Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Tracing legume seed diffusion beyond demonstration trials: An exploration of sharing mechanisms
    Almekinders, Conny J.M. ; Ronner, Esther ; Heerwaarden, Joost van - \ 2020
    Outlook on Agriculture 49 (2020)1. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 29 - 38.
    gender - relationships - Seed diffusion - transactions

    Many interventions are assuming that introduced seeds diffuse. However, the details of this diffusion among farmers are poorly understood. This article presents data from eight sites in four on the diffusion of seed and associated information given to farmers involved in N2Africa’s demonstration trials. The study showed that 2–3 years after the trials had been organised, more than 90% of the farmers who had participating in the trial activities and were given a seed-input package with 1–5 kg of legume seed had shared this seed, on average with four other farmers. The farmers who received this seed from these directly involved farmers shared their seed less frequently. Eighty per cent of all the seed sharings were of 1–2 kg of seed given as a gift. Only 5% of the sharings involved a cash transaction. More than half of the seed sharings were with family members and around a third were between friends. Men shared at least as often as women and both men and women shared most with persons of their own sex. Information about rhizobium as an associated input for soya was shared by more than one-third of farmers, almost exclusively by farmers who had participated in the demonstration trials themselves. Extrapolation of data suggest that in addition to the 250,000 farmers who participated directly in the N2Africa demonstration trials, another 1,400,000 farmers may have received seed of a new legume crop or variety. The results show that knowing about the character of the seed sharing mechanisms may offer opportunities to influence the diffusion of seeds. Providing farmers with somewhat larger amounts of seeds, emphasise the importance of sharing seeds and information with relatives and friends could be an important factor in achieving a high multiplier effect.

    Updating the reference population to achieve constant genomic prediction reliability across generations
    Pszczola, M. ; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2016
    Animal 10 (2016)6. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1018 - 1024.
    dairy cattle - reference population - relationships - reliability

    The reliability of genomic breeding values (DGV) decays over generations. To keep the DGV reliability at a constant level, the reference population (RP) has to be continuously updated with animals from new generations. Updating RP may be challenging due to economic reasons, especially for novel traits involving expensive phenotyping. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate a minimal RP update size to keep the reliability at a constant level across generations. We used a simulated dataset resembling a dairy cattle population. The trait of interest was not included itself in the selection index, but it was affected by selection pressure by being correlated with an index trait that represented the overall breeding goal. The heritability of the index trait was assumed to be 0.25 and for the novel trait the heritability equalled 0.2. The genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.25. The initial RP (n=2000) was composed of cows only with a single observation per animal. Reliability of DGV using the initial RP was computed by evaluating contemporary animals. Thereafter, the RP was used to evaluate animals which were one generation younger from the reference individuals. The drop in the reliability when evaluating younger animals was then assessed and the RP was updated to re-gain the initial reliability. The update animals were contemporaries of evaluated animals (EVA). The RP was updated in batches of 100 animals/update. First, the animals most closely related to the EVA were chosen to update RP. The results showed that, approximately, 600 animals were needed every generation to maintain the DGV reliability at a constant level across generations. The sum of squared relationships between RP and EVA and the sum of off-diagonal coefficients of the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix for RP, separately explained 31% and 34%, respectively, of the variation in the reliability across generations. Combined, these parameters explained 53% of the variation in the reliability across generations. Thus, for an optimal RP update an algorithm considering both relationships between reference and evaluated animals, as well as relationships among reference animals, is required.

    Olaf van Kooten, hoogleraar Wageningen UR en lector InHolland: ‘hoezo slechte markt; we zijn zelf de markt’
    Kierkels, T. ; Kooten, O. van - \ 2014
    Onder Glas 11 (2014)8. - p. 32 - 33.
    glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - kwaliteitszorg - groenten - consumentenaangelegenheden - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - consumenten - relaties - klanttevredenheid - agrarische economie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - quality management - vegetables - consumer affairs - food marketing - consumers - relationships - consumer satisfaction - agricultural economics
    Er is iets grondig mis in de afzetketen van met name groente en fruit; de samenwerking komt maar moeilijk van de grond. Als gevolg daarvan liggen er producten van een lage kwaliteit in de winkel en verdient niemand iets. Dat het anders kan bewijzen schaarse voorbeelden. Hoogleraar tuinbouwketens Olaf van Kooten van Wageningen UR vertelt het met duidelijke woorden.
    Governance of the member-cooperative relationship: a case from Brazil
    Cechin, A.D. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736550 - 144
    landbouwcoöperaties - governance - kwaliteit - relaties - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - participatie - lidmaatschap - brazilië - agricultural cooperatives - governance - quality - relationships - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - participation - membership - brazil

