what I have called The Setting. This is Zimbabwe's agricultural history, the history of smallholder irrigation development in the country, a background to Nyamaropa irrigation intervention, and an introduction to the different social and political actors who appear throughout the book.
Part Two is about the embeddedness of social, political and power relationships, social and economic differences, in land and water resources. Chapter 3 deals with struggles over land and water among irrigation farmers. There is a debate on water ownership from the different actors' standpoints in the Nyamaropa area. This chapter is central in the sense that it introduces the crucial issues of cultural and social identity in relations between formal irrigators and non-irrigators, between original inhabitants of the now irrigated area and immigrants to the same area. These are some of the issues that set the scene for case analyses of the dynamics of development intervention, constructions and reconstructions of cultural and social identities and differences.
Chapter 4, also in Part Two, is about the issue of different claims to water use, between irrigation farmers in the Nyamaropa project, and villagers in the catchment area who use river water which is the source of water for the irrigation scheme downstream. Here the argument is that spatial distinctions, cultural identities, and a strong sense of communal existence, constitute a crucial entry point for the analysis of ways of assembling claims to resource use by different actors. Differences in community organisation feature as competing aspects of claims to resource utilisation.
Part Three is about the irrigation domain as a shared life-world. Chapter 5 is on gender images and irrigation life. There are cases of widows who struggle to survive in a tough and competitive irrigation environment. A salient feature of this chapter is how women relate to the irrigation scheme through their families or individual plots. Walking through the irrigation scheme one is struck by a common feature of the area: over seventy percent of people one sees working or meets in the fields are women and children, with the majority of them being women. A surprising, yet refreshing, phenomenon in the Nyamaropa irrigation scheme is that almost thirty percent of registered plotholders are widows! Some of them registered as widows when their men worked in town, so that they would have access to irrigated plots. This was a stratagem to beat the rule prohibiting those with wage-earning spouses from having access to irrigated land. It worked, to their advantage.
Chapter 6 focuses on irrigation extension specifically. This provides cases of farmers' encounters with Agritex (the national extension agency), and reveals the different views of similar situations between farmers and outsiders, and among farmers themselves in the presence of outsiders. This chapter focuses on one of the central issues in the study: that of how social differences among people impact on their responses to new knowledge and information. In this case, it is a matter of how farmers relate to Extension Workers as promoters of change, improvement and innovation.
Part Four is on official (and unofficial) regulations and practices, looking especially at government practice through Agritex and the traditional institution through the Headman. Chapter 7 deals with a delicate and sensitive subject of age, inheritance, sub-leasing and renting, and the irrigation rules which were ignored. The average age of plotholders in Nyamaropa was approximately 55 years, though there were plotholders as old as 84 years. Most of them were first generation plotholders. These were farmers who cleared the plots themselves when the project started in the late fifties. Most of the elderly irrigators were too old to fully utilise their irrigation plots, but still retained their names in the register. They regarded irrigation land as their family asset, against the official rule that they were lessees on state land. To maintain productivity, they sub-leased their plots to dryland farmers who needed irrigated land for food. Some of them had established networks with local businessmen who rented part of their land in return for paying irrigation fees for the plotholders. There were some long-term relationships of mutual assistance between the different types of farmers. Rules and regulations are seen here as among the tools at farmers' disposal in their constant negotiations for 'better deals' among themselves and with their resident Extension Workers.
Chapter 8 is the only chapter in Part Five. This section provides conclusions and theoretical analyses of research findings. It contextualises social difference and cultural identity in the life-situations of irrigators and drylanders in Nyamaropa. Discussed here are issues of how the different social groupings fit into the whole story of social dynamics of development intervention, and what some social theorists say on the issue of cultural identity and social difference (which is not much so far). This chapter brings together different theoretical issues raised in case material in the chapters before it. Chapter 8 also looks into problems facing 'irrigating lives' in smallholder irrigation schemes in the context of external intervention, and the issues and contradictions surrounding concepts such as cultural identity, and strategic difference in rural development.
One hopes that such a study will initiate a process that will lead to bringing out and appraising differences among development programme beneficiaries to make interventions not merely effective (by externalised criteria), but also meaningful to the range of people whose lives are unavoidably affected by its introduction. The study will help in the general understanding of social dynamics of rural development, of land reform and of poverty-reduction strategies in Zimbabwe and the Southern African region.
Trekkers naast de trap : een zoektocht naar de dynamiek in de relatie tussen boer en overheid
Hees, E. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.D. van der Ploeg; J. de Vries. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083234 - 181
boeren - regering - relaties - landbouwbeleid - belangengroepen - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - farmers - government - relationships - interest groups - agricultural policy - netherlands - relations between people and state
This book describes a sociological expedition to the core of the relationship between farmers and government in the Netherlands. It focuses on the concept of mediation of agricultural policies between government and the farming target group. A starting point in this expedition is the rejection of the idea of policy-formation as a rational-synoptical chronology, in which policy is the result of a well-defined rational choice by politicians and administrators from different scenario's. Instead, policy formation in this context is understood as an incremental process: policies as a result of interaction between context induced actors. However, instead of being coincidental the interactions show up patterns of regularity that formed the motivation for this study.