    Recent events in the agri-food sector increased the demand for quality attributes, from healthy and safe products to sustainable agricultural practices (Grunert, 2005). Particularly challenging is the connectedness of transactions between farmers, traders, processors, retailers and final customers in order to comply with quality requirements, which implies a need for value chain coordination. Combined with increased consumer demand for variety and convenience, these changes in sector have led to stronger sequential interdependencies, in which the output of one part is the input for another part. The increasing connectedness between transactions demands more vertical coordination. A major challenge for the agricultural cooperative is to combine horizontal coordination among the members with vertical coordination in the value chain (Bijman 2009; Hanf, 2009). Since they are member-oriented, agricultural cooperatives traditionally buy the farm products of its members regardless of its quality. Increasingly, however, cooperatives need to guarantee product quality towards their customers, and thus assure that members supply products of the right quality.

    The objective of this thesis is to disentangle the governance mechanisms that can be used by the cooperative to strengthen the member-cooperative relationship, and to assess the impact of the different governance mechanisms on the coordination of members’ adjustments to higher quality levels. The attempt to organize the participating farmers and firms along the food value chain generates transactional risks and coordination costs in the relationship between agricultural cooperative and farmer-member. This leads to the first research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (1): What are the mechanisms for governing the member-cooperative relationship, and how do they affect transactional risks and coordination costs?

    This thesis (Chapter 2) poses that four governance mechanisms - market, hierarchy, community and democracy affect coordination costs and transactional risks through their effect on member commitment and cognitive heterogeneity. It is important that members of an agricultural cooperative are committed to customer orientation; otherwise the involved transactional risks would make vertical coordination more costly. It is necessary to disentangle two types of commitment: to collective action and to customer orientation. Member commitment to collective action prevents side selling, in particular, and free-riding behaviour in general. This leads to the second research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (2): How do the four governance mechanisms - market, hierarchy, community and democracy - affect both types of commitment?

    One of the conclusions stemming from this thesis was that, on the one hand, a cooperative may assure members’ compliance in a less costly way if market incentives related to quality, productivity and effort are strengthened, as well as (hierarchy) input control and on-farm monitoring, since these mechanisms are positively related to commitment to customer orientation. On the other hand, democracy and community mechanisms do have an important role in enhancing commitment to collective action which is a sine qua non condition for the viability of the cooperative (Chapter 3).

    A large multi-product cooperative in which different activities of the cooperative cater to different groups of members, as the case that was chosen as the empirical basis of this thesis, may face problems related to membership heterogeneity (Hansmann, 1996; Fulton and Giannakas, 2001). The basic assumption in most of the literature on the impact of member heterogeneity on the process and outcomes of decision-making is that farmers pursue individual or subgroup interests when participating in the decision-making of the cooperative. If members primarily pursue individual economic interests, there might be a relationship between the economic reasons for becoming a member (and maintaining membership) and the motivation to participate in the governance of the cooperative. This leads to the third research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (3): How do economic motivations for association affect members’ participation in the governance of a cooperative?

    The conclusion of this thesis, regarding this research question, was that besides the role of social mechanisms in enhancing commitment to collective action, there seems to be a role of social mechanisms in enhancing members’ control of their cooperative. Members who participate in boards or committees are not actuated to participate by the same economic motivations that drive their association to the cooperative. Cooperative ideology, in turn, appears to be an important motivation for them to actively participate (Chapter 4).

    The ability of cooperatives to adapt to a rapidly changing environment characterized by technological change and industrialization of agriculture has been questioned Fulton (1995). The organizational structure of the cooperative is said to have negative implications for its quality management (Mérel et al., 2009). On the one hand, cooperatives may be mimicking Investor-Owned Firms (IOFs) in applying more hierarchical mechanisms which enable them to define and effectively apply quality norms for their supply, control the quality of delivered products and monitor members’ production processes. On the other hand, cooperatives have unique organizational characteristics that could provide them with competitive advantage, such as the tight relationship between members and cooperative, which may enable less costly coordination of the transaction (Sykuta and Cook, 2001). This leads to the fourth and last research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (4): What are the differences in quality performance between a cooperative and an IOF, and can these differences be explained by relationship characteristics?

    In the Brazilian broiler industry, suppliers delivering to a cooperative are performing better in terms of quality than suppliers delivering to an IOF. Cooperative and IOF have the same incentive and control mechanisms for production efficiency and high-quality chicken meat. The cooperative’s advantage over the IOF in terms of suppliers’ quality performance could be influenced by the characteristics of the supplier-buyer relationship. This thesis shows (Chapter 5) that there are some important differences regarding relationship characteristics that could account for this higher performance. Dependence on current buyer, which is higher for cooperative members, uncertainty regarding buyer’s behavior, which is lower for cooperative members, and market risk reduction by the buyer, which is higher for cooperative members, can help explain the higher rate of compliance to the “feet callus” quality standard. These three features of the supplier-cooperative relationship are likely to prevent suppliers from shirking behavior and to induce commitment. Moreover, cooperative suppliers receive more technical support from their buyer for adapting to new quality requirements than IOF suppliers do; this is likely to positively affect farmers’ competence in complying with quality standards.

    The main methodological approach of this thesis is quantitative. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with professional managers of the industrial division, directors and farmers in order to guide the design of the questionnaire. The data that is analyzed in this thesis were collected by using a survey questionnaire applied among 148 farmers, all members of the same multi-product cooperative in Brazil, and 42 broiler suppliers of two major buyers in the same region.

    This thesis makes several theoretical contributions, which can be listed as follows:

    (1) Member commitment in agricultural cooperatives can be disentangled conceptually and empirically into two types. Commitment to collective action is related to Fulton’s (1995) definition: the willingness to patronize a cooperative even when the cooperative’s price or service is not as good as that provided by an IOF. It is an attitude that precedes loyal behaviour; it is the making of a sacrifice or an effort in the name of the relationship and the success of the organization. Commitment to customer orientation, in turn, is the willingness to give up a part of the autonomy at the farm level for the sake of the cooperative’s compliance with the requirements from downstream customers. It is a positive attitude of members towards the re-orientation of the cooperative and is related to Borgen’s (2001) view on commitment.

    (2) Membership heterogeneity might not be a source of inefficiency in decision-making if the organizational goal is precisely to satisfy diverse members’ interests, and if members who occupy representative and managing functions are genuinely seeking to further organizational goals rather than to follow private motives. Most conceptualizations of decision-making problems and influence costs derive from organizational economics, where agency theory has been quite influential. The findings of this thesis (Chapter 4) suggest that assumptions from agency theory, which are often adopted by cooperative studies, could better be treated as an empirical matter.

    (3) This thesis presents a different perspective on the comparative advantage of the cooperative in producing food products with higher quality attributes. The literature on the implications of the cooperative structure for quality management (Mérel et al., 2009) emphasizes that cooperatives often fail to adequately reward the highest quality producers, often causing the problem of “adverse selection”. However, despite starting with larger heterogeneity in terms of producers’ capacity to produce high-quality products, cooperatives may achieve high quality products through superior coordination and adaptation support. The findings of this thesis are in line with other empirical studies outside the domain of cooperatives that found that quality performance may be influenced by relationship characteristics, through their effect on transaction costs (Lu et al., 2009; Coronado et al., 2010).

    (4) Overall, the main scientific contribution of this thesis is the use of the ‘chemistry of organizations’ framework proposed by Grandori and Furnari (2008) in seeking a better understanding of the governance of cooperatives. By adopting that framework the thesis addressed in an integrated way the role of social capital (Ostrom, 1999) and community governance (Bowles and Gintis, 2002; Hayami, 2009) in facilitating collective action, and the role of relational contracts (Poppo and Zenger, 2002; Lazzarini, Miller and Zenger, 2004) in assuring commitment from parties in a transaction. Furthermore, with that framework, the thesis addressed the cognitive role of governance mechanisms, such as knowledge exchange (Conner and Prahalad, 1996; Grant, 1996) and competence enhancing (Nooteboom, 2004).