Policy mediation is defined as:the interrelated moments of preparation, formation, implementation and evaluation of policies,which by means of interactive processes, in which various actors (public servants, politicians, citizens, farmers, etc.) participate with their groups and projects (strategically),are geared to one another in such a manner, thatexactly therefore a legitimacy is obtained which otherwise would definitely be absent.
The target group of agricultural policies is a so-called difuse one. That is, in need of intermediary structures able to mediate policies. The Dutch Agricultural Board (Landbouwschap) played this intermediary structure role between 1954 en 1996, when it promptly disappeared.
In the meantime, several farmers' cooperative initiatives in one way or another have assumed the role of intermediary organizations. Central government tended to standardize their attitude towards these structures, in order to manage the policy mediation fluently. The objective of this investigation, however, is to analize and maintain the diversity of intermediary organizations. The reason is the assumption that succesful policy mediation depends on the taking account of the specifity of each structure.
The central questions therefore are:in which different arrangements has the mediation of agricultural policies taken place so far,by which means could be obtained more success in terms of dynamic and legitimated policy mediation.
Chapter 2 provides a theoretical approach of the relation between farmer and government, defining it as a particularisation of the relation between actor and structure. Instead of adhering to dualistic theories, which focus upon the complete determination of the individual by its surrounding structure (determinism) or upon the complete absence of such a determination (voluntarism), this study prefers duality as a key concept. Duality focuses upon the co-existence of contraint and enableness of the individual versus itssurrounding structure. Individuals actively make and remake social structure.
The relation between citizen and government is subject of a process of legitimation. Public administration and policies are legitimized by:the procedure, with given objectives (the instrumental side of legitimation);the objectives of policies (the social contract side); andthe interchange of both.
The chapter ends up presenting a social scientific tool to capture this legitimation process: policy-mediation.
In chapter 3 policy mediation is surveyed in the Dutch socio-cultural heritage. In the Netherlands a strong tradition of subsidiarity and functional decentralization was founded in past centuries. The social charter of neo-corporatism is known because of its emphasis on consensus, compromise and consultation.
Growing claims, policy overload, role distortions between public and private parties and he public opinion have shocked the traditional charter and caused a legitimation problem. Different answers are possible, varying from enforcening the state to enforcening the consensus model. In this report, there is a strong case for investing more in interdependency and participative democracy. The Dutch case shows different examples: coproduction of local policies, convenants between public governement and private parties, the socalled Green Polder Model. Although there is room for doubt because of (a) gaps between frontiers ans crowds, (b) interaction used only for self-interest. That is the risks of pseudo-participation. Therefore, field investigations are urgently needed.
In chapter 4 an overview is given of the legitimation of agricultural policies in the Netherlands since the 19th century. The co-production tradition of farmers' organizations and central government, founded on a consensus about (a) the type of agricultural development to be nagestreefd, and (b) the need of consultation and compromise, ended up in a policy-community or - more precisely - iron triangle between farmers-leaders, ministry of agriculture and national politicians. From the late 60's, tensions grew between these parties and the iron triangle eroded. A vacuum in policy mediation became clear. Farmers reacted by protest, adaptation, individual initiatives and creating new collectivities, that became seeds of new arrangements. The following chapters describe the investigation of these new arrangements.
Chapter 5 is a methodological intermezzo. It motivates why the sociological expedition is founded in daily reality, by describing caracteristics of factual initiatives as many and as detailed as necessary to get a sharp distinction between policy arrangements.
In chapter 6 and 7 an inventory is made of the variation of possible arrangements, making use of 14 real collectivities in the Dutch countryside between 1980 and 1997. By adopting a cluster analysis 6 different arrangements are identified: product cooperative, horzelorganisation, farmers' association, policy cooperative, investigation cooperative and sindical organisation.
Describing various cases in the Netherlands, in chapter 8 each arrangement is examined on its potential in terms of producing more dynamics in policy mediation. Chapter 9 also examines this potential, but now by evaluating an official policy experiment with 8 socalled environmental cooperatives (milieucoöperaties) from 1995 to 1999.
In chapter 10, the conclusions of the expedition are summarized. The experiences of farmers' collectivities up to 1997 make clear that the state and its institutions (first of all the ministry of agriculture) are rather confused when defining an attitude against the calls for self-regulation that come from below. The state seems to get paralyzed by pleas for self-regulation on one side and the necessity to maintain principles of Good Governance on the other, one of which is gelijkberechtiging. Tailor-made policy solutions may come in conflict with the tendency to govern unilaterally from a cockpit.
By way of recommendations, several triggers are derived from the expedition process, triggers that may give impetus to a more dynamic and prosperous relation between government and farmers. First of all, the actual situation should be understood better and more systematically by all of the parties involved. Potentials for succesful policy-mediation often aren't recognized as such.
Next, cooperative initiatives shouldn't be put in one category too soon. Regionality, local culture and specifity are important factors for succes in policy-mediation along more selfregulation. The recognition and admission of the role local initiatives can play in succesful policy-arrangements should result in more incentives instead of penalties. State institutions should provoke and belonen a more entrepreneurial attitude of farmers. Another factor that may trigger a more dynamic relationship is the maintenance of the face-to-face caracter of policy-mediation. The personal committment of the parties involved, crucial within the agricultural population with so many individual interests and responsabilities, depends on the involvement of face-to-face contacts. This means more emphasis should be laid on local government instead of national.