    The implications of this thesis for management and policy are listed in the three following groups:

    (1) Rewarding farmers appropriately and controlling and monitoring delivery and production processes are important for enhancing commitment both to collective action and to customer orientation. Giving “voice” and building a social community for members and their families are important to prevent members’ free-riding and selling “outside”. It is advised to combine at least the following governance mechanisms: hierarchy control, market incentives, community involvement and democratic voice. Finally, communication is an important tool for enhancing farmers’ commitment to customer orientation.

    (2) Cooperatives can participate in high-quality value chains and be as efficient and effective as other organizational arrangements in the agri-food sector. More importantly, cooperatives might even have an advantage in the production and marketing of goods with credence attributes, such as animal welfare, organic and fair trade. Therefore, policies aiming to promote sustainable food production may target cooperatives, as this organisational form is more effective in lowering the risks associated with farmer’ opportunistic behavior.

    (3) Member participation, commitment, satisfaction with leadership and with the cooperative’s strategy are examples of what could be additional performance criteria besides reported profits, which taken alone could be misleading. Because the cooperative’s objectives are beyond the economic viability of the collective enterprise, (Birchall and Ketilson, 2009), the intangible social assets should be assessed in order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative, and thereby to compare cooperatives with investor-owned firms and among cooperatives themselves.

    Inter-organizational information exchange, supply chain compliance and performance
    Peng, G. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859529 - 220
    business management - supply chain management - communication - cooperation - businesses - relationships - governance - performance - improvement - information - bedrijfsmanagement - ketenmanagement - communicatie - samenwerking - bedrijven - relaties - governance - prestatieniveau - verbetering - informatie
    In modern business management today's companies no longer compete as solely autonomous entities, but rather as supply chains. Supply chain collaboration can bring with substantial benefits and advantages for companies. To strenghten supply chain collaboration, inter-organisational communication is an essential enabler.
    Gender, AIDS and food security : culture and vulnerability in rural Côte d'Ivoire
    Maiga, M.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser; Anke Niehof. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857891 - 199
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome - voedselzekerheid - cultuur - plattelandsvrouwen - sociologie - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - plattelandsbevolking - sociale economie - verwantschap - relaties - ivoorkust - afrika - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - food security - culture - rural women - sociology - female labour - rural population - socioeconomics - kinship - relationships - cote d'ivoire - africa - gender - livelihood strategies
    Bos op arme gronden
    Kint, Vincent ; Geudens, Guy ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2010
    In: Bosecologie en Bosbeheer / den Ouden, J., Muys, B., Mohren, G.M.J., Verheyen, K., Leuven : ACCO - ISBN 9789033477829 - p. 511 - 526.
    zandgronden - bossen - relaties - eolische afzettingen - bodem-plant relaties - vlaanderen - sandy soils - forests - relationships - aeolian deposits - soil plant relationships - flanders
    Onder arme groeiplaatsen worden vooral de zandgronden verstaan. In Nederland liggen ze in het oosten en het zuiden van het land en ze lopen door naar de zandgronden in het noorden van Vlaanderen. De duinengordel langs de Noordzeekust behoort ook tot deze categorie. Zandgronden kunnen verder ingedeeld worden volgens hun geologische ontstaanswijze. Er kan onderscheid gemaakt worden tussen afzettingen door zee, rivieren of de wind, die bovendien uit het tertiair of het quartair tijdvak kunnen dateren. Zowel in Vlaanderen als Nederland ligt het grootste deel van het huidige bosareaal op de arme zandgronden: in Vlaanderen is het 60% van het totale areaal (90.000 ha) en in Nederland 86% (270.000 ha).
    Eerste resultaten onderzoek naar meest geschikte ras-onderstamcombinaties
    Maas, F.M. ; Beurskens, Stan - \ 2009
    De Wijngaard 17 (2009)2. - p. 29 - 30.
    druiven - rassen (planten) - relaties - onderstammen - stamverschillen - wijndruivenrassen - bodemtypen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - nederland - grapes - varieties - relationships - rootstocks - strain differences - wine cultivars - soil types - agricultural research - netherlands
    In 2008 is in samenspraak met het Wijngaardiersgilde en met subsidie van het ministerie van LNV een onderzoek gestart om verspreid over Nederland en voor verschillende bodemtypen te onderzoeken hoe de verschillende druiven ras-onderstamcombinaties zich ontwikkelen. 14 Rode en 14 witte druivenrassen staan op 9 verschillende bedrijven op 9 verschillende onderstammen. Dit eerste jaar zijn al grote verschillen per regio en per bedrijf gemeten, volgende 2 jaren zal het onderzoek zich toespitsen op de verschillen in groei, loofwandstructuur, gewasgezondheidsaspecten, oogsttijdstippen en de oogstgegevens.
    Internationaal belang van de nationale natuur : ecosystemen, vaatplanten, mossen, zoogdieren, reptielen, amfibieën en vissen
    Janssen, J.A.M. ; Stumpel, A.H.P. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Keizer-Sedlakova, I. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Siebel, H.N. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 43) - 54
    ecosystemen - natuurbescherming - bedreigde soorten - beschermde soorten - soorten - nederland - relaties - europa - natuurbeleid - ecosystems - nature conservation - endangered species - protected species - species - netherlands - relationships - europe - nature conservation policy
    In dit rapport wordt een analyse uitgevoerd van de ecosystemen en soorten (uit een beperkt aantal soortsgroepen) waarvoor ons land internationale verantwoordelijkheid draagt. Hierbij worden een vijftal criteria toegepast: aandeel areaal, aandeel populatie of oppervlakte, ligging ten opzichte van het areaal, voorkomen op internationale rode lijst en – voor ecosystemen en trekvissen – een specifieke reden. Uit de analyse komen 34 ecosystemen en 111 soorten naar voren waarvoor Nederland binnen Europa van groot belang is. Bekeken is voorts in welke landschappen de internationaal belangrijke ecosystemen en soorten voorkomen en in hoeverre ze aandacht krijgen in het nationale en internationale natuurbeleid. De belangrijkste landschappen met de internationaal belangrijke ecosystemen en soorten zijn de hogere zandgronden en het kustgebied, gevolg door het rivierengebied en het laagveen. In het internationale natuurbeleid (Habitatrichtlijn) krijgen vier van de resulterende ecosystemen onvoldoende aandacht, in het nationale beleid komen vooral de mossen er bekaaid af. Trefwoorden: Natuurbeleid, internationaal, ecosystemen, soorten, Europa
    The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province
    Lu Hualiang, - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046653 - 252
    food chains - vegetables - marketing - production - china - trade - markets - businesses - relationships - socioeconomics - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - networks - social capital - voedselketens - groenten - marketing - productie - china - handel - markten - bedrijven - relaties - sociale economie - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - netwerken - sociaal kapitaal
    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,China

    Guanxiis ubiquitous inChinaand significantly influences people's behaviour in social life and in business. Guanxi refers to personal relationships or connections and is widely recognised as a Chinese form of social capital. This book focuses on the questions, if, and if so, how small-scale producers, together with processors and exporters, can be more successfully integrated into high-value supply chains (i.e., processors, supermarkets and international markets). In particular, our focus is on how Chinese vegetable farmers can use their guanxi networks to be integrated into these modern supply chains and can improve their market performance. We study the effectiveness of both formal (contracts) and relational ( guanxi ) governance mechanisms to improve the integration of buyer-seller relationships and ultimately, to enhance chain performance. We apply various theoretical approaches, supply chain management, social capital theory and transaction cost economics, to develop propositions regarding the interrelation of support from guanxi networks (what guanxi can do for you), buyer-seller relationships (interpersonal trust, transaction specific investments and contractual governance) and market performance (compliance with delivery/quality requirements, efficiency, quality/price satisfaction, and profitability). We combine case study with survey analysis and use structural equation modelling techniques to test the propositions.

    Background analysis of the Chinese vegetable sector indicates that small-scale farmers usually fail to integrate into high-value market outlets. This is because these farmers face several constraints, such as small production scale, less possibilities to implement quality standards, low negotiation power, and information asymmetry. However, empirical analysis based on three different buyer-seller relationships, including farmers, processors and exporters/supermarkets, shows that support from guanxi networks and integration of buyer-seller relationships significantly contribute to market performance (especially with downstream partners). The effects of guanxi networks differ between primary producers, processors and exporters/supermarkets, and across marketing channels. Vegetable farmers and their buyers show an idiosyncratic way to rely on their guanxi networks in doing business. Furthermore, vegetable farmers and their buyers follow different approaches to achieve market performance. Interpersonal trust and compliance with delivery requirements are important factors for all parties in supply chains to achieve superior performance. Particularly, in relationships with downstream partners, the sellers tend to rely on their guanxi networks when conducting transactions. In relationships with upstream partners, guanxi networks and contractual governance are less often used. This study shows that the combination of formal (contract) and informal ( guanxi ) governance mechanisms seems to be the best way to improve chain performance in vegetable supply chains inChina. Policy should be directed to improve farmers' capacity to participate in modern high-value markets as well as to enhance the prospects forChina's vegetables in the world.
    Female livelihoods and agrarian changes in Indonesia
    Oosterhout, D.W.J.H. van - \ 2006
    social anthropology - food - social structure - kinship - relationships - society - feeding habits - behaviour - south east asia
    Ketenomkering in kennisland
    Wals, A.E.J. ; Lans, T. ; Buurma, J.P. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)suppl. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 7 - 9.
    kennis - verspreiding van onderzoek - netwerken (activiteit) - onderzoeksinstituten - technologieoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - onderzoeksimplementatie - onderzoek - onderwijs - particuliere sector - relaties - knowledge - diffusion of research - networking - research institutes - technology transfer - diffusion of information - implementation of research - research - education - private sector - relationships
    Themavoordracht waarin twee manieren van kennismobiliteit worden besproken: de doorstromingsrelatie, waarbij kennis wordt gezien als product en doorstroomt van onderzoeksinstituten naar onderwijs en de netwerkrelatie, waarbij kennis wordt gezien als proces tussen onderzoek, onderwijs en bedrijfsleven
    Livelihood and food security in rural Bangladesh- the role of social capital
    Ali, A. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085042969 - 264
    voedselzekerheid - levensomstandigheden - relaties - gemeenschappen - samenleving - menselijke relaties - man-vrouwrelaties - huishoudens - inkomen - platteland - levensstandaarden - vrouwen - Bangladesh - positie van de vrouw - sociale relaties - vrouw en samenleving - arbeid in de landbouw - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - food security - living conditions - relationships - communities - society - human relations - gender relations - households - income - rural areas - living standards - women - Bangladesh - woman's status - social relations - woman and society - farm labour - livelihood strategies
    This thesis describes the role of social capital of households and individuals in achieving livelihood and food security. In the research the temporal dimension and gender were cross-cutting perspectives. IFPRI panel data collected during 1996-1997 (pre-flood) and 1999-2000 (post-flood) were analyzed. To complement the IFPRI data an additional survey and the qualitative data was collected during 2001-2003. Panel data analysis shows that gender of the household head does not make a difference in achieving food security at the household level. However, gender of the household member is crucial for attaining individual level food security. Social capital plays an important role in averting vulnerability and sustaining livelihood, and is influenced by the landholding status of the house hold, which seems to function as collateral. The qualitative data revealed that women's social capital, when defined in a broader way, does play a crucial role in achieving household food security and averting vulnerability.
    The hillslope-storage Boussinesq model for variable bedrock slope
    Hilberts, A.G.J. ; Troch, P.A.A. ; Loon, E.E. van; Paniconi, C. - \ 2004
    regen - oppervlakkige afvoer - relaties - infiltratie - glooiend land - modellen - rain - runoff - relationships - infiltration - sloping land - models
    Managing business networks and buyer-supplier relationships. How information obtained from the business network affects trust, transaction specific investments, collaboration and performance in the Dutch Potted Plant and Flower Industry
    Claro, D.P. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Geoffrey Hagelaar; D. Zylbersztajn. - Veenendaal : Universal Press - ISBN 9789058089465 - 196
    bedrijven - relaties - potplanten - bloemen - informatie - nederland - productie - aanbod - landbouwindustrie - ketenmanagement - netwerken - bedrijfseconomie - businesses - relationships - pot plants - flowers - production - supply - agribusiness - information - netherlands - supply chain management - networks - business management
    Managing networks and buyer-supplier relationships " attempt to provide scientific sound discussion for problems faced in business linkages. Business networks, supply chains and buyer-supplier relationships all refer to business linkages, from a web of connected relationships to a dyadic relationship. At the beginning of our study, we were triggered by the impact of the business network on collaborative, long-term buyer-supplier relationships. In other words, does the information a company obtains from the network support the buyer-supplier relationship? In fact, yes. Our study provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence that will assist practitioners in the management of their business network and buyer-supplier relationships. The empirical evidence was gathered on the basis of two constructive steps, namely case study and survey. Buyers and suppliers in the Dutch potted flower and plant industry offered valuable insights to estimate statistical models. The involvement of buyers and suppliers allowed discussions from both sides of the relationship - purchasing and marketing.

    This thesis is aimed at managers at different levels in firms, which includes every decision maker in purchasing, selling or strategic planning levels. Policy makers and researchers in the field of supply chain and network management may also find useful ideas and concepts in our theoretical framework. Researchers in the fields of relationship management may be particularly interested in theoperationalizationsof the conceptual elements of the framework and the interpretation of the estimated statistical models.

    The Emerging World of Chains and Networks, Bridging Theory and Practice
    Camps, Th. ; Diederen, P.J.M. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Vos, B. - \ 2004
    Amsterdam : Reed Business Information - ISBN 9789059019287 - 348
    innovaties - bedrijfsvoering - relaties - informatie - ketenmanagement - netwerken - productieprocessen - management - relationships - innovations - information - supply chain management - networks - production processes
    Bodem, humus en vegetatie onder verschillende loofboomsoorten op de stuwwal bij Doorwerth
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 920) - 66
    bossen - vegetatie - humus - tilia - ligstro - bosgronden - plantensuccessie - nederland - relaties - veluwe - bodem-plant relaties - natuurgebieden - forests - vegetation - humus - tilia - litter - forest soils - plant succession - netherlands - relationships - veluwe - soil plant relationships - natural areas
    Dit rapport gaat in op de relatie tussen loofboomsoort, humus en ondergroei op een zwak lemige stuwwalbodem bij Doorwerth (Gelderland). Er werden opstanden vergeleken van linde, esdoorn, haagbeuk, eik en beuk. Onder invloed van het `rijke¿, goed verterende bladstrooisel van linde, esdoorn en haagbeuk bleek een ontwikkeling in de richting van een `rijker¿ bostype op gang te zijn gekomen. Alleen onder linde was echter binnen 40 jaar een goed ontwikkelde, soortenrijke Carpinion-vegetatie met meerdere oud-bossoorten ontstaan. De vegetatieontwikkeling onder linde lijkt wel sterk afhankelijk te zijn van de hoeveelheid licht die tot de bosbodem weet door te dringen.
    Hillslope-storage Boussinesq model for subsurface flow and variable source areas along complex hillslopes: 2. Intercomparison with a three-dimensional Richards equation model
    Paniconi, C. ; Troch, P.A.A. ; Loon, E.E. van; Hilberts, A.G.J. - \ 2003
    Water Resources Research 39 (2003)11. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1317 - 1317.
    regen - oppervlakkige afvoer - relaties - infiltratie - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - modellen - rain - runoff - relationships - infiltration - catchment hydrology - models - free-surface flow - capillarity correction - runoff generation - rainfall - soils - groundwater - scale
    The Boussinesq equation for subsurface flow in an idealized sloping aquifer of unit width has recently been extended to hillslopes of arbitrary geometry by incorporating the hillslope width function w(x) into the governing equation, where x is the flow distance along the length of the hillslope [ Troch et al., 2003 ]. Introduction of a source/sink term N allows simulation of storm-interstorm sequences in addition to drainage processes, while a function S c (x) representing the maximum subsurface water storage can be used to account for surface saturation response in variable source areas activated by the saturation excess mechanism of runoff generation. The model can thus simulate subsurface flow and storage dynamics for nonidealized (more realistic) hillslope configurations. In this paper we assess the behavior of this relatively simple, one-dimensional model in a series of intercomparison tests with a fully three-dimensional Richards equation model. Special attention is given to the discretization and setup of the boundary and initial conditions for seven representative hillslopes of uniform, convergent, and divergent plan shape. Drainage and recharge experiments are conducted on these hillslopes for both gentle (5%) and steep (30%) bedrock slope angles. The treatment and influence of the drainable porosity parameter are also considered, and for the uniform (idealized) hillslope case the impact of the unsaturated zone is examined by running simulations for different capillary fringe heights. In general terms, the intercomparison results show that the hillslope-storage Boussinesq model is able to capture the broad shapes of the storage and outflow profiles for all of the hillslope configurations. In specific terms, agreement with the Richards equation results varies according to the scenario being simulated. The best matches in outflow hydrographs were obtained for the drainage experiments, suggesting a greater influence of the unsaturated zone under recharge conditions due to transmission of water throughout the hillslope. In the spatiotemporal water table response a better match was observed for convergent than divergent hillslopes, and the bedrock slope angle was not found to greatly influence the quality of the agreement between the two models. On the basis of the intercomparison experiments we make some suggestions for further development and testing of the hillslope-storage model
    Hillslope-storage Boussinesq model for subsurface flow and variable source areas along complex hillslopes: 1. Formulation and characteristic response
    Troch, P.A.A. ; Paniconi, C. ; Loon, E.E. van - \ 2003
    Water Resources Research 39 (2003). - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1316 - 1316.
    regen - oppervlakkige afvoer - infiltratie - hellingen - relaties - modellen - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - rain - runoff - relationships - infiltration - slopes - models - catchment hydrology - watershed thermodynamics - unifying framework - soil-moisture - variability - catchment - hydrology - equation - terrain
    Hillslope response to rainfall remains one of the central problems of catchment hydrology. Flow processes in a one-dimensional sloping aquifer can be described by Boussinesq's hydraulic groundwater theory. Most hillslopes, however, have complex three-dimensional shapes that are characterized by their plan shape, profile curvature of surface and bedrock, and the soil depth. Field studies and numerical simulation have shown that these attributes are the most significant topographic controls on subsurface flow and saturation along hillslopes. In this paper the Boussinesq equation is reformulated in terms of soil water storage rather than water table height. The continuity and Darcy equations formulated in terms of storage along the hillslope lead to the hillslope-storage Boussinesq (HSB) equation for subsurface flow. Solutions of the HSB equation account explicitly for plan shape of the hillslope by introducing the hillslope width function and for profile curvature through the bedrock slope angle and the hillslope soil depth function. We investigate the behavior of the HSB model for different hillslope types (uniform, convergent, and divergent) and different slope angles under free drainage conditions after partial initial saturation (drainage scenario) and under constant rainfall recharge conditions (recharge scenario). The HSB equation is solved by means of numerical integration of the partial differential equation. We find that convergent hillslopes drain much more slowly compared to divergent hillslopes. The accumulation of moisture storage near the outlet of convergent hillslopes results in bell-shaped hydrographs. In contrast, the fast draining divergent hillslopes produce highly peaked hydrographs. In order to investigate the relative importance of the different terms in the HSB equation, several simplified nonlinear and linearized versions are derived, for instance, by recognizing that the width function of a hillslope generally shows smooth transition along the flow direction or by introducing a fitting parameter to account for average storage along the hillslope. The dynamic response of these reduced versions of the HSB equation under free drainage conditions depend strongly on hillslope shape and bedrock slope angle. For flat slopes (of the order of 5%), only the simplified nonlinear HSB equation is able to capture the dynamics of subsurface flow along complex hillslopes. In contrast, for steep slopes (of the order of 30%), we see that all the reduced versions show very similar results compared to the full version. It can be concluded that the complex derivative terms of width with respect to flow distance play a less dominant role with increasing slope angle. Comparison with the hillslope-storage kinematic wave model of Troch et al. [2002] shows that the diffusive drainage terms of the HSB model become less important for the fast draining divergent hillslopes. These results have important implications for the use of simplified versions of the HSB equation in landscapes and for the development of appropriate analytical solutions for subsurface flow along complex hillslopes
    De betekenis van landbouwhuisdieren in de hulpverlening : resultaten van interviews met professionals op zorg- en kinderboerderijen
    Hassink, J. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Plant Research International - 50
    vee - mens - relaties - psychosociale aspecten - psychotherapie - jeugdzorg - beperkingen - risicoschatting - nederland - schoolboerderijen - zorgboerderijen - livestock - man - relationships - psychosocial aspects - psychotherapy - child welfare - risk assessment - netherlands - labour - school farms - social care farms
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